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In physical activities such as sport one of the major energy systems we use is called the Aerobic system, Aerobic means that this energy system needs oxygen to successfully function. This system takes place through multiple chemical reactions formally known as the Krebs Cycle, the Krebs Cycle is a part of cellular respiration in which is at the center of cellular metabolism taking a major role in the process of energy production. Here we have continuous glycogen breakdowns from when it becomes pyruvic acid and goes into the mitochondria.
This is also where fats and sometimes under extreme conditions proteins get broken down with the use of oxygen ( aerobically ) resulting in the regeneration of ATP.
As Well as the Aerobic energy system there are also other energy systems that our body uses, the ATP-CP energy system and the Lactic Acid energy System. The ATP-CP energy system stands for Adenosine Triphosphate ( ATP ) phosphocreatine ( PC ). This energy system uses a molecule stored in our muscles called Creatine Phosphate ( CP ) to resynthesise ( ATP ).
This process is anaerobic meaning it does not require oxygen to successfully function, this molecule ( CP ) is broken down into Creatinine and Phosphate releasing energy which is then used to combine ( ADP ) Adenosine Diphosphate and ( Pi ) Inorganic Phosphate which is then further used to produce ( ATP ). The supply of ( CP ) is restricted as it is only effective for 10 to 20 seconds max however when the oxygen levels are sufficient the ( CP ) uses it to regenerate in the case of it being needed again.
The Lactic Acid energy system is also an anaerobic system, and uses anaerobic glycolysis ( which is only effective during energy production of small, intense physical activity lasting anywhere between 10 seconds or 2 minutes ) which is when glucose transforms to lactate when a limited amount of oxygen is available. The Lactic Acid System is dominant anywhere between 10 and 30 seconds of topmost effort. The body stores carbohydrates as glycogen in the liver and muscles again another anaerobic process. The product from the breakdowns of glycogen is a bi-Product called pyruvic acid, If there is a stable oxygen supply the pyruvic acid becomes lactic acid then it is stored waiting for there to be a stable oxygen supply before becoming pyruvic acid again.
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