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The cognitive theories stress that need for cognitive stimulus as a way of motivating the learners to acquire new knowledge (Weiner, 1990). Thus whenever learners are faced with new tasks or challenges, they seek a solution based on their past knowledge and skills. This view corroborated Jean Piaget’s past works on how institutions adapt and plan to execute tasks. Piaget, in his various studies held that people confronted with a gap between fresh knowledge and existing knowledge of belief experience a psychological disequilibrium, which prompts them to solve so that they are back to a state of equilibrium (Weiner, 1990).
Another psychologist, Jerome Brunner, supported Piaget’s cognitive theory and suggests that learners should be prompt if identifying such knowledge gaps so that they are closed. However, studies show that the cognitive theory by Piaget is complex in implementations because learners experience different disequilibrium every time and synchrony to fill the gaps is a great challenge (Weiner, 1990).
The behavioural theories were first studied by B.
F. Skinner. This theory stresses the reinforcement of specific behaviour in order for extrinsic rewards achievement. The behavioural theories aid the learning process and understanding of why learners respond positively to some subject in class. This theory therefore offers the first explanation to the subject specialization trends such as languages and mathematics. However, social theorist like Bandura differ with B.F. Skinner and stressed the effects of learners need to be identified with specific subjects such as languages and mathematics. This led to the learners copying other people who have achieved past successes in the same field (Weiner, 1990).
Later studies revealed that too much extrinsic motivation such as rewards is counter productive at a later stage and become a barrier to knowledge acquisition. This trend leads to over reliance on the tutor and fails to achieve the positive nature of intrinsic motivations. Therefore, tutors should apply extrinsic rewards only when appropriate as a strategy of maximizing its effects on the learner (Weiner, 1990).
The humanistic Theories
Abraham Maslow is regarded as the father of humanistic theories of achievement motivation. Maslow posited that people’s needs follows natural needs as ranked in a hierarchical order or importance (Weiner, 1990). Maslow outlined a five-stage pyramid level of needs from the bottom to the apex as follows: physiological needs; safety needs; need to belong; self-esteem; and self-actualization needs.
The apex of the pyramid has the self-actualizations and defines the person’s needs to operate under their full capability and capacity. This need is followed by the esteem needs that define the people’s self-projections and need to be recognized. The next level of needs is the belonging. This applies to the people wanting to be associated by peers. The next level of needs is the safety of individuals derived from the environment security. The bottom of the pyramid has the physiological needs, defined by access to food, shelter and drinks among others (Weiner, 1990).
Maslow’s needs hierarchy are important for identification of cognitive needs that outline when individuals are satisfied from the basic levels. Maslow’s needs hierarchy will only be effective when people are free to probe the environment, acquire knowledge, show equitable resource distributions, are transparent and maintain order (Weiner, 1990). The problem with Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is the inability of the tutor to determine the exiting level of the learners’ satisfaction. Similarly, if the tutor is aware, they may not provide the need to the learners. Either way, the tutors have the role of modifying the learning environment to suit the surrounding learners’ needs (Weiner, 1990).
Achievement motivation theory
John W. Atkinson and David McClelland advanced this theory. This theory holds that people seek to achieve the highest state of aspirations. Therefore, people success aspirations are defined with failure avoidance in mind. These needs are achieved whenever an individual is successful. Thus, successful learners will claim a needs achievement depending on the subject specialization and gender as highlighted in sections of this paper. On this gender issues some studies have shown that females in patriarchal societies avoid success to protect their relationships (Weiner, 1990).
Weiner (1990) did further studies in the area odd achievement motivation. These findings considered factors of learners’ failure to achieve success whereby those who fail blame inability and bad luck. Those who succeed justify low efforts by those who failed and cite ability to succeed. The problem with the achievement theory is ability to measure and evaluate the evaluate the heights of aspirations, specify needs, identify failure as well as varying achievement behaviour (Weiner, 1990).
Various works on achievement motivation theories were completed and peer reviewed over the years and most of the findings fall under learning theories and cognition theories as applied under the learners’ context (Dovona-Ope, 2008, p. 25). An adult’s achievement motivation draws its success from historical childhood period where aspirations and self-actualization are set. Therefore, when people grow up in life, they are directed by goals of achievement, which clarify purpose and objectives of achieving academic targets and others (Anderman, et al, 2004, p. 1-26).
Further student achievement motivation in any academic program is to accomplish their meet the academic tasks criteria as a contemporary theory. Thus, various academic goals will be outlined to the students’ specific behaviour, intellectual capabilities and level of engagement (Ames, 1992). Student who show high level of self efficacy in special areas of learning are likely to achieve more because of the support they get from their peers, guardians, intellectual maturity and emotional preparedness (Dovona-Ope, 2008, p. 25).
Contemporary perspectives on achievement motivation and how they are utilized today
According to Dovona-Ope, (2008, p. 26), there are at least four contemporary factors that need to be considered when one is seeking to understand achievement motivations in a scholarly area like PhD. First, one needs to avoid the deceptions that these goals are achievable with an individualistic attitude. In the contract, collectivism with other students pursing similar goals is very important as process mistakes will be corrected effectively. This contemporary theory relies on experience that collective academic pursuit makes problem solving process and goals achievement easier (Dovona-Ope, 2008, p.26).
Second, achievement motivation theories should steer of attitudes and belief that people will not succeed. This kind of complacency creates a barrier to achievements in academic process. (Dovona-Ope, 2008, p. 26). It is recommended that pursuant of the goals stick to their original plans and direction despite the many challenges abound. This process is achievable from intrinsic motivations where the goal setter listens to their inner voice that the successful completion of their career will lead to satisfaction (Wolters, 2004, p. 236-250).
The earlier mentioned collective association in scholarly tasks would mitigate the fear of lack of achievement of academic goals. Studies show that collective association can overcome difficult academic times because the other member will advance positive ideas (Dovona-Ope, 2008, p. 26). Kahlefeldt (2004) agrees with this position and goes ahead to note that people become what they believe whether in success or failure.
The third contemporary theory of achievement motivation is persistence (Dovona-Ope, 2008, p. 26). Persistence is one way to secure achievements learning needs because the goal pursuant focuses irrespective of the inner void to give in. This has implications that people must believe in their capabilities, fortified by self-efficacy in PHD course as an example. Persistence also implies that the learners are able to cope with any diversionary factors along the way (Dovona-Ope, 2008, p. 28).
The fourth contemporary theory on achievement motivation is premature declaration of total achievement and success. This state leads to lack of attention to details and barriers to important feedback on the process (Dovona-Ope, 2008, p. 29). Contemporary learning theories suggest that scholars should pay attention to feedback loops and mechanisms because they stand to learn more from their mistakes than from their successes. Schloss, (2001, p.8) supports this view and highlights the importance of some mistakes in a learning process in order to reinforce the achievements when issues are clarified.
Other contemporary theories of achievement motivation are been built on place based education environment (Duffin, 2005). This theory suggests that people are motivated to achieve knowledge based on the natural environment and cultural perceptions. Therefore, collective culture will achieve more if the learners are in teams or groups when learning tasks are set. Similarly, the learning tasks will be achieved more when the tasks are learner centred than tutor centred (Athman & Monroe, 2004, p. 9-25).
In a study to determine the impact of place based education of on achievement motivation in the US, ten different reviews were carried out in more than 16 states with a framework of 265 academic institutions. This study was done over 7 year’s period from 1998. The results showed that this program caused change in the learning institutions culture, improved learners’ engagement and aroused curiosity, increased the learning achievements and prepared new grounds for future teacher practices (Duffin, 2005). Further studies showed that the learners who were exposed to more environmental stimulus achieved more that their counterparts. This particular finding stressed that the school going motivation process alone had over 10% influences in the learners’ achievements.
Among the historical theorist in achievement motivation was Atkinson in 1964, who carried out a study to compare learners with high achievement motivation and phobia for failure vis-à-vis learners with high achievement motivation and less failure phobia. This study established four dimensions, the success driven learners, the achievers, the failure phobic, failure embraces.
Further studies by Covington & Omelich (1991), established that Atkinson’s theory were appropriate and went further to state that females tend to conform to high achievement motivation levels and failure avoidance as compared to males especially in language and mathematics. Studies also show that males tend to achieve more motivation than female counterparts in mathematics do than in languages as a masculine cultural orientation vis-à-vis a feminine culture orientation.
Contemporary theories are applied today in various more ways. According to McGonagall, (2007, p. 1-5), contemporary theories are used to tackle the learners challenges to the tutor following their life long experiences in the academic processes. Thus, a tutor may ask learners to interpret a given scenario rather that getting cues from the tutor especially in humanities. In the area of social sciences, contemporary theories are used to unfreeze the elements of common sense amongst the learners. These two elaborations have implications that contemporary theories are used today for awareness of past assumptions that put barriers to the learning process. Therefore, the tutor or trainer assumes a new responsibility of initiating learning change process so that the learners are the centre and key actors (McGonagall, 2007, p. 1).
Other areas where contemporary theories are applied are in transformation learning process. In this case, the learners who are now at the centre of the process become assimilated to the achievement motivations. Once learners have successfully been assimilated, there will be lesser resistance to new ideas and minimize knowledge conflicts. Contemporary theories eliminate learning content disorientation then further enhance achievement motivation. This strategy enables learners to identify new knowledge when they face tasks (McGonagall, 2007, p. 2).
Contemporary transformation theories are used today to stimulate learners’ self-reflection and efficacy. This is a very critical step because it enables the learners to form peer groups for ideas exchange as they open themselves to criticism. Thereafter the tutor or trainer will be able to comprehend the learners’ knowledge background and the best approaches to measure and evaluate them (McGonagall, 2007, p. 2). The tutors and trainers to are using contemporary theories today to activate the learners’ limitations to a new knowledge beginning by learners’ surveys.
The outcomes of such surveys are important for critical reflection of the learners. Later, tutors and trainers can use these outcomes to stimulate critical discourse where learners argue their points of view at peer level (McGonagall, 2007, p. 3). Contemporary transformation theories are used today to balance between learners workload so that they neither resist nor loose hope of their achievement motivations. New ideas management that fosters transparency of goals (McGonagall, 2007, p. 4) achieves this process.
Evaluation of Memory Cognitive processes
In a study by Koriat, et al. (2004, p. 643-656), memory is an important aspect of cognition because as applied in judgement in a learning process. Memory is the ability to cue knowledge and experience to respond to a stimulus influence (Koriat & Bjork &, 2005, p. 187-194). Therefore memory during learning is a predictor of competence of illustration of a given content or perspective. Differences in memory especially during an examination process arise due to delays, cue models, illusions or judgement perspectives. All these factors affect achievement motivation of the learners as they show how accurate they will be able to retain impacted knowledge in any learning environment (Koriat, et al. 2004, p. 643-656). Memory subject has various sub processes applicable in achievement motivation:
Sensory Memory sub process
According to a study by Bigand, et al, (2003, p. 159-171), the sensory memory aids in brief retention of the raw information stimuli as the person decided whether to act or store the message. Sensory memory is often very short and is perceived from the five senses of the body. When sensory memory stimulus is well structured, they can aid the cognitive memory process by enhancing retention of knowledge and skills. Sensory memory articulation is by visuals such as pictures and practical tasks (Yousoof, Sapiyan & Kamaluddin, 2006, p. 259-260)
In practice, sensory memory prioritizes knowledge during a learning process, hence contribute to achievement motivation. Studies show that sensory memory act without synaptic stimulus because of short feedback system. Tutors normally use sensory memory to model tools and loops for reinforcing the learners’ theoretical concepts. In real practice, sensory memory has a metaphorical symbol in learning to bridge the gap between abstract and real factors or knowledge achievement motivation (Yousoof, Sapiyan & Kamaluddin, 2006, p. 259-260).
Working memory sub process
Following a research by Juff (2004, p. 199-226), working memory is useful in aptitude tests to show how people connect phonological loops, grammar and lexis especially when one is learning a second language. Working memory also defines how one uses vocabulary when speaking, writing, behaving, frequency of use of words, styles of grammar and the word connections (Juff, 2004, p. 199-226). In terms of Achievement motivation, working memory applies in proficiency tests, reading tests, vocabulary breadth and in sentence constructions.
Further, working memory is useful in aptitude tests and examination of language proficiency attainment (Juff, 2005, p. 121-151). In real practice, working memory also show how fast one is able to communicate in a given language or subject of specialization, that is, ability to distinguish one subject from the other by achievement motivation (Juff, 2004, p. 199-226).
Long-term memory sub process
According to a study by Wan (2007), long-term memory is the ability to retrieve information store after a long period of from a conservational and operational point of view. Long-term memory depends on the information classification therefore this is a predictor of how the information will be presented on stimulus (Wan, 2007). If information is old, it will not be retained and this explains how learners loose information in the longer learning period. Studies carried out to analyse long-term memory relation to cognitive process showed that the period of follow up after knowledge was impacted is very important for longer-term retention. Additionally long-term memory improves with regular rehearsal (Nuthall, 2000). In real practice, this has implications that academic contents need regular tests in order to improve the memory by the learners and their achievement motivation.
Recognition sub process
A study to establish existing differences in recognition (Ray & Reingold, 2003, p. 131-137) showed that mismatches starts at the information coding stage and later at the encoding stage. Further, knowledge recognition depended on the sequence of internalization and speed of the process. Therefore, learners with better recognition simply reflected those who could quickly match the stimulus with the internalized knowledge codes. This study also showed that a delay in probing the store knowledge might case a lapse in recognition of certain information. In real practice, the recognition factor has implications that learning tasks need regular performance and practice other than the normal theory process of achievement motivation (Ray & Reingold, 2003, p. 131-137).
Recall sub process
A study by Cowan et al. (2005, p. 67-73), to establish how immediate recall is affected by speed of the brain process, showed that speed was not a major issue on the accuracy of the knowledge recall. This study confirmed that knowledge presentation speed affected recall, as is the case when practical learning experiments are executed under times sessions rather than under leisure sessions. Additional factors that affected recall are the speed and frequency of rehearsal. As far as the recall is either verbal or writer form, recitation is attributed to higher recalls in verbal presentations (Cowan et al., 2005, p. 67-73).
Further, this study concluded that capacity of knowledge, other than speed might also impact on the recall process, so that dense scope of information may take longer to recall. This study was very cautious on the speed variable because a set of manipulations gave different outcomes as far as recall is concerned. Finally, this study established that recall of difficult tasks may sometimes be easier that for easy tasks because the learner keep putting a lot of effort in trying to memorize and recall the knowledge. Therefore, it is common to see such a learner experience tip of the tongue phenomenon when trying to recall a simpler task (Cowan et al., 2005, p. 67-73).
Recall process has achievement motivation implications that lexical learning process will be either slow or fast depending of the modes of tests as either rehearsed or random. Similarly, this study as implications that speed of learning can moderately affect recall, therefore learning process and curriculum development should bear capacity and duration in mind (Cowan et al., 2005, p. 67-73). In real practice, the variance in recall accuracy has implications that learners should be taught in phases when tasks are complex rather than in bloc strategies so that above average recall is achievement and motivated.
Elaboration sub process
According to a study by Reigeluth (1992, p. 80-86), on the elaboration theory, showed that learning contents need to be arranged in a hierarchical order of complexity to increased retention effects. The elaboration theory insinuates that simpler tasks should precede complex tasks in a learning process in order for the learners’ achievement motivation to stay alive. This elaboration theory has implications that the learners should always be reminded of previous lessons so that they can build on the next level of knowledge. This strategy will enable the learner to gain meaning of the following knowledge and skills internalization (English & Reigeluth, 1996, p. 23-42).
The elaboration process calls for various factors in order to be successful in a learning process; clarity of sequence; set induction sequence; conclusions; synthesis; ideas; recall strategies; and finally, the learners management (Reigeluth, 1992, p. 80-86). The elaboration theory is relevant in the way the tutor will present the current lesson as a continuation from the previous lesson. The elaboration theory also needs specific objectives, ideas and concepts to be broken down step by step so that the learner can optimize recall of the skills and knowledge (English & Reigeluth, 1996, p. 23-42).
The elaboration theory is relevant in today’s learning process because the tutor that has identified the fast and slow learners can put in extra efforts to improve the performance of the slow learners. In real practice, the elaboration theory also emphasizes that practical lessons should be included in the lesson planning to reinforce the theoretical learning process and achievement motivation. This can be achieved practically by workshops, laboratory and field visits (Reigeluth, 1992, p. 80-86).
Rehearsal sub process
According to a study by Dosher and Ma (1998, p. 316-335), longer words tend to slow in recall as compared to shorter words. Therefore, words like she; to; buy; put; me; are easier to recall than words like tomorrow; exaggerated; purchase; masquerade; e.t.c. The purpose of rehearsal is to improve the recall rate of such words in order for the length to shorten from a psychological point of view (Parlie, Singh, & Vasudevan, 2006, p. 80 – 88).
Rehearsal will suppress the phonological lengths and ease the articulation of the longer words just like the case of the shorter words. Once this is achieved, the learner will be able to give a continuous speech with accurate pronunciations (Dosher and Ma (1998, p. 316-335). In real practice, the relevance of the rehearsal process is in the patients with speech problems especially those who incapacitated muscular control of language. Rehearsal will improve the overall speech gaps and controls. Rehearsal can act as maintenance of phonological control process in achievement motivation (Baddeley, 2000, p. 544-549).
Sub process Applications
As learners transform from one level of academic achievement to the next, say from masters to PhD, they recognize the criticism that required them to achieve higher that the previous levels (Shin, Daly & Vera, 2007). This pressure may cause some degree of depression, self-esteem complexes, overload and feeling of quitting. This has implications that achievement motivation and the career level engagements are inseparable from memory sub process. Some factors like ethnicity of the learner, verses tutor or supervisor, degree of peer support (Hanushek, et al 2003, p. 527- 544), and the learning norms can also impact of the memory achievement motivation (Shin, Daly & Vera, 2007, p. 379- 388).
A critical literature review established a research pattern that focuses on memory achievement motivation over the last two decades. Studies in the area of memory attribution or motivation theories have led to 4 categories of findings. First, Tutors should avoid aiding learners using elaborations unnecessarily when the tasks are simple because slow and low achieving learners regard this as a hint due to their low capabilities and learning efficacy (Graham & Baker, 1990, p. 7-14); (Schunk, 1990). Second, learners’ earlier sign of efficacy for achievements via strategies like rehearsals should propel them to high performance so that they take charge of their individual lives (Schunk, 1990).
Third, learners that regulate their learning achievements are in line with their self-efficacy and reality of personal capabilities to achieve high outcome in the learning environment and have recognition that the process is worth its course (Schunk, 1990). This is true because the learners’ metacognitive plans, evaluation and realignments show their ability to control the input in the learning tasks (Graham & Baker, 1990, p. 7-14). Fourth, learners’ initial academic exposure such as master degree will play a key part in the next level academic achievement such as PhD because they have better recall of previous knowledge and skills (Graham & Baker, 1990, p. 7-14); (Schunk, 1990).
Studies in the area of memory achievement have also lead to 4 main categories of findings. First, learners are motivated when they believe that tutors are concerned about their outcomes as far as long-term memory is concerned (Pokay & Blumenfeld, 1990). Thus tutors that care show interactions with the learners and this bridges the gaps between their learning expectations and the knowledge status (Wenzel, 1997). Similarly, tutors that show concern for the learners’ progress complete the feedback loop in a positive manner (Ryan & Pintrich, 1997).
Second, learners will rarely seek assistance when they know that their memory self-efficacy will be in question; when their cognitive prowess is down; and when they see very little gains from the help process. In the contrary, proactive learners who seek to boost their working memory will seek tutors guidance appropriately (Ryan & Pintrich, 1997).
Third, highly motivated learners that are utilizing the learning opportunities effectively are likely to be high sensory memory achievers (Pokay & Blumenfeld, 1990 p. 41-49). Various learning strategies will yield varied outcomes based on the learners’ perception of the age of the learning tools and materials. This has implications that tutors should stress on domains of new learning tools every time they make new changes from the weaknesses of the previous memory learning tools (Pokay & Blumenfeld, 1990 p. 41-49).
Fourth, learners are motivated to cheat when their learning institution stresses on performance and rote memory skills; when they perceive that cheating is okay; when the tutors stress extrinsic outcomes with poor elaboration; when the learners are stressed up on their academic tasks and cannot recall knowledge (Anderman et al, 1998). The various psychologist and theorists base these critical views on actual observations. Thus, learners that are perpetually cheating in exams take motivation from high administration demands for success and achievement especially in mathematics and languages (Anderman et al, 1998).
Other learners who transfer to new institutions and were not held more accountable for achievements in the previous institution, hence cheating may be rampant. Learners not held responsible tend to relax the long-term memory achievement priorities and failure may not be an option. Learners that have high self-efficacy will tend to regulate their study times so that they have a tenable strategy for achievement and technique for success (Anderman et al, 1998). Finally, learner with high self-efficacy will shun tutor help as which contradicts the earlier observation that those with low efficacy and achievement also shun help. Therefore, this critical analysis will be useful in training tutors to manage a diverse learning environment and people (Pokay & Blumenfeld, 1990 p. 41-49).
Various cognitive sub processes can also impact on memory achievement motivation. The expectancy theory by Atkinson was tested for achievement motivation trajectories especially in mathematics and languages across the gender divide. The tests showed that language acquisition and skills motivations were insignificant and depended on the achievement motivation. However, females tend to acquire more achievement motivation in languages than males from 10 years onwards (Penner, 2003, p. 650-655).
Characteristics of cognition and learning and application context within learners’ specialization in summarizing the relationship between training and education in the context of cognition.
There are driving factors that summarize the relationship between training and education in the context of cognition. Learners need to understand the contents and goals so that they can add value to their lives. This has implications that the training or tutorial process must be well defined for maximum achievement motivation. Learners need to take active role in the training or tutorial process so that they acquire the latest knowledge and skills. This has implications that the learners must be responsible in the whole process of achievement motivation (Shunk, 1990).
Learners need to experience the ultimate success after each training or tutorial. This has implications that the training or tutorial process must be realistic and the feedback loop must be shortened and effective. Learners need to receive rewards for every level of achievement whether intrinsic or extrinsic. This has implications that the learning process must be safe and prepared for this achievement motivation reward delivery.
Learners need to ample time to rehearse, recall, elaborate, recognize and work through the course contents. This has implications that the training or tutorial contents must be relevant and objective for the learners future career and achievement motivation. Finally, learners need to evaluate their working memory by themselves regularly. This has implications that peer and social cognitive characteristics need stimulation earlier in the course contents to facilitate self-evaluations for achievement motivation process (Shunk, 1990).
There are various characteristics of cognition and learning that can be applied within the learners’ context and area of specialization to sum up the training needs and the academic context of cognition. These include the learner self control under achievement motivation; the flexibility during the learning process; internalizations of the learning contents; persistence of the leaner ; acceptability to accomplish complex tasks; phobia of learning; success inclinations and tendencies; learning independence; willingness to learn; ability to set achievable goals; orientation to the academic level; learners competitiveness and aggression; learners mastery, dominance or area or specialization; learning content flow; learners ability to compensate for content gaps; and learners pride in content achievement motivation ( Byrne, et al, 2004, p. 203-217).
When it comes to these attributes ability to be mapped to predict the training needs and education for cognition, there are no major studies that have been accomplished. What is certain is that many countries are using these factors of personalities apply these characteristics in simulations so that they can be used in interviewing workers for respective jobs as a predictor of their success at jobs (Fleenor, McCauley & Brutus, 1996, p. 486 -506).
The relationship between training and education in cognition should be developed from the job area that the current learner has in mind; outline the achievement goals in the training area; specify the degree of achievement proficiency; ability to internalizes the contents of the training so that the overall job performance is boosted. Since the learners are majors in the subjects, the tutor need to adopt their learning style so that the locus of control can be directed to enable the learners take responsibility in the training process to maximize achievement motivation. This approach will also ensure that the learners exploit any available opportunities to enable them make the best decisions. This process will best be accomplished by the learners self evaluation within the study context irrespective of their individual characteristics.
There are additional characteristics of cognition and learning applications that must be applied to the learners’ area of specialization for optimum achievement motivation. First, cognition and learning need an enabling environment so that the learners are free to interact and internalized the contents (Pokay & Blumenfeld, 1990, p. 41-49). Second, cognition and learning applications should evaluate the learners existing knowledge ahead of outlining new knowledge to be impacted (Pokay & Blumenfeld, 1990, p. 41-49). Third, cognition and learning applications need to be realistic and sensibly tied to the objectives with clarity on the performance benchmarks (Pokay & Blumenfeld, 1990, p. 41-49). Fourth, cognition and learning applications should devote appropriate timeframe so that the skills are internalized (Pokay & Blumenfeld, 1990, p. 41-49).
Fifth, cognition and learning applications should stress content validity so that the learners can make good use of their time (Pokay & Blumenfeld, 1990, p. 41-49). Sixth, cognition and learning applications should specify the tasks in a priority manner so that learners can optimize the knowledge and skills in order or priority (Pokay & Blumenfeld, 1990, p. 41-49). Seventh, cognition and learning applications should delegate tasks based on the complexity and learners capabilities. Finally, cognition and learning applications should seek constant feedback by measurement and evaluation (Pokay & Blumenfeld, 1990, p. 41-49).
Conclusion: Social and personal influences on cognition and how these influences the learner’s specialization
This paper has evaluated the role of achievement motivation on cognition and learning along the various characteristics of the learners’ contexts. There are variances in the achievement motivations based on the learners’ specialization such as mathematics or languages. This study did not find a specific pattern to suggest that achievement motivation is gender biases passé, but show that gender characteristics have some level of influence on achievement motivation process and outcome. As a social factor, this study established that achievement motivation can be effected through peer learners association, tutors tools and styles of engaging the students and quality time spent between the tutor and the learner.
As a personal factor, this study also established that achievement motivation can be effected today by the study based settings or environment in addition to the individual learners efforts. This study highlighted cognitive, behavioral, humanistic and achievement motivational theories as the main historical foundations for achievement motivation (Weiner, 1990). Further individual motivational characteristics were found to predict the learners’ achievement motivation today.
Specifically factors that are closer to the learners such as the classroom environment, learning tools, styles and tutors will vary the achievement motivation. These social and personal influences can be applied in a linear style to influence the learners’ specialization (Singer & Willet, 2003). From a gender perspective this study shows that the achievement motivation progress of males can be more predictable than of females in the language instructions today. This has implications that males who specialize in languages may need more contact hours with the tutor than their female counterparts.
As a summary of social and personal influence on cognition and achievement motivation, this study established that various learner memory characteristics such as rehearsal, elaboration, recall, recognition, long-term memory, working memory and sensory memory among other factors, contribute separately or in tandem to overall achievement motivation today. Therefore, for an achievement motivations impact on the social and personal influence on cognition to be realized, this study is of the opinion that controlling achievement motivation using contemporary theories should be prioritized and validated with learning and cognitive theories.
In order to influence the learners specialization positively today, the learner must develop self efficacy and minimize hopelessness by living to high achievement motivation expectations (Shunk, 1990, p. 3-6). Therefore learners must ensure they are able to rehearse contents, following the tutors best practices and elaborations. Learners must recognize the need for knowledge and skills recall as a success factor in their future life career. Learners with long term memory will find less need for retraining or tutorial refreshment with additional sensory memory tools.
Memory can be enhances in an academic program by tests of the skills achievements (Luo & Craik, 2008). This study reveals that memory can be enhanced from training approaches under a controlled learning process. Generally, memory supports achievement motivation under strategic modification and when it is learner centred. Thus, prospective memory is good for long-term memory achievement. Learners who cannot recall knowledge and engage in cheating are engaging in false memory presentation (Luo & Craik, 2008).
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