Science Investigatory projects
Dried Papaya Leaves as Organic Mulch for Tomato Plants
Mulching in agricultural provides a safe yet equally profitable method of enriching and fertilizing the soil planted with crops. Most often-used mulches are of organic composition, such as dry leaves and barks. Unlike synthetic fertilizers and herbicides, these organic mulches pose no or little damage to the soil and crops.
Usually defined as the use of organic and biodegradable materials to give plants the nutrients they need, organic farming proved to be the safest and most effective method of increasing and sustaining yield.
Various methods fall under organic farming, such as composting, green manuring, legume inoculating, and utilizing animal manure as fertilizers. Mulching is a simple process that increases soil fertility and regulating several factors affecting overall plant growth. In this method, a layer of material-the mulch-is placed on soil surface around the plant. The mulch is used to retard the growth of weeds, protect roots and stems from sudden or extreme temperature changes, reduce soil erosion by wind and water, retard runoff of rainfall, prevent soil puddling by breaking the impact of raindrops, and keep flowers and fruits from being spattered with mud during rainstorms
Used Cooking Oil as an Additive Component of Candle
The study aims to produce a low-priced, high-quality candle by using used cooking oil as a major component.
The following candle compositions were used: 100 percent paraffin wax; 90 percent paraffin and 10 percent oil; 80 percent paraffin and 20 percent oil; 70 percent paraffin and 30 percent oil; 60 percent paraffin and 40 percent oil; 50 percent paraffin and 50 percent oil.
The firmness, texture, and light intensity of the candles were tested and compared. Today, candles are made not only for lighting purposes but for many other uses such as home décor, novelty collections, as fixtures for big occasions (weddings, baptismals, etc.), and as scented varieties for aromatherapy. Candles are made from different types of waxes and oils.
Cooking oil is a major kitchen item in Filipino households. It is also used substantially in fast-food outlets, where it is used in different stages of food preparations. Ordinarily, used cooking oil is discarded. This waste oil pollutes and clogs canals and sewerage systems.