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High school dropouts have become a crisis in the United States that is continuously increasing. There are various reasons as to why students drop out of high school. These reasons range from simple factors having an impact upon why a student drops out to complex reasons as to why a student drops out of high school. On the contrary, there are various factors that keep students in high school. These factors include being involved in extracurricular activities in and out of school and interaction with the family.
However, dropping out of high school not only affects the individual who has dropped out. The action will also affect those who surround the individual and as the number of high school dropouts increases, this rate will continue to have an effect on the United States economy.
The negative impact of high school dropouts worsens the economy every time a student chooses to drop out of school. There is no typical person who dropouts of school.
This epidemic that is increasing has become a vicious cycle that must be put to an end. Studies have shown that one must attain a high school degree in order to combat poverty. Moreover, studies have also shown that high school degree is not seen the same now as it was in the past. More often than not, a high school dropout will earn less in a lifetime than an individual who has graduated high school and continued to further their education.
This paper will seek reason as why the rate of high school dropouts has increased with the research that has been conducted in the past and is currently being conducted now.
This paper will also propose why the rate of high school dropouts increases with the policies and programs that have been implemented by the government. The findings in this paper will not discuss minorities or gender in regards to high school dropouts. This analysis will discuss high school dropouts in the United States in general. There will also be research showing the correlation between why a student drops out of school and what program can assist them getting back into school.
This research is significant to the society because high school dropouts not only effect them personally and those surrounding them. High school dropouts affect the economy and the society as a whole. Research must continue to be conducted to decrease these rare and eventually stop students from dropping out of high school. If student continue to drop out and this rate increases, eventually there will be very few skilled workers in the United States. This will result in the shipping of jobs overseas, which will weaken the United States economy.
Furthermore, this research is significant in academia. Scholars and researchers must continue to conduct research as to why youth continues to drop out of high school. With the continuation of this research, there is a probability that there will be an end to high school dropouts or the rate of dropouts will significantly decrease. In addition, this research will allow other researchers in academia to draw conclusions and make recommendations in regards to the kind of programs and policies that should be implemented into the law in the future. Then, the government will have the ability to analyze the data that has been collected by scholars in order to put these policies into place.
During this research, there was a use of quantitative data in order to show a cause and effect relationship between the increasing rate of high school dropouts and what needs to be done to decrease this rate. The data will also show how the programs and policies can reformed in order to decrease the rate high school dropouts. A survey was constructed in order to better understand why the rate of high school dropouts continues to increase with the research that has been conducted in the past. In addition, the data came from fifty students on campus. The survey consisted of twenty questions that asked general question about personally knowing high school dropouts. The survey also asked questions that were complex in regards to opinions about what kind of policies and programs the government should implement in the future.
There were four main areas that were discussed by scholars in during the research process. Those areas included (a) the personal and public effects of dropping out of high school, (b) educational equity, (c) dropout prevention and recovery efforts, and (d) the effects of high school dropouts not taking the advantage of second chance opportunities such as attaining a GED. There were other areas that were discussed as well; however, there was not as much emphasis as the former. Those areas were adolescent employment, parent involvement, and the effects those components have on high school dropouts.
There are several effects that results from dropping out of high school. These effects mount upon one another, which results in one problem turning into another. Dropping out of high school impacts an individual personally and effectively in several ways. Everyday, there are seven thousand high school dropouts. If a student does not complete high school, they will obtain a low income, therefore, contributing less to the society (Rouse, 2005). An individual who has not completed high school is classified as having an inadequate education. High school graduates earn thousands of dollars less than high school graduates and one million less than college graduates in a lifetime.
High school dropouts are more liable to slip into poverty than high school graduates. In regards to personal issues, high school dropouts are more likely to have worse health, employment issues, become pregnant as a teen, and be incarcerated than high school graduates are. This cycle will continue from generation to generation if more programs are not reformed and created (Rouse, 2005). In regards to high school dropouts and the society as a whole, there will be less productive workers, which will result in less revenue that would have been made. More often than not, high school dropouts will need government assistance, which is not likely not a need of a high school graduate (Rouse, 2005).
Another topic of discussion that was debated among scholars was educational equity. The United States education is not equivalent among public school systems. There is an achievement gap among students, therefore, creating more dropouts. Studies show that there needs to be more basic work taught in schools and there needs to be tougher academic and attendance standards. These same studies go on to say that higher expectations produce higher achievement. There also needs to be more schools competing to get the best students. According to McLaughlin, this will create a rise in American education. (McLaughlin, 1990). There needs to be a higher standard held by the administrators and the students themselves.
Dropout prevention and recovery efforts need reforming if there is going to be a decrease in the rate of high school dropouts. Some of the programs are not preventing high school dropouts efficiently. There are some programs that have had good results, but
not good enough for what needs to be accomplished in the long run (McLaughlin, 1990). According to Christenson and Thurlow, there should be five factors taken into consideration when creating dropout prevention programs. Those five considerations towards completion and engagement, and the importance of empirical evidence. 
Moreover, there were two areas of discussion during the research process that also impact high school dropouts. Adolescent employment and parent involvement have a major influence on how a student performs in school. According to McNeal, there is a possibility that students are being pulled out of school. McNeal discusses the effects what is occurring with students who work while attending grade school. He goes on to write how in previous studies of high school dropouts, the main focus was how demographics was the main cause of students dropping out of high school. However, there are a plethora of reasons as to why a student drops out of school. These reasons are referred to as “push” and “pull” factors that take a student out of school. 
Additionally, parent involvement was considered to be another element that influenced a student’s performance in school and whether they remained in school or not. According to Crosnoe, parent involvement enhances academic competence. Parent involvement, just as adolescent employment, not been emphasized in previous studies of high school dropouts. Nonetheless, both are circumstances that effect whether a student will graduate from high school
Interpretation of Results
The results of the data revealed various answers that can be interpreted to understand the correlation between the climbing rate of high school dropouts and what will make this rate decrease. The survey showed how many people knew a high school dropout personally and why that individual did not attain a high school degree. There were several surveys that reflected little or no knowledge about programs and intervention for high school dropouts. This disclosed information that answered questions as to why the rate is so high and why the rate has yet to be decreased. Some of the data from the survey can be compared with statistics from other researchers. The results show that there is a lack of knowledge and awareness about the crisis that is occurring within the United States education system. In addition, there is a message that is conveyed through the data that has been collected. The message being conveyed is that there is not a sufficient amount of information being provided because there has still not been a decrease in the number of high school dropouts.
Likewise, there were many results that coincided with one another. There was little or no effect on the student if they were raised in a single parent home. However, if the student was raised in a single parent home and in a tumultuous environment, the student had more of a tendency to drop out of school. There were various factors that motivated a student to graduate from high school. Those factors included family, self-motivation, engagement in extracurricular activities, and school staff such as teachers, administrators, and coaches. There was also an abundance of feedback that showed a majority of the dropouts were dramatically affected by
employment. The dropouts either found it difficult to obtain a job or they still are having difficulties in doing so.
There were a few responses that showed that some of the dropouts came from good environments. These outcomes imply that there can be some chaos within a good environment. The environment as a whole may not be chaotic. However, the household which the student lives within may be in disarray. Some of the surveys showed that there were several students who dropped out between sophomore and junior year of high school. There were also answers that had a connection between a disorderly environment and the tendency to drop out of school. More often than not, if the answer was “yes” to living in the chaotic environment such as the inner city, the person also circled that the person they knew who dropped out was either pregnant or had a personal illness, in the criminal justice system, had family financial needs, and did not see the value of education. For the most part, these answers were linked together.
The rate of high school dropouts continues to increase with the research that has been done. There is no specific answer as to why this crisis is occurring and will persist to worsen if drastic measures are not taken. This national crisis continues to worsen because there is not a single answer to decreasing the rate. The challenge of increasing the graduation rate is difficult because increasing the graduation consists of many components. There are several steps to accomplishing the completion of high school. A student must pass certain tests and must pass the required curriculum before attaining a high school degree. Therefore, the programs to keep students in school must essentially be compatible with each student because the reasons for dropping out of school differ from student to student.
In addition, high school graduation rates have not significantly decreased since 1990. These challenges become more difficult when the national reform efforts push for higher academic standards. This problem calls for more effort because the students will not have the skills they need after graduating from high school.  Dropping out of high school is not something that occurs instantaneously. It is a process that must be stopped before it can stop. Allowing a student to become disinterested in school is a process that should not begin because it will be more of a task to end.
There have been a number of programs created to decrease the rate of drop outs. The programs assist at-risk youth, students who did not perform well in school, and programs to prevent students from dropping out. Recently, the Obama administration has been focusing on high school dropouts. President Obama has brought it to the attention of the nation that there is a national crisis. According to the National Center for Education (NCES), this is a crisis that has been occurring for over a decade now. The Obama administration is taking the necessary steps to reduce the number of dropouts. President Obama asked the states to pinpoint schools that had graduation rates below 60%. The administration has devoted $3.5 billion to transform schools that are not performing at their best. 
Also, there are programs such as America’s Alliance Program (Grad Nation) and the Educational Equity Project. American’s Alliance Program is a partnership alliance committed to ensuring children experience the fundamental resources they need to succeed. The Educational Equity Project is to eliminate the racial and ethnic achievement gap in our nation’s public school system. Another program is Gateway to College. This program is a high school dropout recovery program. This program helps dropouts between the ages of 16 and 21 to earn a high school diploma.
Some states have risen the dropout age to 18. If a student is not 18, they are not permitted to dropout before 18 without parental consent. Several states have risen the age to 18. However, some states still have the age to dropout at 17 and some states remain at 16 years old. However, the lower the age, the worse the crisis will become. Raising the age to dropout will decrease the rate of dropouts. Some students will take the initiative to graduate instead of dropping out at 18 years old. Also, there are students who graduate high school at 17 years old. This will also decrease the rate of dropouts because they will not be 18 until after graduation. Therefore, legislators should not give not give the option to dropout. If a student chooses to dropout, he or she should receive consequences. However, if legislators do not want to require all states to graduate all students, every state should be made to raise the age to 18.
In conclusion, there is still an abundance of progress that must be made. The government should take serious measures in order to make the dropout rate decline. Education is the key to upward mobility. Students have to be motivated in order to remain in school. If not, they will become disinterested and the contemplation of dropping out will become a process. In addition, if this crisis is going to end, the schools need to have the best educators who are willing to not only teach, but to interact with the students to assure that they are doing their best.
In regards to further research, there will have to be more research done after more programs and laws are implemented. More research has to be conducted in order for the
researchers to better understand how to decrease the rate of high school dropouts and to keep the rate low. Furthermore, there was no research found in regards to how to end the crisis altogether. The main reason for this may be that the rate has to be decreased before researchers and scholars can look into how to rid the nation of dropouts.
1.) Do you know anyone who has dropped out of high school?
2.) What year did he/she drop out of high school?
3.) What kind of high school did he/she attend?
4.) What is he/she currently doing in regards to a career and/or their future?
5.) What kind of environment did he/she grow up in?
b.) Urban (inner city)
6.) Was he/she raised in a single parent home?
7.) Did he/she participate in any extracurricular activities?
8.) Some states allow students to drop out of high school at the age of sixteen (16). Should all states require students to graduate from high school?
9.) If you believe that more programs should be implemented to keep students in school, what kind of programs would you suggest?
10.) Why do you think that the rate of high school dropouts continues to increase?
11.) If you know someone who dropped out of high school, did they ever go back to?
attain a GED?
12.) If they did not go back to school, what did they choose to do?
13.) Has that individual been dramatically effected in regards to employment because of
dropping out of high school?
14.) Have you ever contemplated dropping out of high school?
15.) Who and/or what motivated you to graduate from high school?
16.) Have you heard about any of the programs or policies that are directed towards?
keeping students in school and/or high school dropouts?
17.) Did he/she dropout due to personal illness or pregnancy?
a.) Personal illness
18.) Was the student in the criminal justice system?
19.) Did he/she dropout because of family financial needs?
20.) Did he/she dropout because they did not see the value of education?
For these past few years, our country had been developing and keeps on looking for solutions in the problem of our education today. Basic Education Curriculum (BEC), Secondary Education Curriculum (SEC) and the latest K to 12 Curriculum. These are the curriculum that our Department of Education uses for the past few years up to today’s year. They keep on changing because they are looking for some ways on how we can provide good quality education to our students. Also they say that it can lessen the dropout rate of our high schools in the country. Many of our officials in the DepEd wish that their program can really help our children to finish their studies and pursue their career. But somehow, these changes cannot change everything. Many of our students are dropping out because of so many reasons. With these review literature examined reports and viewed journals to study the high school dropouts.
These studies were guided by three questions: who drop out of school; why students drop out of school; and what is the effective solution to prevent drop out. Numerous studies have researched the reason why students leave school, who are the students are at risk of dropping out and what could be the effective solutions to prevent them from dropping out of school. But, these studies and efforts have not helped, the increased of dropped out rate is still a problem. More and more question are still unanswered and still developing new things and adopting many things in order to help our students to get their high school diplomas. High school dropout rates are merely affected by students’ behavior towards life and their achievements. The student had more independence and greater educational ambition, worried mostly about his future and, next, about getting along with others, expressed satisfaction with what he is required to learn but not with the way he was being taught, disliked homework and felt that disinterested students should not be forced to remain in school. Also, students who experiencing poverty are at the risk of dropping out.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to examine why students drop out of school, who are the students that drop out of school and what are the effective ways to lessen or prevent drop outs.
The following research questions guided the study:
Who are the students who drop out of school?
Why students drop out of school?
What effective program can help students not to drop out of school?
Body of the Review
In the Philippines, the problem of student dropping out in the public secondary schools is as serious as ever. Statistics show that out of every 56 students who finish Grade VI, only 43, or 77 percent, enter the first year high school. This indicates a dropout rate of nearly 24 percent. Research data further show that 43 percent, or 3,194,400 young adults between the ages of 15 to 24, are out of school, and that 53 percent of these are unemployed. A survey of some schools in Metro Manila and nearby provinces disclosed that the drop-out rate is higher in the first year than in any other year level. The survey also identified several reasons why students leave school. Among these are the inability to defray school expenses because of poverty; distance of home from school; part or fulltime job opportunities; the concern to help augment family income; physical disability; boring or slow lessons which do not challenge bright students; elopement or early marriage; and being overage.
These factors, among other things, bring about the inefficiency of the public secondary school system. And the problem is more real than imaginary, especially among the disadvantaged whose pursuit of secondary education conflicts with their family’s drive to survive and their personal circumstances. The Philippine education system has invested a lot of resources and efforts to minimize if not to eliminate inefficiency in delivering quality education to its clientele. Yet, despite the magnitude of the resources committed to improve the quality of education for all, still the drop-out problem coupled with low academic achievement of pupils remain an insurmountable problem as ever. According to Rene R. Raya the author of The missed education of the Filipino people, the government admitted that while enrolment figures have risen over the years, key performance indicators have been declining consistently since 2001, falling way short of the EFA targets for the corresponding years.
Net enrolment, cohort survival and completion rates for both elementary and secondary levels were all down. In SY 2005-2006, participation rate in elementary education went down to 84.41 percent from 90.10 percent recorded in SY 2001-2002. Meanwhile, dropout rates posted record levels in both elementary (10.57 percent) and secondary schools (15.81). The Department of Education reported that more learners drop out from the system particularly in the lower grade levels, even before functional literacy is acquired. The Department of Education also noted the low participation of children in early childhood education (ECE), with only 34 percent of the 3-5 age group attending preschool and 60 percent of entrants in the first grade having ECE background.
The continued dropping out of children from the school system explains the low survival and completion rates and indicates the weak holding capacity of the public school system. Elementary cohort survival in SY 2005-2006 went down to 58.36 percent while completion rate declined further to 56.76 percent. The corresponding figures for secondary education are 59.10 percent and 54.14 percent, respectively. Wide disparities in cohort survival and completion rates were observed among regions across the country. A significant number of Filipino children are outside the school system. Based on the FLEMMS 2003, 11.6 million children and youth aged 6 to 24 years old were not attending school. About half of them or 5.6 million belong to the age group 15-21 years old. Poverty and related factors were the main reasons cited for not attending school. Some 30.5 percent cited employment as the reason for not attending school. One of every five (20 percent) cited the high cost of education as the reason for not attending school; while another 11.8 percent cited housekeeping work.
According to R. Raya there are key issues on our education today: 1) ACCESS – The dramatic rise in school dropouts, the low survival and completion rates and the alarming increase of out-of-school children highlights the deteriorating state of education in the country today. This trend indicates a clear reversal in the increasing access to basic education achieved over the past two decades (1980s and 1990s) 2) QUALITY – The poor quality of education and its outcome are reflected in the low achievement levels of students, the poor quality of teaching and the perennial shortages in key inputs, specifically teachers, infrastructure and instructional materials. 3) EQUITY – The poor, malnourished and disadvantaged children are being bypassed and deprived of quality education. They are constantly at risk of falling out of the school system. 4) EFFICIENCY- Poorly-designed programs, poor targeting and misplaced priorities are creating a lot of inefficiencies and wastage in the educational system.
From the writings titled Profile of Out of School Children in the Philippines. The Philippines committed to Millennium Development Goals and Education for All (EFA) targets that include universal primary education. However, various data sources, including the Department of Education’s Basic Education Information System, and household surveys conducted by the National Statistics Office, suggest that in 2008, a considerable magnitude of children were not in school. A description of these children is provided here, as well as that of children who are at risk of dropping out of primary and secondary levels of education. Reasons for children not being in school are discussed, together with the results of an econometric model that identifies correlates of non-attendance in school.
Distribution of Out-of-School Children in 2008 by (Urban/Rural) Location and by Sex
The figure above illustrates estimates of the magnitude of out-of-school children (OOSC) sourced from the latest (2008) wave of the APIS. Of an estimated 2.9 million children aged 5 to 15 years old in 2008 that are out-of-school, about 1.7 million are boys and a around 1.2 million are girls. About 65% of these children, whether boys or girls, reside in rural areas. One and a half million out of school children are between 5 and 6 years old: (0.7 million 5 year old children and 0.8 million 6 year old children). For both the official primary school completion rate and a more appropriate measure of primary completion rate4, we find that boys have a lower completion rate than girls. Various data sources indicate gender disparities not only in education outcomes (such as participation and completion) but also in achievement, generally in favor of girls (David, Albert & Monterola, 2009; Tan, 2010a; Tan, 2010b). Boys are generally more likely to be at risk of exclusion from school than girls. Percentage of Pre-primary aged OSSC in 2007 and 2008 by Reason for Non-Attendance in School, by Urban and Rural Areas.
Source: APIS 2007 and APIS 2008, NSO.
The percentage distribution for the reasons for non-attendance of pre-primary aged children hardly varies by sex, but the distribution varies slightly across urban and rural areas. In both 2007 and 2008, (aside from being too young or lacking interest,) another prominent reason cited in urban areas is cost of schooling, while in rural areas, school accessibility (either schools being too far, no schools within the village, or no regular transportation to school) is a prominent reason for nonattendance of pre-primary aged children.
Characteristics of Students Who Drop Out
Socioeconomic Background. National data show that students from low-income families are 2.4 times more likely to drop out of school than are children from middle-income families, and 10.5 times more likely than students from high-income families. Disabilities. Students with disabilities are also more likely to drop out. The National Transition Study estimates that as many as 36.4% of disabled youth drop out of school before completing a diploma or certificate. Race-ethnicity. Hispanics and African Americans are at greater risk of dropping out than whites. Hispanics are twice as likely as African Americans to drop out. White and Asian American students are least likely to drop out. Academic Factors.
National research also indicates that academic factors are clearly related to dropping out. Students who receive poor grades, who repeat a grade, or who are over-age for their class are more likely to drop out. Absenteeism. Students who have poor attendance for reasons other than illness are also more likely to drop out. Clearly, students who miss school fall behind their peers in the classroom. This, in turn, leads to low self-esteem and increases the likelihood that at-risk students will drop out of school. Occupational Aspirations. Young people’s perceptions of the economic opportunities available to them also play a role in their decision to drop out or stay in school. Dropouts often have lower occupational aspirations than their peers. Predictive Factors. The following individual-level factors are all strongly predictive of dropping out of high school: Grade retention (being held back to repeat a grade)
Poor academic performance
Moves location during high school
The student’s feeling that no adult in the school cares about his or her welfare Reasons young people give for dropping out:
Didn’t like school in general or the school they were attending Were failing, getting poor grades, or couldn’t keep up with school work Didn’t get along with teachers and/or students
Had disciplinary problems, were suspended, or expelled
Didn’t feel safe in school
Got a job, had a family to support, or had trouble managing both school and work Got married, got pregnant, or became a parent
Had a drug or alcohol problem
Consequences of dropping out:
In recent years, advances in technology have fueled the demand for a highly skilled labor force, transforming a high school education into a minimum requirement for entry into the labor market. Because high school completion has become a basic prerequisite for many entry-level jobs, as well as higher education, the economic consequences of leaving high school without a diploma are severe. Earnings Potential. On average, dropouts are more likely to be unemployed than high school graduates and to earn less money when they eventually secure work. Employed dropouts in a variety of studies reported working at unskilled jobs or at low-paying service occupations offering little opportunity for upward mobility.
Dropping out, in turn, causes other secondary, indirect problems: Public Assistance. High school dropouts are also more likely to receive public assistance than high school graduates who do not go on to college. In fact, one national study noted that dropouts comprise nearly half of the heads of households on welfare. Single Parents. This increased reliance on public assistance is likely due, at least in part, to the fact that young women who drop out of school are more likely to have children at younger ages and more likely to be single parents than high school graduates. Prisons. The individual stresses and frustrations associated with dropping out have social implications as well: dropouts make up a disproportionate percentage of the nation’s prisons and death row inmates. One research study pointed out that 82% of America’s prisoners are high school dropouts.
According to the Advocacy Paper of Arangkada Philippines 2010: A Business Perspective here are some recommendations that can help to lessen dropout rate in the Philippines. Increase public education budget over several years to at least PhP 400 billion (3.5-4% of GDP) for better classrooms, more and better teachers quality, and reduced teacher/student ratio. Double average spending per student to ASEAN-6 average. Adopt K+12 models to extend basic education by two years and add a pre-elementary year. Constantly improve teacher quality and curriculum to produce graduates with skills required for higher quality jobs. Apply competency-based standards, more in-service training, maintain teacher welfare and morale. Increase study of math and science, technical/vocational skills training.
Encourage college/ post-graduate study in fields needed for specialized positions, including foreign languages. Intensify investment in technology for high school education to connect all 6,786 schools to Internet. Equip high school teachers with notebook computers and students with e-readers. Establish computerized English language centers in high schools. Strengthen higher education by providing more resources for world class centers of excellence. Expand scholarships/loans for higher education. Encourage more accredited foreign schools and foreign teachers. Undertake a vigorous public campaign to emphasize English language competency. Strengthen the Dual Education/Dual Technical System. Expand the internship period to pre-pare students better for employment.
Another 12 Recommendations
A. Commit to a large increase in the public education budget over several years to at least PhP 400 billion and 3.5-4% of GDP to build, repair, and equip new and old classrooms, eliminate the teacher shortage, raise teacher salaries, and reduce the teacher/student ratio. Double the average spending per student to be closer to other ASEAN economies. (Long-term action DepEd, DBM, NEDA, and Congress) B. Over a period of several years, extend basic education by two years and add one year before elementary school (the K+12 models). Students should graduate high school at age 18 prepared either to enter the workforce or college. Increase technical/vocational skills training in the high school curriculum. (Long-term action DepEd, DBM, and NEDA) C. Empower teachers by constantly improving their quality and their curriculum to help students acquire the knowledge and skills required to enable them to get higher quality jobs.
Apply competency-based standards for teachers and provide more in-service training, while maintaining their welfare and morale. (Medium term action DepEd and CHED) D. Basic education and college curricula should be adjusted to increase the study of math and science. Encourage more college students to study fields needed for specialized positions in the economy (e.g. agribusiness, computer science, engineering, environmental science, mining, and physics). Teach more foreign languages in colleges to support the BPO and tourism sectors. (Medium-term action (DepEd, CHED, DOLE, DTI, NEDA, and private sector) E. Intensify investment in technology for high school education. Complete the private sector Gearing Up Internet Literacy and Access for Students (GILAS) program to connect high schools to the Internet (of 6,786 high schools, 3,892 remain to be connected). Equip high school teachers with notebook computers and students with e-readers.
Place more computers in high schools using grants, donations, and purchases. (Long-term action DepEd, DBM, NEDA, and private sector) F. Strengthen higher education by providing more resources for world class centers of excellence and expanding scholarships and loans for higher education, while reducing national government subsidies for low quality state and local universities/colleges. Make government student loans available through SSS, GSIS or banks to be repaid after employment for tertiary and technical/vocational education students to enroll in accredited public and private higher education institutions. (Medium-term action CHED, SSS, GSIS, and private sector) G. Encourage qualified foreign schools to operate and foreigners to teach in the Philippines. Solutions to the educational deficit should include foreign as well as domestic resources. (Immediate action DTI, CHED, DOLE, and private sector) H. Install English language computer training labs in high schools, supplementing teacher resources with English training software.
Each lab should have ten computers. The private sector can donate large numbers of used computers, while the government can purchase the software and handle logistics. (Long-term action DepEd, LGUs, and private sector) I. To advance bilingualism, undertake a vigorous public campaign to emphasize the importance of English competency to entering and existing workforce members. Such a campaign should point out that mastery of English enables access to global knowledge and wider economic opportunities.
Encourage television and radio stations to use more English in their programs. (Immediate action OP, DepEd, NEDA, and private sector) J. Recognize high schools and tertiary schools and students who score well on English tests. Schools should be assessed for their capacity to deliver quality English-language instruction given quality scores based on test results of their graduates. (Immediate action DepEd and private sector) K. Strengthen the Dual Education/Dual Technical System by expanding scholarships and involving the private sector in curriculum development and internships. (Immediate action DOLE and TESDA) L. Universities and Colleges should allow students in the second half of their studies to spend longer periods in companies (expand the internship period) to prepare them better for employment. (Immediate action CHED and private sector)
Based on what they have found out, the poorest are the individuals that can’t afford to bring their children to school. Also, they show in their survey that the dropout rates from rural area are much higher than in urban area. This is because some schools in rural area are far from the communities where people live. Also the schools are lack of teachers and materials that can provide good education. So many reasons of dropping out and our government are not stopping in finding solutions regarding this problem. But still it was the very big problem in our country today. So many changes have tried but still the dropout rates are keep on increasing as our country develop. They keep on changing the curriculum, and hoping that it will help to decrease the dropout rate but it’s not.
Why should these still our problem? As a teacher I experience so many problems in each student. Student’s dropout merely a result of a much broader problem of our country. Our children of today are the one who’s suffering from the situations that our ancestors had been created before. The government still can’t provide everything that our school needs. As the students population increase the budget and the materials are just the same numbers. Though some change but still they are not enough. The department is currently having the K to 12 System, adding additional year in high school with a vocational training for Grade 11 and Grade 12. We also have the Alternative Learning System that helps overage students, working students to have a chance to finish their study. But these is not the only solution to prevent the continue increasing of dropouts. We all should learn to respect and love each individual in our country. Even the poorest among the poor. Help them so that every one of us can have a beautiful life ahead.
Joint Foreign Chambers Advocacy Paper ARANGKADA PHILIPPINES 2010: A BUSINESS PERSPECTIVE
Raya, Rene R. (2007) The Missed education of the Filipino People
Albert, JR G., Quimba, FM A., Ramos, AP E., Almeda J P. Profile of Out of School Children in the Pilippines Discussion paper series no. 2012-01
Kid Source : http://www.kidsource.com/kidsource/content4/youth.drop.out.html
National Center for Education Statistics: http://nces.ed.gov
Bureau of Secondary Education (BSE), of the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS), and SEAMEO INNOTECH. Project EASE Effective and Affordable Secondary Education
Dr. Rizal Buendia, Dr. Julieta Gregorio, Ms. Regina A. Molera, Dr. Benjamina G. Flor, Mr. Benjamin Vergel de Dios, Mr. Joel Wayne Ganibe, Mr. Arman G. Balonkita, Mr. Carlone Dawang and Mr. Nestor Mirandilla Philippine Education Sector Assessment Project
A senior high school dropout in my opinion is any student who failed to complete the full educational cycle which was designed for them. A senior high school dropout is simply anyone who did not complete the educational cycle designed for them. They stop schooling along the line for various reasons making them dropouts. They do not graduate since they didn’t finish the cycle. There are so many reasons that cause students to drop out of school and this will be discussed in the paragraphs below. In Ghana, one of the main causes of the rise in senior high school dropout rate is the issue of poverty. Many people drop out of school due to poverty rate. In Ghana, many children are out of school mainly because their parents or guidance cannot afford to pay for their school fees and other basic requirements that they need, leaving them no choice but for them to drop out of school.
Since most of our senior high schools in Ghana practise the boarding house system there are certain things that the school requires that every student must bring. Students from poor homes who cannot afford these things are forced to stay out of school to prevent any form to embarrassment. Poverty has denied so many children the right to education. The standard of living of living in Ghana is very low, while the cost of living is very high making it very difficult for parents to provide the basic needs of their children and also funding their schooling. Children from such poor homes have no choice than to drop out of school and support their family by engaging in some activities to help raise money for the family. Some of the activities that the children find themselves doing maybe legal or illegal, but more often than not the kind of things they find themselves doing are more of illegal than legal since it is very hard to come by legal jobs without strong qualifications. This then leads to an obvious effect of child delinquency and social misfits in countries that threaten the lives of innocent victims in the society. The lives of innocent citizens are then endangered.
This gives the government another burden of trying to fight such social menaces. Huge sums of money are used by government to ensure that they are captured and punished as well as to protect the lives of the innocent ones. These children who are now placing the lives other citizens at risk could have been of greater help to the society if they had enjoyed education. Another thing that causes the rise in senior high school dropout is family problems. Family problems have denied many students the opportunity to enjoy education. Many a time’s children from broken homes normally drop out of school for various reasons. Children from homes that have issues or are broken normally go through a tough time in school and if care is not taken eventually drop out of school.
If a child comes from a home with problems there are so many things that can eventually cause the child to drop out of school. Divorce, lack of supervision, death of the bread winner, large family size, catering for a sick family member, etc can all cause a student to drop out of school. Divorce has caused many children to drop out school simply because both parents sometimes fail to take responsibility of the child. This leaves the child no option than to drop out of school since none of the parents are unwillinging to pay the fees and continue to play the blame game. Large family sizes also sometimes result in school dropout. If the size of the family is too large some of them will be likely to drop out of school if the parents go into financial crisis, and it’s mostly the one in the higher grade that is asked to drop out. A student maybe asked to drop out of school to cater for a sick family member or old family member. In Ghana , since there aren’t any ‘homes’ for the old ,children are assigned to take care of old parents or grandparents or sick family members.
The child will be forced to drop out of school to perform this duty. Also due to the unrevised nature of the public junior high school system, students most a times find themselves wanting in academic preparedness towards senior high school education. It is understood that students who are privileged enough to afford private junior high school are mostly not found wanting when the need arises in furthering their senior high school education since diligence was taken to teach them the basic core( math, science, and English ) as compared to their counterparts in the public sector. Therefore it wouldn’t be surprising to realize most of those children drop out along the way due to their inability to comprehend with the teaching module. They become emotionally distressed for fear of being mocked, teased, and shun by their friends.
They begin to feel insecure and unhappy and very timid. They dropout eventually drop out of school. Peer pressure is another cause of the high rising of school dropout. Many students are influenced by their friends to skip school and engage in other unnecessary activities such as; playing of video games, watching movies, playing cards, going for parties etc.Once they start engaging in these activities they tend to get addicted to it and keep on skipping school hours to engage in these activities, causing them to fail in their grades and finally dropping out. Peer pressure also encourages most of these teenagers to rather dropout of school to engage in devious acts to gain easy and fast money.
These teenagers tend to be more convinced that gaining money is better than wasting time in school so they follow their mischievous friends and drop out to engage in activities like the popular known fraudulent act called”sakawa” or petty theft which upgrades to armed robbery and killers with time. However people dropout of school also because of minor reasons like engaging in family business to earn money fast instead of wasting time in school. On the other hand most of the females also dropout due to the unfortunate incident of pregnancy which makes them early parents, so they rather dropout to work for the baby, cater for it, or just to avoid disgrace. Other unfortunate reasons why they dropout is because of harsh treatment from school peers or seniors either in the form of bullying,teasing,mockery etc. In the above paragraphs, reasons, causes and the effect of the rate of high school dropout has been clearly examined and detailed.
If there is one thing that makes or breaks an individual – it is his education. Schools, where children study, learn and prepare for life, thus need to provide the right kind of environment so that students can get an education properly.
In schools, students are taught languages, mathematics, science, history and a number of other subjects. They get to participate in sports activities, socialize with their peers and learn how to adapt themselves in different social situations. However, an impediment in the path of the child development at schools, comes by way of the various social issues that plague our education system.
Social Issues in Education
Emotional Issues Society has changed considerably in the last few decades. Today, the divorce rate is very high in America and many school going children are brought up in single parent families. Growing up in broken homes can adversely affect the emotional health of a student and this may lower his performance at school. However, even when children are brought up in homes where both parents are present, it’s not necessary that there emotional needs will be met, as in majority of families today, both the parents are working.
Ethnic Issues Children belonging to certain ethnic groups such as blacks, are expected to be slower learners as compared to others. There are certain stereotypes that have been attached to specific races and, children belonging to them, suffer from low self-esteem.
Gender Issues Another social issue in education is differentiation on the basis of sex. Girls have lesser opportunities, compared to boys for studying, in certain sections of the society. Expectations from girls to score high in studies or study further, are less too.
Economic Issues Some social issues arise due to the economic strata a student belongs to. Students who belong to poor families, go to public schools which are not so well equipped with technology. This automatically puts them at a disadvantage, when compared to the students who go to some good private schools.
Cultural Issues Students belonging to immigrant families, may not be well versed with English language. This creates a barrier in communication between students and teachers and thus, such students are not able to receive proper education.
Ethical Issues There are certain ethical issues in education which too, affect students such as – whether to allow cell phones in school or not, should school uniforms be made compulsory, etc.
Impact of Social Issues in Education
According to the “Education Research Center, United States”, around 7,000 high school students, drop out of school every day! The high drop out rates are propelled by social issues in education as mentioned above. These issues basically have two kinds of impact – firstly, the student’s performance suffers and secondly, the teacher’s expectations do not remain the same for everybody. That’s why certain political issues on education have been raised to deal with these social problems.
The government is running various bilingual programs in schools, where majority of students belong to immigrant families. This helps them learn English and other subjects faster. Secondly, the government has come up with “private-school vouchers”, with the help of which students of public schools can attend private schools to get a superior education.
Some current issues in education with regards to politics, that require immediate attention by policy makers are – Providing family and medical leave to all working parents so that they can spend quality time with their children, providing financial support to low-income families and single mothers, giving scholarships to teachers to study further and running training programs for them and lastly, taking steps to prevent the spread of HIV, STDs among adolescents.
The government has to make certain policies and see to it that they are implemented properly, to tackle these issues. Besides political will, a change in society’s attitude is needed too, to ensure that these issues do not arise any further.
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