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Water is extremely important for developing nations, such as India. Water is a basic resource which supports economic growth and maintains daily life. Water crisis referring to scarcity of freshwater resources has become one of the major challenges throughout the world. This has resulted from many interrelated issues such as population explosion, and climate change.
The global population has increased from 3 to 7 billion people in five decades placing considerable pressure on water resources. It is estimated that by 2025, 67% of the global population will face moderate to high water stress and half of the population will be suffering constraints in their water supply .
India, as one of the largest countries in the world with a population of 1.2 billion, can be classified as a hot tropical country.
A large proportion of the Indian population lack access to safe drinking water, and as a result of growing population, this situation has deteriorated. UNICEF reported that the utilisable water for human use (654 ) billion cubic metres (BCM)) is very close to the current actual water use (634 BCM); these figures indicate an imminent alarming situation in this country.
Poor management and overexploitation of groundwater by all sectors in the absence of adequate regulation and effective pricing instruments severely impact water-scarce areas.
Domestic water demand accounts for 80 percent of groundwater use, and the situation to worsen over the coming years. Additionally, A considerable amount of the total water consumption is for residential use. The increase demand for water has put pressure on water supply system, which has lead to environmental problems such as overexploitation of water resources, and breaks in the balance of the ecosystem.
The increase in the demand for water has created more wastewater. It places a burden on wastewater plants. Improvements in household water efficiency could reduce the pressure upon water supply and waste water treatment. Water efficiency does not mean controlling the water supply but its sustainable water use, which will reduce wastage.
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