Using Network Simulation To Investigate Network Technology Computer Science Essay

Network simulation is a method of probe in web engineering. In the procedure of look intoing a new engineering, due to assorted grounds, it is dearly-won and unrealistic to physically prove a web system. In such state of affairs, simulation becomes one of the best available solutions in proving, rating and proof. Network simulation has the characteristics of little rhythm and low cost, and it is easier for research workers to utilize other ‘s research, in order to concentrate on the peculiar portion and no demand to blow excessively much clip on other portion of the system.

NS2 is a simulation platform that is developed in free unfastened beginning for web engineerings. Research workers can easy utilize it for the development of web engineering. Until today, NS2 contains rich faculties that are about related to all facets of web engineering.

Wireless web communications obtained a rapid development in recent old ages. Ad hoc webs do non necessitate the support of overseas telegram substructure ; the communicating is achieved by free nomadic web hosts.

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The outgrowth of ad hoc web has promoted the accomplishment of the procedure of free communicating at any environment, at the same clip it has besides provided an effectual communicating solution of military, catastrophe alleviation and impermanent communications.

Sing the ad hoc web is invariably traveling, and the web topology is altering, therefore the traditional cyberspace routing protocols ( e.g. RIP, OSPF ) are non be able to accommodate into the existent demand of ad hot webs. Therefore there are many specialized routing protocols are designed for the ad hoc web, the purpose of this paper is to compare, analyse and measure the most popular routing protocols for ad hoc webs by running the simulation trial with NS2.

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“ A nomadic ad hoc web ( MANET ) , sometimes called a Mobile mesh web, is a self-configuring web of nomadic devices connected by wireless links. ”

Along with the desire of get rid of the wired web restraints and be able to pass on at any clip and any topographic point, radio web communications obtained a rapid development in recent old ages. Mobile communications can be achieved by portable computing machines with wireless interface equipped and PDAs. Most current nomadic communications require a wired substructure, e.g. base station. To be able to pass on without fix substructure, a new web engineering – Ad Hoc web engineering arises at the historic minute. Ad hoc webs do non necessitate the support of overseas telegram substructure ; the communicating is achieved by free nomadic web hosts. The outgrowth of ad hoc web has promoted the accomplishment of the procedure of free communicating at any environment, at the same clip it has besides provided an effectual communicating solution of military, catastrophe alleviation and impermanent communications.

Each device in a MANET is free to travel independently in any way, and will therefore alter its links to other devices often. Each must frontward traffic unrelated to its ain usage, and hence be a router. The primary challenge in constructing a MANET is fiting each device to continuously keep the information required to decently route traffic.

Such webs may run by themselves or may be connected to the larger Internet.

Ad-hoc web was originally used in the military field. With the developments of radio webs, it has begun the development in the civilian Fieldss. A nomadic ad-hoc web does non necessitate any substructures, any node can rapidly and automatically organize the web, and each node can travel freely and is able to fall in or go forth the web at any clip. The features and advantages of fast deployment, impregnability makes nomadic ad-hoc going more and more widely used in either military or civilian Fieldss.

In recent old ages, as the emerging radio communicating web, Ad-hoc is bit by bit pulling more attending of the industry and go a research hot spot. Ad-hoc networking supports flexible and convenient communicating without the support of substructure, this technique broadens the Fieldss of nomadic communications and has a bright hereafter.

Ad hoc web can be regarded as the cross of nomadic communicating and computing machine web. In ad hoc webs, computing machine web package exchange mechanism is used instead than circuit exchanging mechanism. Communication hosts are normally portable computing machine, personal digital helpers ( PDA ) and other nomadic devices. Ad Hoc web is different from nomadic IP web in the current Internet environment. In nomadic IP webs, nomadic hosts can associate and entree the web through fixed wired web, radio nexus and dial up nexus, and in ad hoc web, these is merely a radio nexus connexion. In nomadic IP webs, the communicating demand to be supported by next base Stationss and still utilizing the traditional cyberspace routing protocol, nevertheless, ad hoc webs do non hold the support of these installations. In add-on, a nomadic host in the nomadic IP web is merely an ordinary terminal device which does non hold routing map. When the nomadic host moves from one zone to another does non alter the web topology, and in Ad Hoc networks the motion of nomadic hosts would take to topology alteration.

The thesis is to research on the Ad-hoc networking manner and its web bed through simulation with NS2, chiefly focused on the comparing and analysis of the popular ad-hoc routing protocols. The purpose of this article is to research and develop on the cardinal engineering of self-configuring web – routing protocols, based on ad-hoc web construction.

Wireless Ad-Hoc web – Structure and Features

Ad Hoc radio web has its ain specialness, in the formation of existent usage of the working web, the application size, scalability and the dependability and real-time demands must be taken full history.

In add-on, due to the alone construction of the ad hoc web, the features of ad hoc web should be to the full considered when design and construct the web, which will assist us to plan a routing protocol that is suited for peculiar web construction in order to maximize the public presentation across the web.

Ad-hoc web Structure

Ad Hoc radio web topology can be divided into two sorts: Flat construction and hierarchal construction, in level web construction, all web nodes have equal position.

However, in the hierarchal construction of the Ad Hoc radio web topology, the whole web is composed of bunchs for the subnet, each bunch consists of a bunch caput and multiple bunch members, the bunch caputs forms a higher degree web. Each bunch caput and bunch members are dynamic and automatic networking. The hierarchy is based on different hardware constellations, and hierarchal construction can be divided into single-band and multi-band categorization construction. Single set hierarchy usage individual frequence in communicating, all nodes use the same frequence. But in multi-band hierarchy, if there are two webs in different degrees exist, the lower degree web has a smaller communicating scope and higher degree web has a larger communicating scope, bunch members use the same frequence to pass on, cluster caput nodes uses one frequence to pass on with bunch members and another frequence to keep the communicating with bunch caputs.

There are advantages and disadvantages exist in either level or hierarchal web constructions: the construction of level construction web is simple, each node has an equal position, there are multiple waies exist in communicating of the beginning node and finish node, hence no web constrictions, and the web is comparatively safe. However, the biggest drawback is the limited web size, when the web graduated table spread outing, routing care overhead exponential growing and devour the limited bandwidth ; Hierarchical web construction is non limited by the graduated table of web, the scalability is good, and because of bunch, routing operating expense is comparatively smaller, although there is the demand of complex bunch caput choice algorithm in hierarchal construction, but because of hierarchal web construction with high system throughput, node localization of function is simple, hence ad hoc web is now progressively demoing rating tendency, many web routing algorithms proposed are based on the hierarchal web construction theoretical account.

Ad-Hoc web Features

Wireless ad hoc web is a combination of nomadic communications and computing machine webs, each node in the web have both router and host maps. The features of ad hoc webs in chiefly in the undermentioned countries:

Dynamically altering web topologies:

Ad Hoc webs have no fixed substructure and cardinal direction communications equipment, web nodes can randomly travel to any way in any velocity rate, coupled with the power alteration of radio sender device, the environment impact and the signal common intervention between each other, which all will ensue in dynamic alterations of the web topology.

Limited resources:

the working energy provided to the nomadic hosts in Ad Hoc webs are limited, and the nomadic host with more energy loss, will cut down the Ad Hoc web maps ; on the other manus, the web itself provides limited bandwidth and signal struggles and Interference, which consequences the nomadic host with limited available bandwidth which is usually far less than the theoretical upper limit bandwidth.

Multi-hop communicating:

if two web nodes are non in the same web coverage due to the limited resources available, multi-hop may be used in Ad Hoc web communicating, in order to accomplish the communicating between the beginning host and finish host which are non in the same web coverage.

Limited physical security:

the communicating of Ad Hoc web nodes are through the radio channel, the information transmitted is really vulnerable, and eavesdropping, retransmission, distort or forgery onslaught can be achieved easy, If routing protocol one time suffered the malicious onslaughts, the whole self-organizing webs will non work decently.

These characteristics of the Ad Hoc web have made a particular petition in the routing algorithm design. A sensible routing algorithm must take the factors of limited web resources, dynamic web topology alterations and better the web throughput into history.

Ad-Hoc Wireless web routing protocols

The cardinal issue in ad hoc web design is to develop a routing protocol that is able to supply high quality and high efficient communicating between two nodes. The mobility feature in the web makes the web topology invariably altering, the traditional cyberspace based routing protocol is unable to accommodate to these features therefore the routing protocol that is specialised for ad hoc webs is needed, Harmonizing to earlier on the Ad Hoc web architecture and characteristics described, the design of the routing protocol must run into the undermentioned conditions:

The demand of rapid response capableness for dynamic web topology, and seek to avoid routing cringles from happening, and supply simple and convenient web node localise method.

Must be expeditiously usage of the limited bandwidth resources, and seek to compact unneeded operating expense.

Restrict the figure of intermediate transportation during the execution of multi-hop, by and large non more than 3 times.

Must understate the launch clip and sum of launch informations, in order to salvage limited working energy.

In possible conditions, make the design of routing protocol with securities to cut down the possibility of being attacked.

Routing Protocols

Harmonizing to the specific features of ad hoc radio web routing protocols, in recent old ages, there are a assortment of ad hoc web routing protocols have been proposed. IETF ‘s MANET working group is presently focused on research Ad Hoc web routing protocols, and protocols many protocol bill of exchanges, such as DSR, AODV, ZRP etc. in add-on, the professional research workers besides published a extensively sum of articles related to Ad hoc web routing protocols and proposed many web routing protocols for the ad hoc webs, such as DSDV, WRP etc. Harmonizing to the routing trigger rule, the current routing protocols can be divided into three types: Proactive Routing protocol, Reactive routing protocol and Hybrid routing protocols.

Proactive Routing protocol

Proactive routing protocol is besides known as Table-driven routing protocol, each node maintains a routing tabular array that contains the routing information to make the other node, and updates the routing tabular array invariably harmonizing the web topology alterations, and hence the routing tabular array can accurately reflect the topology construction of the web. Once the beginning codification needs to direct messages, the path to the finish node can be instantly obtained. This type of routing protocol is normally modified from the bing wired web routing protocol to accommodate to the radio ad hoc web demands, such as the Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector protocol, which is modified from the Routing Information Protocol ( RIP ) . Therefore, this type of routing protocol has a little hold, but requires a batch of control message, the operating expense is big. Normally used proactive routing protocols include DSDV, HSR, GSR, WRP etc.

Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector ( DSDV )

DSDV avoids the coevals of routing cringles by set consecutive figure for each path, utilizing time-driven and event-driven engineering to command the transportation of routing tabular array, i.e. a routing tabular array is kept in each traveling node locally, it contains valid points, routing hops and finish routing consecutive figure etc. finish routing consecutive figure is used to separate old and new path to avoid routing cringles.

Each node sporadically sends the local routing tabular array to the neighbour nodes, or when the routing table alterations, the information will besides be passed to neighboring nodes, when there is no traveling nodes, use a larger package with longer interval to update the path. When the neighbouring node receives the information contains modified routing tabular array, it will foremost compare the consecutive figure of finish node, the routing with larger consecutive figure will be used and the 1 with smaller consecutive figure will be eliminated, and if the consecutive figure are the same, the best optimised path ( e.g. shortest way ) will be used.

Each node must sporadically interchange the routing information with next nodes, the routing information update is besides can be triggered by the alterations in routing tabular array. There are two ways to update the routing tabular array, Full shit, i.e. the topology update message will include the full routing tabular array, which is chiefly applied to the instance of fast changing web. Another manner is Incremental update, in which update message contains merely the changed portion in routing, such manner is normally used in a web with slower alterations.

Hierarchical State Routing ( HSR )

HSR is a routing protocol that is used in hierarchal web, nodes at a higher degree saves all the location information of its equals, logical sequence reference is assigned along from the root node at the highest degree to the foliage node at the lowest degree, node reference can be used by sequence reference.

Global State Routing ( GSR )

GSR protocol works similar with the DSDV mechanism, it uses link-state routing algorithm, but avoids the implosion therapy of routing packages, which includes an next node tabular array, web topology tabular array, following hop routing tabular array and the distance tabular array.

Wireless Routing Protocol ( WRP )

WRP is a distance-vector routing protocol, each node maintains a distance tabular array, routing tabular array, link overhead tabular array and package retransmission tabular array, through the Short Path Spanning Tree ( SST ) of the neighbouring node to bring forth its ain SST, and so convey updates. When there is no any alteration in the web routing, the receiving system node must return an idle message to demo the connexion, otherwise modify the distance tabular array to look for better path. The characteristic of this algorithm is that when any alterations of the neighbouring node is detected, and so checks the sturdiness of all next nodes in order to extinguish the cringle, has a faster convergence.

Reactive Routing Protocol

Reactive Routing protocol is besides known as on-demand routing protocol, it finds the path merely when needed. Nodes do non necessitate to keep routing information invariably, it will originate path look up merely when the package is need to be sent. Compare with proactive routing protocols, the operating expense of reactive routing protocol is smaller, but the package transmittal hold is larger, which means it is non suited for existent clip applications. Normally used reactive routing protocols include AODV, DSR, TORA and so on.

2.2.2 Dynamic Source Routing ( DSR )

“ DSR is designed to curtail the bandwidth consumed by control packages in ad hoc radio webs by extinguishing the periodic table-update messages required in table-driven attack. ”

DSR is composed of two chief mechanisms – Path Discovery and Route Maintenance. The Route Discovery mechanism is used when the beginning node needs to direct a package to the finish node but does non cognize the path.

When the beginning node is utilizing a beginning path to make the finish node, beginning node uses the path care mechanism to place the path that can non be used due to the topology alterations.

In DSR, path find and path care mechanisms are to the full on-demand operation, DSR does non necessitate any periodic routing broadcast packages and associate province sensing packages.

2.2.3 Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm ( TORA )

TORA is an adaptative distributed routing algorithm based on nexus reversal method, which is chiefly used for high-velocity dynamic multi-hop radio web. As a beginning initiated on-demand routing protocol, it is able to happen multi-paths from the beginning to the finish node. The chief features of TORA are, when topology alterations, the control message transmittal in local country of topology alterations merely. Therefore, the node merely needs to keep the information of next nodes. The protocol consists of three parts: path coevals, route care and path omission. In the low-level formatting phase, the transmittal sequence figure of the finish node is set to 0. The QRY package which contains the finish node ID broadcast by the beginning terminal and a node with a transmittal sequence figure that is non zero responses to the UDP package. The node that receives UDP package has the sequence figure higher than the beginning node by 1, and the node with higher sequence figure is set as the upstream node. Through this method, a Directed Acyclic Graph ( DAG ) from the beginning to the finish node can be created. When nodes move, paths need to be rebuilt. In the path omission stage, TORA removes the invalid path by airing a CLR. There is one job that exists with TORA, which is when multiple nodes returns to route choice and omission, routing oscillation will be produced.

2.2.4 Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing ( AODV )

AODV is an betterment to the DSDV algorithm, but the difference with DSDV is that it is a Reactive routing protocol. In order to happen the path taking to the finish node, the beginning terminal will air a routing petition package, and next in bend broadcast the package to the environing nodes until the package was sent to the finish node, or, to the intermediate node which has the routing information to the finish node. A node will fling duplicated petition package received, the consecutive figure of routing petition package is to forestall routing cringles, and is able to find whether the intermediate node has responses to the matching routing petitions. When a node forwards a path petition package, it will tag the ID of its upstream node into the routing tabular array, in order to construct a rearward path from the finish node to the beginning node. When the beginning terminal moves, it will re-initiate path find algorithm ; if the intermediate nodes move, so the next node will happen the nexus failure and direct the nexus failure message to its upstream node and spread the message all the manner to the beginning node, afterwards the beginning node re-launches the path find procedure harmonizing to the fortunes.

The accomplishment of AODV is a combination of DSR and DSDV protocols. It has the characteristics of path find and path care in DSR, and at the same clip use by-hop routing, sequence figure and Beacon messages that adopted in DSDV.

Hybrid Routing Protocol

In radio ad hoc webs, neither proactive nor reactive routing protocols entirely can work out the routing job wholly, hence intercrossed routing protocols which combines the advantage of both proactive and reactive protocols have been proposed by the research workers, such as the Zone Routing Protocol ( ZRP ) . ZRP is a combination of proactive and reactive routing protocols, all nodes within the web to themselves as the Centre of a practical zone, the figure of nodes in the country is related to the radius set of the zone, and the countries overlap, this is the difference with constellating routing. It uses proactive routing algorithm within the zone, the Centre node uses Intrazone Routing protocol to keep in the zone.

Literature Review

Network Simulation Tool

The platform that will be used in simulation is Windows XP Professional + Cygwin + NS2.

NS2 is a simulation platform that is developed in free unfastened beginning for web engineerings. Research workers can easy utilize it for the development of web engineering. Until today, NS2 contains rich faculties that are about related to all facets of web engineering. Since the release 2.26, NS2 has stopped support with Windows platforms, hence to acquire the latest NS2 running on the Windows XP, Cygwin is needed. Cygwin is an UNIX copycat on Windows platform.


Configure simulation platform

Normally, NS2 simulation can be divided into the undermentioned stairss:

1. Compose necessary constituents: i.e. add or take new constituents

2. Testing: trial whether the constituent composed is validated. When the constituent in the library satisfies the simulation needs ( e.g. simulation procedure based on bing protocols in the library ) , so the simulation starts from the 3rd measure.

3. Compose Otcl book file: configure the topology construction of the simulating web, and place the basic nexus characteristics, protocols that have been used by traveling nodes, and figure of nodes etc, and adhering the terminal device protocol, puting the scene and traffic burden of simulation ( TCP watercourse or CBR watercourse ) , puting simulation start and terminal clip etc, and set hint objects of the book file, hint file is the file that records all of the events of A simulation procedure, and besides can put the nam object at the same clip, nam is the tool to show the web running life.

4. Use NS bid to put to death book file: one time executed, *.tr file will be generated in the same directory of the book file, to enter the simulation consequences. if nam object is set in the book file, *.nam file will be generated in the same directory.

5. Analyse hint file: due to the big size of hint file, we will necessitate to compose gawk plan to treat the informations after simulation ( calculate package bringing day of the month, routing overload, and throughput etc ) , so utilize the drawing tools to bring forth the graph for direct analysis.

In NS2 the authoritative routing protocols such as DSDV, DSR, TAORA and AODV are already integrated ; the beginning codification of routing protocols is located in C: cygwinhomeAdministrators-allinone-2.34s-2.34, show in figure 1.1

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Take AODV as an illustration ( fig. 1.2 ) , within the ADOV booklet, and aodv.h are the most of import files, they defines the chief functional characteristics. Under general fortunes, we do non necessitate to modify the beginning codification of the protocols.

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Fig.1.2 AODV Routing Protocol

Simulation scripting

Harmonizing to the simulation theoretical account designed, each routing protocol ( DSDV, DSR, AODV, and TORA ) will be compared in little ( 20 nodes ) and medium ( 50 nodes ) ad hoc radio web. The corresponding books composed are: dsdv.tcl, dsr.tcl, aodv.tcl and tora.tcl ( see appendix ) .

Taking aodv.tcl as an illustration, the cryptography is show in fig.3.2.1

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Partial books in aodv.tcl

Some script account of most of import codifications in aodv.tcl

set val ( ifq ) Queue/DropTail/PriQueue ;

# Interface waiting line

set val ( nn ) 50 ;

# Number of nodes in simulation scenario

set val ( rp ) AODV ;

# Routing protocol to be simulated

set val ( halt ) 300

# Simulation clip length

set val ( x ) 500 ;

# Length of scene

set val ( Y ) 500 ;

# Width of scene

set val ( tr )

# Output hint file

set val ( nam ) out50.nam

# Output nam file

set opt ( cp ) “ cbr50 ”

# Stream file

set opt ( Sc ) “ scen50 ”

# Scene file

In add-on, write the undermentioned statement in script caput to bring forth a simulation ns_ object:

set ns_ [ new Simulator ]

Tracking the file object is used to stipulate the Trace file ( extension ) in recording of the simulation informations. NS2 supports record application bed, routing bed, MAC bed and node motion those four types of informations in difference beds. The information that needs to be recorded can be specified in scenes in the simulation procedure. The information in of each bed that hint object specified are all recorded in the hint file, labels are added to separate them. In add-on, NS2 besides supports NAM tool simulation procedure visual image, such map demands to bring forth the NAM hint file object to stipulate the hint file of records of simulation informations. The undermentioned statements are used to bring forth those two trace file object described.

# Generate hint file:

$ ns_use-newtrace

set tracefd [ unfastened tungsten ] ;

$ ns_trace-all $ tracefd

# Generate NAM hint file object:

set namtracefd [ unfastened out50.nam tungsten ]

$ ns_namtrace-all-wireless $ namtracefd $ val ( x ) $ val ( Y )

Data Stream Generation Tool

Data watercourse coevals tool cbrgen is used to bring forth traffic tonss, which can bring forth the TCP steam and CBR steam. Cbrgen.tcl file ( see appendix ) can be used as followers:

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Codes are defined as followers:


# TCP watercourse or CBR watercourse


# Number of nodes


# Specify figure of random seeds


# Maximum connexion of each node


# Overload of each watercourse connexion

The format is used as followers:

ns cbrgen.tcl [ -type cbr|tcp ] [ -nn nodes ] [ -seed seed ] [ -mc connexions ] [ -rate rate ]

Movement Scene

./setdest is used to randomly bring forth the nodes motion scene needed signifier radio web, used as following ( 2 versions ) :

./setdest -v & lt ; 1 & gt ; -n & lt ; nodes & gt ; -p & lt ; pause clip & gt ; -M & lt ; max velocity & gt ; -t & lt ; simulation

clip & gt ; -x & lt ; max X & gt ; -y & lt ; max Y & gt ;


./setdest -v & lt ; 2 & gt ; -n & lt ; nodes & gt ; -s & lt ; velocity type & gt ; -m & lt ; min velocity & gt ; -M & lt ; max velocity & gt ; -t

& lt ; simulation clip & gt ; -P & lt ; pause type & gt ; -p & lt ; pause clip & gt ; -x & lt ; max X & gt ; -y & lt ; max Y & gt ;

Which “ velocity ” type set to uniform/normali?? ” intermission type ” set to constant/uniform.

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NAM life

The NAM map is used to run the life of specific hint end product format, the end product file can be based on existent or fake environment. For illustration, the hint file that is from the end product of NS simulator.

The bids to command to command NAM life in NS2 as following: nam out.nam

1. Node

$ node colour [ colour ]

Puting the coloring material of node

$ node form [ form ]

Puting form of node

$ node label [ label ]

Puting name of node

$ node label-color [ lcolor ]

Puting expose coloring material of node name

$ node label-at [ ldirection ]

Puting show location of node name

$ node add-mark [ name ] [ colour ] [ form ]

Add note

$ node delete-mark [ name ]

Delete note

2. Link and Queue

$ ns duplex-link & lt ; attribute & gt ; & lt ; value & gt ;

property: orientaˆ?coloraˆ?queuePosaˆ?label


Use the undermentioned bids to do the agent you wish to expose appears as AgentName in the box.

$ ns add-agent-trace

$ Agent AgentName

The parametric quantities of motion scene and node flow are in the tabular arraies shown below:

Parameter of node motion scene:


Number of nodes

Traveling scope

Resting clip

Simulation clip

Valuess set

20, 50

500 ten 500 m

1 s

300 s

Parameter of node motion scene:


Maximum traveling velocity

Packet size

Node communicating distance

Type of service

Valuess set

5, 10, 15, 10, 25, 30-50

512 byte

250 m

Cosmic background radiation

Trace file analysis

Performance parametric quantity analysis theoretical account

The index to mensurate the public presentation of ad hoc web routing protocol is normally including qualitative index and quantitative index. Qualitative index describes the overall public presentation of a peculiar facet of the web, such as the security, distribution operation, supply loop free path and whether to back up individual channel etc. and quantitative indexs can depict the public presentation of a certain facet of the web in more inside informations. The quantitative index of package bringing ratio, mean terminal to stop hold and throughput etc are frequently used to mensurate the public presentation of web routing protocols.

a. Packet bringing ratio: is a ratio of the figure of package sent from the beginning node and the figure of package that have been received by finish node in the application bed, which non merely describes the loss rate observed in the application bed, but besides reflect the maximal throughput supported by the web. It is the index of routing protocol completeness and rightness.

End to stop mean hold:

it can be calculated with the undermentioned equation, which N represent the packages successfully delivered, rt represents the clip that package reached the finish node, and st represent package directing clip.

Routing operating expense:

Routing operating expense is the entire figure of control packages of all paths, in a multi-hop routing each hop transmittal is tantamount to one package transmittal. Routing overhead can be used to compare the scalability, the ability to accommodate to web congestion and the efficiency of different routing protocols. It can be calculated with the undermentioned expression:

Routing overhead = The Entire figure of routing control packages

Gawk codification

The end product file generated in simulation analysis will be filtered by choosing all of the packages in Agent bed, cipher all the figure of informations packages sent by this bed and the figure of informations packages that has been successfully received, and so split the figure of packages received by the figure of package sent, in order to acquire the package bringing rate. Use awk bid could acquire the information of package bringing rate, terminal to stop mean hold, routing operating expense, the lout book is shown below:

BEGIN { sendpacket = 0 ;

recvpacket = 0 ;


$ 0 ~/^s. * AGT/ { sendpacket ++ ; # Calculate the figure of packages sent


$ 0 ~/^r. * AGT/ { recvpacket ++ ; # Calculate the figure of packages received


END { printf “ cbr send: % 500 recv: % vitamin D, getRatio: % .4f ” , sendpacket,

recvpacket, ( recvpacket/sendpacket ) ;


awk -f avdelay.awk & gt ; avdelay

awk -f getratio.awk & gt ; getratio

awk -f routeload.awk & gt ; routeload

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Use of Gnuplot:

In obtaining the desired informations, we can utilize the pulling tool Gnuplot to plot the quantitative informations curve.

Through lading files to get down graph secret plan, run burden “ gnuplot.plt.

gnuplot & gt ; load “ gnuplot.plt

Obtain the package bringing rate and analysis chart of 50 nodes. We should modify the co-ordinates, scale size and informations file name in plotting, and highlight the cardinal points.

Gnuplot.plt codification is shown below:

unset xtics # maintain all other things simple

set beginning 0,0

set multiplot

set rubric “ Paeket Delivery Fraetion ”

set xlabel “ velocity ( m/s ) ”

set ylabel “ Paeket Delivery Fraetion ( % ) ”

set xtics 5.0

set ytics 1000.0

set xrange [ 0:50 ]

set yrange [ 0:7000 ] # the two axes scale scope are equal

set cardinal top left

set cardinal box

# ===================================================

set size 0.5,0.5

set beginning 0,0.5

secret plan “ 50MR.txt ” utilizing 1:2 rubric “ aodv ” tungsten lp lt 3 lw 2 platinum 3 PS 2

# The first chart occupies the top left one-fourth of the screen.

set size 0.5,0.5

set beginning 0,0

secret plan “ 50MR.txt ” utilizing 1:3 rubric “ dsdv ” tungsten lp lt 4 lw 2 platinum 4 PS 2

# The 2nd chart occupies the bottom left one-fourth of the screen

set size 0.5,0.5

set beginning 0.5,0.5

secret plan “ 50MR.txt ” utilizing 1:4 rubric “ dsr “ w LP lt 5 lw 2 platinum 5 PS 2

# The 3rd chart occupies the top right one-fourth of the screen

set size 0.5,0.5

set beginning 0.5,0

secret plan “ 50MR.txt ” utilizing 1:5 rubric “ tora ” tungsten lp lt 6 lw 2 platinum 6 PS 2

# The forth chart occupies the bottom right one-fourth of the screen

# =====================================================

unset multiplot

Simulation consequences comparing and analysis

Delivery rate comparing of each protocol

Fig. 1.1.1 and fig 1.1.2 are demoing the comparing of package bringing rate for each protocol in instance of velocity altering in a little ( 20 nodes ) and medium ( 50 nodes ) scaled ad hoc web individually. The full simulation stopping points for 300 seconds. The horizontal axis is the node mobility velocity ( m/s ) , and the perpendicular axis is the value of packet bringing rate.

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Fig.1.1.1: Package Delivery Rate of each routing protocol in a little ad hoc web ( 20 nodes )

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Analysis of above charts

In most instances, due to the frequent move of nodes, the routing tabular array in the proactive routing protocol mechanism DSDV, will frequently go invalid hence unable to place the available paths which leads package loss.

As the velocity additions, the web topology alterations more and more violent, there must be a great addition in figure of route update packages in the radio channels of the web, particularly in routing protocol DSDV, as the tabular array content is need to be updated every clip the topology alterations.

The mechanism of reactive routing protocols ( AODV, DSR, and TORA ) is better in suppressing the possible fortunes of routing table entries failure. The path established merely when a package is needed to be sent. Therefore the sensitiveness of reactive routing protocols to the web topology alterations is much lower than proactive routing protocols.

Therefore, in radio ad hoc web, the package bringing rate in proactive routing protocol ( DSDV ) is lower than reactive routing protocols ( AODV, DSR and TORA ) . This consequence is agrees good with the old routing protocol analysis.

In add-on, we besides found in each protocol that in the little ad hoc web ( 20 nodes ) , the package bringing rate gets higher when the nodes are traveling at a higher velocity ; but in the medium ad hoc web ( 50 nodes ) , the package bringing rate is lower when the node motion velocity gets higher.

The ground for this result may be: the greater web burden leads more node energy ingestion ; the energy runs out before the packages arrived, which led to a batch of package loss, hence result a important decrease in successfully received figure of packages.

Analysis of Average terminal to stop hold

Graphs fig.1.2.1 and fig 1.2.2 are demoing the comparing of mean end-to-end hold of each protocol in instance of velocity changing, for little ( 20 nodes ) and medium ( 50 nodes ) wireless ad hoc webs individually. The full procedure of each protocol lasts for 300 seconds.

The horizontal axis represents the traveling velocity of nodes ( in m/s ) , and perpendicular axis is the mean end-to-end hold ( in MS ) .

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Fig. 1.2.1

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Fig.1.2.2 Average terminal to stop hold of each routing protocol in a medium ad hoc web ( 50 nodes )

Analysis of end-to-end mean hold graph for each routing protocol

We have found that in the little ad hoc web ( 20 nodes ) , proactive routing protocol ( DSDV ) has the smallest end-to-end mean hold, and the reactive routing protocol ( AODV, DSR and TORA ) has a bigger hold. The ground of this is that when the proactive routing protocol ( DSDV ) needs to direct a package, it gets the path straight from seeking the routing tabular array, hence gets a smaller hold ; in add-on, this possibly related to the web topology and web scene every bit good.


DSR, AODV and TORA are reactive routing protocols, which look up the paths merely when a package is needed to be sent, hence with a larger hold.

At the same clip, we can see from the graph of medium ad hoc web ( 50 nodes ) , at a higher velocity, proactive routing protocol ( DSDV ) end-to-end mean hold additions and gets even higher than reactive routing protocol ( TORA ) . Therefore the hold of proactive routing protocol ( DSDV ) increases along with the addition of web overload and velocity of node motion.

In add-on, the motion velocity addition led frequent topology alterations, which make the end-to-end mean hold of each routing protocol comparatively addition.

Routing overhead comparing of each routing protocol

In add-on, the motion velocity addition led frequent topology alterations, which make the end-to-end mean hold of each routing protocol comparatively addition.

Graphs fig.1.3.1 and fig 1.3.2 are demoing the comparing of routing operating expense of each protocol in instance of velocity changing, for little ( 20 nodes ) and medium ( 50 nodes ) wireless ad hoc webs individually. The full procedure of each protocol lasts for 300 seconds. In the graph generated, the horizontal axis represents the velocity of node motion ( in m/s ) , and perpendicular axis represents the routing overhead ( unit: figure of routing package )

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Fig.1.3.1: routing overhead comparing of each protocol in little ad hoc web ( 20 nodes ) .

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Fig. 1.3.2: routing overhead comparing of each protocol in medium ad hoc web ( 50 nodes ) .

DSDV is a proactive routing protocol, in the medium sized ad hoc web ( 50 nodes ) , nodes sporadically exchange routing information, and fundamentally its operating expense is non much influenced by the node motion. Under the same motion velocity, reactive routing protocols ( DSR, AODV and TORA ) has a higher routing overhead than DSDV, TORA has the biggest operating expense among them. With the velocity addition, the operating expense of on-demand routing protocols are acquiring higher and higher, but in contrast, the operating expense of proactive routing protocol DSDV is on the diminution, the chief ground buttocks is that the procedure of routing petition in reactive protocols corresponds to one path needed, and gets merely one path each clip, but the routing information updates in proactive protocols broadcasts all the waies, hence multiple paths can be found in one update ; hence reactive routing protocol has a larger operating expense, and at the same clip the addition of node motion velocity besides increases the figure of route find procedure in reactive routing protocol, which leads the rise of routing operating expense.

A But in DSDV protocol, the motion velocity addition shows its advantage, the routing overhead diminutions. This is because that TORA, DSR and AODV are all on-demand routing protocols, their costs will diminish with the lessening of node motion, but increases with the addition of web burden.

The operating expense of routing protocol TORA consists of two parts, one portion is changeless operating expense that is non related to the traveling velocity of nodes, and the other portion is variable operating expense that is associated with the motion of nodes. The first portion is chiefly harmonizing to the Directed Acrylic Graph of construction, one time Directed acrylic graph established, there may be a multiple path available from the beginning node to the finish node. Therefore the operating expense is chiefly on the directed acrylic graph care, this mechanism requires the node send at least one Hello package in each signal rhythm.

And the 2nd portion is the routing packages for TORA to bring forth and keep the paths, and the retransmission and verification packages of MEP to guarantee the dependable sequence transmittal.

Therefore TORA has a comparatively larger operating expense, the routing overhead additions significantly in the beginning phase with the node speed addition.

DSR uses hoarding engineering and assorted response manner to listen to the routing petition packages, and therefore greatly reduces the routing operating expense.

AODV has the similar features with DSR, the public presentation is besides similar, and both routing operating expense is comparatively low.


In the study, we have been tracking on the Ad hoc Network research, and utilize this as theoretical counsel for a systematic survey. With the work demands of this thesis, we have conducted a quantitative analysis for the four typical ad hoc routing protocols that have been proposed ( DSDV, AODV, DSR, TORA ) .

Familiar with the basic NS2 simulation procedure and convey out the simulation with those for sorts of routing protocols.

Planing simulation stairss and simulates in NS2 simulation package based on theoretical analysis, compared the public presentation of four bing ad hoc routing protocols. And made a comparing of quantitative analysis, and eventually give a decision.

In the experiment, the Numberss of nodes were set to 20 and 50 to stand for the little and average ad hoc web, and in the fortunes of velocity alterations in 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 ( m/s ) , quantitatively analysed and compared the package bringing rate, end-to-end mean hold and routing operating expense of each routing protocol through the simulation experiment. From the analysis of consequences, we can clearly see that because of the different protocol mechanisms, each protocol has the corresponding advantages and disadvantages in different public presentation indexs.

In general, reactive routing protocols ( DSR, AODV, TORA ) particularly DSR and AODV have comparatively higher package bringing rate, while the package bringing rate of DSDV is influenced by the web burden. In footings of end-to-end hold, DSDV has the lowest mean hold ; and in footings of operating expense, DSDV remains changeless as it is non much affected by the web burden.

Routing operating expense of TORA additions with the addition of node figure and node motion velocity.

Due to the diverseness of application environments of ad hoc radio webs, ensuing the chase of different demands of public presentation. For illustration, the system ‘s survivability, privacy and confidentiality is more concerned in the military Fieldss ; but in radio nomadic conference systems, the terminal to stop hold and package bringing success rate is more stressed.

From the research and simulation consequences of above four types of routing protocols, we can see that different routing protocols has its ain advantages and disadvantages, and therefore accommodate to different web environment.

However, the hope to hold one routing algorithm to work out all the ad hoc web routing jobs, and go the standard understanding of ad hoc routing protocol seems unrealistic at the current phase. The optimum routing algorithm should be selected based on the specific application environment. The Hybrid routing algorithm combines the advantages of both proactive and reactive routing protocols and its built-in flexibleness, therefore has a good application chances.


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Section 4 – Simulation

Through NS2 simulation consequences, quantitatively analyse and compare the public presentation of assorted routing protocols.

Procedure of ad hoc simulation with NS2

Routing protocol comparing and public presentation analysis

Simulation constellation and parametric quantities scripting

Procedure of simulation consequences files

Simulation theoretical account parametric quantities and public presentation indexs

Simulation conditions

Calculation of Performance indexs

Simulation procedure in inside informations

Generate traffic tonss

TCL scripting life simulation

Trace file analysis

Simulation consequences





Gnuplot graph analysis

Comparison of package bringing rate of each protocol

Average terminal to stop hold comparing of each protocol

Comparison of operating expense by velocity addition

Section Five – Decision

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Section Six – Future research waies and work chances

Section Seven – Mentions

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Samuel Pierre, A Michel Barbeau, A Evangelos Kranakis [ 2003 ] Ad-hoc, A Mobile, and wireless webs: Second International Conference

George Aggelou [ 2005 ] MobileA adA hocA webs: from radio LANs to 4GnetworksaˆZ

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Using Network Simulation To Investigate Network Technology Computer Science Essay. (2020, Jun 02). Retrieved from

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