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The paper will mainly investigate if there is a difference between using deductive and inductive approaches when teaching two classes of high school learners of English in Amman. To carry out this study the researcher will select two scientific sections of second secondary students in Sukaina Bent Al-Hussein School for Girls in Jabal Al- Hussein. The sections will be selected randomly out of total 270 populations. One section will be assigned to be taught the four conditional forms through applying deductive approach while another section will be assigned to have the same grammatical item using inductive approach.
Both classes are somehow similar in some aspects such as age, class size, stream, and level of education so there wouldn’t be such differences could affect the results. 40 participants for each section involved in the study.
Keywords: influence, deductive approach, inductive approach, conditional sentences, grammar, second secondary students, perception, attitude. When we either acquire our first language or learn another one, mastering some aspects of that language considered a crucial matter in order to comprehend and produce meaningful utterances.
Grammar is one of these aspects of any language that should be learned. English language serves many functions in Jordan as well as other countries; it is used as a key tool in technology, it also performs a major rule in education development in Jordanian schools.
An if- clause often refers to a condition – something which must happen so that something else can happen. If you get here before eight, we can catch the early train.
Clauses of this kind are often called ‘conditional’ clauses. Verb phrases with would/should are also sometimes called ‘ conditional’. Some students’ grammars concentrate on four common sentences structures with if , which are often called ‘zero’,’ first’, ‘second’ and ‘third’ conditionals. According to Nunan (2005) delivering new grammatical concepts can be done using two main ways deductive and inductive approaches. Deciding which way to adopt by a teacher rely on several factors; students’ proficiency, class size, and grammar items, etc.
According to H. Douglas Brown in his book Principles of Language Learning and Teaching (2014), he illustrated the main differences between deductive and inductive reasoning saying that: ‘Inductive and deductive reasoning are polar aspects of the generalization process. In the case of inductive reasoning, one stores a number of specific instances and induces a general law or rule or conclusion that governs or subsumes the specific instances.
Deductive reasoning is a movement from a generalization to specific instances: A general principle allows a person to infer specific facts.’ Students’ perspectives toward learning English as a foreign language (EFL) Students’ usually when learn a language set up a hypothesis toward this language. This hypothesis could be influenced by some factors such as anxiety, motivation, intelligence and attitude which is considered to be one of the most essential feature that manipulates students’ desire, and willingness toward learning that language.
Purposefully, I have chosen two specific studies that fulfill my paper’s needs. The First one conducted in Utrecht University, Netherland by Esther Berendse in 2012. 54 participants were included in this study, Pre and post-test design was implemented in her study, but the pre-test was different from post- test. T-test was used to determine whether any significant difference that could be found between the effectiveness of the deductive and inductive approach in learning the English past simple and present perfect tense by Dutch teenagers.
The result of her study was the deductive approach was more effective when teaching English tenses and it had an effect in long-term memory. Another recent study focused on the outcome of deductive and inductive approach in teaching direct object pronoun. This study was done by Kuder E in 2009 in Spain. The participants were 44 college students. The results of his study indicated that there was a slightly higher level of achievement as well as a higher level of satisfaction in the group exposed to the inductive lesson in comparison to the group exposed to the deductive lesson.
As non- native speakers, teachers and learners may all face some o0bstacles while teaching or even learning English grammar. Methods of teaching being adopted in the classroom to explain the intended grammar item could affect students’ achievement level positively or negatively, therefore in this study the researcher is going to look at the effectiveness of following deductive and inductive approaches to elaborate If –conditional for two sections of Jordanian high school learners of English as a foreign language.
Targets of the Study. As said earlier, the study will focus on showing the pros and cons of undertaking two approaches of teaching a grammar item to a scientific secondary grades students’. This study will also be beneficial to teachers in the sense that it will highlight the most useful methods can be followed in teaching grammar. Questions of the study. My study is looking for answering these questions: Do applying deductive and inductive approaches on second secondary students affect their level of achievements in grammar? Do applying deductive and inductive approaches on second secondary students affect their attitudes toward learning EFL?
The sample of the study is chosen randomly out of 270 participants. It includes (80) female students in Amman Educational Governorate during the scholastic year 2018/2019. However, the sample will be split equally into two groups; the control group and the experimental one. The earlier group is supposedly to be taught the selected grammar item following deductive approach, which is the most traditional way of explaining English grammar in the class room, whereas the latter group will be taught the same intended grammar aspect using inductive approach.
The following instruments are going to be applied on the research: In order to measure the differences in the students’ achievements level before applying each method of teaching for both groups, there will be a pair of achievement tests; pre-test which will be performed before explaining the expected grammar item. While post-test is used to measure if applying a method of teaching would have an influence on students’ achievements level. It is worth mentioning that both tests will be constructed by the researcher. To answer the second question of the study, a questionnaire is designed in order to reveal students’ attitudes and perspective toward EFL. The questionnaire will include 25 items in the form of Likert- scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. It will be submitted to the participants English. Introspective session will be held after the submission of the questionnaire to document students’ comments and opinions.
In order to decide whether there are differences between the outcomes of both groups before and after applying the intended method of teaching for each group, a paired sample of t- tests will be conducted. These tests are used to make a comparison between the means of two groups.
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