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# The Electrical Machines And Drives

## Question #1

### Torque-Speed Characteristics for Star-connection:

The diagram above shows that load vs speed is inversely proportional to each other and load, torque are directly proportional, when we increase load the torque also increase but speed decreases unless both synchronous and rotor speed become equal this is called pull-out.

### Current-Speed Characteristics for Star-connection:

The diagram above shows when there will be no load the speed and rotor current become equal. The load and stator current are directly proportional but load ise inversely proportional to load speed .

when we increase the load stator current increase but speed decreases.

### Torque-Speed Characteristics for Delta-Connection:

The graph above represents that when we increased the load speed start decrease but torque increases. That means load is inversely proportional to speed and directly proportional to the torque.

### Current-Speed Characteristics for Delta-Connection:

The graph shows both rotor and synchronous speed are same when there is no load and when load increases the speed decreases and current increases.

## QUESTION #2

### Power vs speed characteristic for star connection:

From above graph synchronous speed is equal to rotor speed on no load and load is inversely proportional to the speed but directly proportional to out put power.

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### Power-speed characteristic for Delta connection:

Given diagram shows that on no load both synchronous speed and rotor speed are equal and power is directly proportional to load and inversely proportional to the speed.

## QUESTION #3

### Efficiency-Speed Characteristic for star-connection:

In the given diagram it is clear that efficiency depends on load when it increases efficiency increases and when it d decreases the efficiency also decreases .

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At a point when load increases and reached to a value which is (1340 ) efficiency start decreasing.

### Efficiency-Speed Characteristic for Delta-connection:

In the graph it shows the efficiency depends on the speed with the increases in speed efficiency increases but at (1400) efficiency start decreases.

## QUESTION #4

### Power-Efficiency and speed Table for Star-case:

Table presents that with at point when speed reach to 1381 efficiency started fluctuating but output power constantly increases when speed decreases but overall with the decrease in speed efficacy increase and power increase. Maximum output power and maximum efficiency are 48.2 and 56.025 respectively at speed 1318.

### Power-Efficiency and speed Table for Delta-case:

Above table shows that for delta case with decrease in speed output power increases. At certain point when speed reached to 1410 then efficiency started decreasing otherwise its increase the increase in speed and maximum efficiency noted is 65.095.

## SIMILARTIES:

constantly increasing Maximum power is same for both.

## DIFFERENCE:

1. Difference in point when efficiency increases than started decrease at speed 1410.
2. Also maximum reading for both cases are different.

## QUESTION #5

Relation between the supply voltage and the produced mechanical torque for Y-case from the above table. when we increase the voltage, the torque increases also.

Relation between the supply voltage and the produced mechanical torque for for Delta-case:

From the reading above we found that with the increase in voltage the torque increases and as well voltage and speed are directly proportional to each other, torque is directly proportional to current if we increase voltage current will be less and supply voltage is decreases output torque will be high.

Speed and torque increase with the increase in voltage.

## CIRCUIT:

To calculate this formula We use voltage loop.

## QUESTION #6

Equivalent circuit of induction machine. It act like transformer secondary windings are moveable.

## Symbols:

Xm = (Magnetic Reactance) , X1 = (Stator Reactance) , X2 = (Rotor Reactance) , R2 = (Rotor Resistance)

R1 = (Stator Resistance) ,Rc = (Iron loss Resistance).

### Evaluation tests :1.DC TEST

Applying DC current to the winding terminals to measure the resistance of stator .We take the voltage readings and then. And mark them as equation 1.2 and 3. Upto 18.

Now calculating resistance average:

And the series resistance will be:

## ROTOR TEST:

The Secondary impedance is low and the magnetic circuit of locked rotor will be:

### And the reading will be:

Phase power & Phase voltage are as follows:

Now Calculate the Req ,Zeq and Xeq by the equation given above:

We get X2′ and R2′

At no load of induction motor, speed of rotor is equal to synchronous speed. Slip is small in this case and secondary impedance is high. No load circuit is below.

### And on no load we have:

The voltage Per phase power can be calculated by above reading:

## QUESTION #7:

Estimation of the per phase equivalent circuit of induction motor are as follows:

## QUESTION #8:

Equivalent circuit and torque versus speed and stator current versus speed characteristics:

## MATLAB CODING

CURRENT vs SPEED:

TORQUE vs SPEED:

In the graph it is almost similar to one in Q1. Speed is inversely proportional to current and torque .the Torque and Current increases when speed decreases.

## QUESTION #9:

calculating the different losses of induction motor:

## QUESTION #10:

### LITERATURE REVIEW OF ELECTRIC VEHICELS SID ( 9666560).

The first electric car was developed by parker in 1884 with the speed limit of up to 100km/h actually developed by jenatzy in 1899 the electric cars around and existed since the nineteenth century. He said in the beginning the automobile industry was took over by the petrol cars but when the crisis accrue in the oil industry in 1970, then the attraction to the electric car industry take hype again(1) .Different car brands produce manufacture electric cars again quantity in thousand but worse happen most of the car manufacturing companies recall there car from the market and dispose them all and there is a movies in 2006 base on the same incident called (Who Killed The Car )?(2)The electric drives are also very suitable for the environment it as a amount of carbon dioxide produced two times less then the petrol vehicle .It also has a great impact on our economy also from the research it is clear that converting the normal transport system in to the electrical transport system then it will create a lot of new jobs and it will also reduce the oil dependency and it will also reduce the oil import cost and its impact on state budget(3).

Types and Component :Electric car or electric drive consists of many different components and types, electric cars are of a lot different types depend on there power source like FCEV (Fuel cell Electric Vehicle) HEV(Hybrid Electric Vehicle) BEV(Battery Electric Vehicle) EV( Electric vehicle ).which are taking the place of present mode of transport system the main parts which are important in making of the electric car .

1. Battery
2. Electric motor / machines
3. Chargers
4. Hardware
5. Electronic controllers.
6. Accessories.

Electric vehicle are combination of different parts and components all the components work together as a one in a sequence and in a managed way to make electric vehicle work but some component in the electric vehicle have more work or are very important and have direct interaction with the vehicle but some component have less interaction. The electrical vehicle with the electrical power either stored in them already and some produce by the themselves and there are different types of motors used in electric vehicle and different charger are used for charging the vehicle like wireless chargers (4)

## STRUCTURE:

In the given figure shows the complete struture of the electric vehicle it shows the front and rare parts of the vehicle in the front part showing the front the wheels and the front engine that is front eletric motor and it also has the gear box and stearing to increase or reduce the speed of the car and move the wheel in the in the same direction or in the opposite direction and in the rear the singel motor placed bewtween the two wheels the purpod]se of placing the motor in that place is to controll the torque of the wheels.( 5).

## Cost:

The cost of the electric car and the component used in the electric car my be more compaire to the feul vehicle or some time less depend on the chargers and the batteries used .the electric cars are very costle at first with the cost of about 6500 euro but it decrease with time instantly .The recent cost of the batteries to estimated 250euro per kwh in 2015,and then it drop down to the 130-180 euro per kwh from 2020-2025.

The fuel cell cost are also expected to be decrease considerably, but cost estimates are highly uncertain.(6)

## Problems:

Vehicle routing problem (VRP)for the better and the fast transport and delivery system and efficient and good outcom a company or production plant must have the efficient logistic and transport system to overcome the time and profit ,for this they must have the fast and intelligent delivery fleet ,due to the high charges on the logistics which emit the CO2/km logistic companies are now tend to prefer the electric vehicle in there logistic fleet because these are more efficient and no green house effect and very minimal noise, dispite of that the electric cars have some problemss like (VRP) vehicle routing problem or E-VRP(Electrical vehicle routing problem)in which we notice certain characteristics of the electric vehicle and energy consumption.(7).

Nowadays the use of electric vehicle have overcome and controlled a lot of the environment pollution like global warming and problems like dependency for oil on other countries many countries encorauged and promotes the use of electric vehicle. There are two types of approcches to EV’S first in econimical approch and the other is psychological approch ,(the psychological approh is related to the person intention or infulence of person emotion toward the adoption of EV’S and the other one that is economical approch is related to the person atribute to the choice of type of EV’S.(8).

In th e USA there department of energy developed and create more efficient and clear atumotive with the help or partnership with there vehicle technology dep.they plan to denvelop the cost effective and more efficient plig in electric vehicle and to create the high power battries in this process the DOE work with national lab and the academia to produce next genereation transport technology .(9).The US government with the help of Amaercian clean energy and scurity act 2009 first introduced incentives for PEV’S after that a lot of companies started the same and provide the same incentivs this act of US gov have great impact on the adoptation of the PEV’S and this impact was obtained through the survy on the incentives US gov offering on using electrical vehicle.(10).

Here we can see in Germany the benefit of using the electric vehicle and one plug vehicle in germany between 2010 and 2016 the prices of cars decrease by 23±? 2% and 32?±? 2% for electric vehicle and with that also the amount of emission of CO2 also decrease with it, anyhow this all survy and experimentation shows that the for the electrical vehicle use it is complusry for the policy makers to make sure and focuse on the aavailability of the recharging stations for the EV’S.(11). Every type of EV’s depend on the same the type and the advancment of the bettries used in the electrical vehicle’s and there is also one thing which effect the electrical vehicle is the use of it according to need ,the bettries and the alternative fuel are very important for the electric vehicle rather then copmteting with the technology they should produce for advance bettries .(12).

## Consumer use :

In this table it tells us about the adoption and the use of the electric vehicle in different progrressing countries because these countries are the market leaders in the car industry .the table shows the different attitude in selecting the eletric vehicle ,and the table also shows the us all the actions takenn to iovercome the consumer barrier and issus reltaed to awarness of EV’S.(13). From the use of the Electric vehicle its clear that for the good and balanced future the EV’S are playing key role in that and it is more accurat for the battery electrical vehicle BEV’S and it is also a good news that due to simplicity in the struture and funtion of the EV’S apart from the battery ,the old used fuel combustion cars can also be converted in to the Electric cars .(14).In this course work we studied that the electrical vehicles have a huge impact for the goodwill of the environment and in reducing the environment pollution electric vehicles are the emerging technology but the most important thing to promot and to keep this change forward the policy makers and the manufacturers must keep thaat in mind that this good change only remins if there are service station and refueling station for the users of EV’S every where for there conveniance and there price must be reasonable and to run the compain for the awarness amoung the people for the use and benefit og EV’S.(15).

## REFERENCES

1. Anon, (2019). [online] Available at: [Accessed 7 Nov. 2019]..En.wikipedia.org. (2019). Who Killed the Electric Car?. [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Nov. 2019].
2. Anon, (2019). [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Nov. 2019].
3. Anon, (2019). [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Nov. 2019].
4. Ieeexplore.ieee.org. (2019). The unique electric and hybrid vehicles – IEEE Journals & Magazine. [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Nov. 2019].
5. Indiaenvironmentportal.org.in. (2019). [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Nov. 2019].
6. Erdeli?, T. and Cari?, T. (2019). A Survey on the Electric Vehicle Routing Problem: Variants and Solution Approaches. Journal of Advanced Transportation, 2019, pp.1-48.
7. Taylor & Francis. (2019). Consumer preferences for electric vehicles: a literature review. [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Nov. 2019].
8. Anon, (2019). [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Nov. 2019].
9. Plug-in Electric Vehicle Policy Effectiveness: Literature Review Energy Systems Division. (n.d.). [online] Available at:
10. Weiss, M., Zerfass, A. and Helmers, E. (2019) Fully electric and plug-in hybrid cars – An analysis of learning rates, user costs, and costs for mitigating CO2 and air pollutant emissions. (2019) Lcaworks.com. Available at: (Accessed: 8 November 2019). (2019) Theicct.org. Available at: (Accessed: 8 November 2019).
11. Helmers, E. and Marx, P. (2019) Electric cars: technical characteristics and environmental impacts. (2019) Theicct.org. Available at: (Accessed: 8 November 2019).