The integrated stage is the second stage of sustainability development, which is adopted by consisting both social and environmental responsibilities in the model. In order to gain competitive stage, a firm will reflects on the management of social and environmental issues. Even though the firm’s communications is classified as one of the development of organizational sustainability, but it is still being excluded in its mission. The citizenship stage is regarded as the third stage of organizational sustainability.
Senior leadership’s openness normally in included in he citizenship stage is characterized by combining social issues into the firm’s responsibilities.
Researchers (e. G. , Logon & Wood, 2002; Morris & Goosing, 2006) stressed that a firm’s business model should assume the role of social issues in order to implement a transformation process. This means that the refinement of the company’s mission is required in the citizenship stage, especially when dealing with the sustainability issues. Figure 1 depicts the macro-level components of Sustainability Leadership Framework.
Sustainability and strategy A firm is having a difficulty in linking the firm’s sustainability efforts to its business treated, even it is important to do something as soon as possible.
Sustainability integration of sustainability into business strategy can help to generate long-term value to both firm and society as it can help the firm to get great competitive benefit. Sustainability and firm values Beliefs about standards of behavior that organizational members should cultivate in order to achieve organizational goals are recognized as organizational values.
Morning and Oswald (2009) argued that organizational values can assist organizational members to develop their motivation, commitment and loyalty.
Despite of that, aligning employees with a firm’s sustainability efforts requires shared values among employees (Harriet & Williams, 2009). In other words, Morning and Oswald (2009) asserted that each manager is required to do the right thing in each situation around the world by cultivating the specified organizational values. A firm’s core values should embed sustainability in developing the firm’s sustainability agenda (Harriet & Williams, 2009).
Rook (2009) argued that the determination of the total sustainability motivation is important in generating the firm’s values. The HRS value chain: setting the context for workforce engagement Despite of the development of a firm’s sustainability strategy, the development of management’s approach to human capital should be taken into account as well. Several researchers (e. G. Porter & Kramer, 2006; Lacy et al. , 2009) argued that the linkage of firms’ sustainability efforts to their human capital practices is not being emphasized as intended, for example, several firms are still not engaging their workforce in their sustainability efforts.
A framework for the connection between a firm’s strategy and its human capital practices is generated by the HRS value chain. An integration set of human resource management practices is able to engage people in a committed pursuit of a chosen strategy and a set of core values. Finding and hiring people is the first stage of the company’s sustainability strategy and values to fit the required strategy and stated values. Researchers (e. G. , Bauhaus et al. , 2002; Patriarchy et al. , 2008) showed that an employer has attracted to the link between a firm’s sustainability.
The stage of HRS value chain, which consisting of the link between the firm’s sustainability strategy and its employees require incentive pay, information sharing, empowerment, and skill development (Prefer, 2005). It is known as a continuous reinforcement process of hiring new employees to fit both organization’s sustainability strategy and values. In addition, the final dimension of the HRS value chain requires the handling of the separation of an organization’s employees. This stage shows the firm’s commitment in using procedures to show its respect to the required employees.
If the separation of both the individual and the integrity of organization being handled, then the employees should have a feeling of fairness regarding this issue. This process can remaining employees as they regard the process of separation is being fair. Since the shift of firm’s mission, strategy and values occur continuously, so it evolves along the sustainability stages. It requires a process of check and balance, especially to ensure that the organization’s HRS management practices is aligned with the sustainability strategy and values of the firm.
Figure 1 : Macro-level of Sustainability Leadership Framework MICRO-LEVEL COMPONENTS OF SUSTAINABILITY LEADERSHIP In order to achieve the high levels of employee engagement that is relevant to an organization’s sustainability objectives, so it requires an association of micro-level components of sustainability leadership (Lacy et al. , 2009; Morning & Oswald, 2009; Rook, 2009). First line managers should take their main responsibilities in order to undermine appropriate sustainability strategies. The micro-level of Sustainability Leadership Framework is shown in Figure 2.
The following discussion presents the micro-level components of the Sustainability Leadership Framework that contribute to high levels of employee engagement in a firm’s sustainability efforts. Full-range leadership Developing the relationship between the firm and its staff requires the process of adopting sustainability practices throughout the organization, which involves the full- range leadership model (Rook, 2009). To grasp the benefits of the full-range model, it is important to understand a full-range leadership, for example, transactional and transformational leadership.
According to the full-range views, Voila (1999) stressed that if the leaders engage in a two-stage process of transactional leadership, then it can subsequently be adopted to the development of the transformational leadership. The purpose of transactional adhering behavior is to clarify the performance expectations and, to achieve the rewards associated meeting these expectations. The performance, trust and commitment shall emerge if the leader follows through the rewards. Transactional leadership is a transitional step in order to develop the trust between a leader and a follower.
It can help to achieve a high level of employee engagement. By augmenting leaders’ transactional leadership behaviors with leaders’ transformational leadership behaviors, it can maximize the employee engagement. It refers to the “ass”, namely idealized vision, inspirational motivation, intellectual automation and individualized consideration (Bass & Rigor, 2006). Transactional and transformational leadership behaviors can motivate the employees. This means that each employee should cultivate an idealize vision, an inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration respectively.
Idealized vision is the-role modeling behavior of transformational leaders, and inspirational motivation is envisioning and articulating an attractive future to provide meaning and challenge for followers. Furthermore, the transformational leaders’ questioning from a fresh perspective can help to create the intellectual stimulation, and the transformational leaders’ mentoring role is known as individualized consideration. In order to lead the “performance beyond expectations”, thus the full-range leadership should be emphasized (Bass, 1985).
Job enrichment It is crucial to design enriched Jobs. For example, there are five Job dimensions that can be classified as enriched Jobs, namely task variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback (Hickman & Lolled, 1976). The presence of enriched Jobs and challenging goals can enhance the effects of the full-range leadership model (Whetting et al. , 2004). Goal setting An establishment of goal settings should be emphasized when discussing about employees’ efforts of carrying out sustainability initiatives (Morning & Oswald, 2009). Quinn and Dalton (2009, p. 0) stressed that incorporating sustainability into employees daily activities requires them to set organization’s sustainability goals and objectives. Tomato and Roomer (2009), on the other hand, asserted that a sustainability effort is achieved if each individual is able to establish the goals at the individual employee level as well as included in employees’ performance development and evaluation plans. The outcomes of workforce engagement In-role and extra-role sustainability performance There is a relationship between workforce engagement and two aspects of sustainability performance, namely in-role and extra role.
In-role performance requires the achievement of identifying in position descriptions and evaluating in the performance appraisal process, and involves the assessment of qualitative and quantitative dimensions. Lacy et al. (2009) argued that the measurement of individual’s performance towards sustainability goals is measured in a regular basis. On the other hand, extra-role performance involves employees’ community thespians behavior (CB) in order to go beyond organizational citizenship behavior (Lacy et al. , 2009; Harriet & Williams, 2009).