The Cuban Missile Crisis Essay

Custom Student Mr. Teacher ENG 1001-04 9 November 2015

The Cuban Missile Crisis

      Historians describe the 1962 crisis as a tripartite affair between Cuba, Soviet Union and America. Each country had the power or the probability of affecting the outcome of the crisis in any way it deemed fit. However, contrary to numerous beliefs on the crisis, Cuba was alone as it could not count on the support of the Soviet Union for long. Worse still, Cuba was continually threatened by America; thus, Cuba’s approach was to support radical movements across Africa, Asia, and Latin America to progress a league of like-minded nations. To Cubans the 1962 crisis dates back in 1959 when the Cuban uprising occurred without any Soviet aid. During the Bays of Pigs incursion in 1961, Fidel Castro termed the revolution socialist since the country believed that America was intent on obliterating the uprising. This led to the fear of a U.S. incursion; thus, Cuba looked for ways to defend itself. Cubans attest that the countries did not resolve the crisis amongst themselves since America’s aim of destroying the Cuban rebellion continued even after the October crisis wherein the Soviet Union agreed to America’s demand. The crisis, fought from three main fronts may have instigated a nuclear war. However, several actions and counter-actions ensured that the crisis did not blow to a full blown war. In this regards, Cuba played an important role during the entire crisis. The Cubans saw the Cuban Rebellion as the main cause of the crisis although the Soviet and America thought otherwise. The evaluation of the crisis provides alternative and comprehensive outlook of the causes, impacts, and issues surrounding the crisis from the Cuban standpoint.

This led to the fear of a U.S. incursion; thus, Cuba looked for ways to defend itself. Cubans attest that the countries did not resolve the crisis amongst themselves since America’s aim of destroying the Cuban rebellion continued even after the October crisis wherein the Soviet Union agreed to America’s demand. The crisis, fought from three main fronts may have instigated a nuclear war. However, several actions and counter-actions ensured that the crisis did not blow to a full blown war. In this regards, Cuba played an important role during the entire crisis. The Cubans saw the Cuban Rebellion as the main cause of the crisis although the Soviet and America thought otherwise. The evaluation of the crisis provides alternative and comprehensive outlook of the causes, impacts, and issues surrounding the crisis from the Cuban standpoint.

Background

         The Cuban Crisis of 1962 was the most significant incident of the Cold War.   For 13 days, the America and the Soviet went at each other’s stand on superiority in a period crisis that almost created a nuclear war.  Inexorably, chronological assessments of the Crisis center on the power struggle between the Soviet and America.  Infrequently, people do not consider it indispensable or essential to regard Cuba as a main actor of the crisis. Therefore, to entirely appreciate and comprehend the lessons of the Crisis, it is essential to value Cuba’s role in the predicament.  More significantly, though, as the Cold War fades and the world takes shape of a new order, the significance of comprehending the events of the crisis and the main antagonists of the crisis to construct upon the current view of the world and prepare for future crisis becomes more imperative.  Abiding amid those actors, subsequently, is Cuba.  Even though now obviously missing Soviet martial services and financial support, Cuba, today remains a region of significant to America general defense interests.  In this regards, providing an imperative foundation of literary information on the crisis, a link between Cuba and America relations, and the military oppression or missiles predicaments following the crisis may offer future intuition on America’s intent during the crisis.

More significantly, though, as the Cold War fades and the world takes shape of a new order, the significance of comprehending the events of the crisis and the main antagonists of the crisis to construct upon the current view of the world and prepare for future crisis becomes more imperative.  Abiding amid those actors, subsequently, is Cuba.  Even though now obviously missing Soviet martial services and financial support, Cuba, today remains a region of significant to America general defense interests.  In this regards, providing an imperative foundation of literary information on the crisis, a link between Cuba and America relations, and the military oppression or missiles predicaments following the crisis may offer future intuition on America’s intent during the crisis.

Discussion

        The crisis involved three main countries i.e. America, Cuba, and the Soviet Union. However other countries such as Turkey and Germany were indirectly involved in the crisis. At the occurrence of the predicament, America and the Soviet were the most significant and deterministic countries. The Soviet sough to help Cuba fight off an impending invasion by America as a result of Cuba’s stand in socialists views. Later, Khrushchev termed the missiles as protective precautions against any invasion. Kennedy administration’s disinclination to admit to the status quo in Cuba may have caused the crisis. Unwaveringly disparate to Castro, Kennedy’s administration ordered an ill-fated incursion of Cuba by anti-Castro expatriates in 1961 April. Following the “Bay of Pigs” debacle, the CIA sought to murder Castro and backed clandestine operations against Cuba. In addition, America’s Department of State ordered a monetary and opinionated embargo of the country while the Pentagon prepared a full-blown incursion of Cuba. On the other hand, the Soviet Union had become intensely engaged to the Castro regime since 1960, and it was pleased with Cuba’s call for socialism. In fact, Khrushchev viewed Castro as modern Lenin; thus, he knew he was doing something important to liberate Cuba. Cuba knew that Operation Mongoose was meant to destabilize the country and overturn the gains that the country had made over the years; thus, the country was prepared to fight any America’s invasion tactics. In fact, Cuba guessed correctly that the preparations of Pentagon, CIA, and Department of State were preparations for

Kennedy administration’s disinclination to admit to the status quo in Cuba may have caused the crisis. Unwaveringly disparate to Castro, Kennedy’s administration ordered an ill-fated incursion of Cuba by anti-Castro expatriates in 1961 April. Following the “Bay of Pigs” debacle, the CIA sought to murder Castro and backed clandestine operations against Cuba. In addition, America’s Department of State ordered a monetary and opinionated embargo of the country while the Pentagon prepared a full-blown incursion of Cuba. On the other hand, the Soviet Union had become intensely engaged to the Castro regime since 1960, and it was pleased with Cuba’s call for socialism. In fact, Khrushchev viewed Castro as modern Lenin; thus, he knew he was doing something important to liberate Cuba. Cuba knew that Operation Mongoose was meant to destabilize the country and overturn the gains that the country had made over the years; thus, the country was prepared to fight any America’s invasion tactics. In fact, Cuba guessed correctly that the preparations of Pentagon, CIA, and Department of State were preparations for

On the other hand, the Soviet Union had become intensely engaged to the Castro regime since 1960, and it was pleased with Cuba’s call for socialism. In fact, Khrushchev viewed Castro as modern Lenin; thus, he knew he was doing something important to liberate Cuba. Cuba knew that Operation Mongoose was meant to destabilize the country and overturn the gains that the country had made over the years; thus, the country was prepared to fight any America’s invasion tactics. In fact, Cuba guessed correctly that the preparations of Pentagon, CIA, and Department of State were preparations for future assault on the Cuban soil. In this regards, Cuba acknowledged the Soviet strategy to mount missiles in May of 1962 to prevent any America assault. Furthermore, the installation of the missiles meant that Cuba would become a de facto partner of the Soviet Union. Since America’s estimation of armed Cuban was 100,000, Cuba planed to stage a surprise; thus, had about 270,000 armed Cubans by October 22, 1962. Cuba knew that Kennedy’s administration would not honor its pledge of not invading Cuba; thus, called on the Soviet Union not to withdraw its bombers from Cuba. However, Khrushchev agreed to Kennedy’s terms, which persuaded Cuba that it could not rely on the Soviet Union any longer. In this regards, Cubans saw the crisis as lasting for 6 years during which tension existed between the country and America. In fact, Castro’s administration asserted that the crisis was never resolved amicably. Although the countries realized peace, the aim of the crisis continued to dissipate i.e. America’s aim to destroy the Cuban rebellion continued; thus, according to Cubans, the crisis never ended.

Since America’s estimation of armed Cuban was 100,000, Cuba planed to stage a surprise; thus, had about 270,000 armed Cubans by October 22, 1962. Cuba knew that Kennedy’s administration would not honor its pledge of not invading Cuba; thus, called on the Soviet Union not to withdraw its bombers from Cuba. However, Khrushchev agreed to Kennedy’s terms, which persuaded Cuba that it could not rely on the Soviet Union any longer. In this regards, Cubans saw the crisis as lasting for 6 years during which tension existed between the country and America. In fact, Castro’s administration asserted that the crisis was never resolved amicably. Although the countries realized peace, the aim of the crisis continued to dissipate i.e. America’s aim to destroy the Cuban rebellion continued; thus, according to Cubans, the crisis never ended.

        Historians have accorded Cuba little regard concerning the crisis even if though they were the main antagonists to the crisis. In fact, were it not for the Cuban Rebellion, America would not have shown an outstanding interest to invade Cuba. Analysts should give credibility to the assertion that both Cuba and the Soviet Union observed the missiles as a restraint against America’s incursion. Although Cuba did not have a missiles; thus, its negligible powers to affect the outcome of the crisis, analysts fail to address the Cuban Rebellion as a key deterrent to any invasion. In fact, the fact that an amicable resolution did not emanate reveals Cuba’s significant to the crisis. More often, historians see Cuba as a colony of the Soviet Union in the crisis; hence, it only acted on the Soviet Union’s powers. However, the Soviet’s agreement to America’s terms after the crisis 13 days demonstrates that Cuba was not an outpost of any country. In fact, Cuba was an antagonist of both the Soviet and America. Cuba affected the history the crisis through many aspects of its socialist ideas and the rebellion, and although the countries did not resolve the crisis amicably, facts show that Cuba’s motives, actions, insights, and behaviors during the three stages of the crisis i.e. October 22, October 22 to 28, and October 28 to November 20.

More often, historians see Cuba as a colony of the Soviet Union in the crisis; hence, it only acted on the Soviet Union’s powers. However, the Soviet’s agreement to America’s terms after the crisis 13 days demonstrates that Cuba was not an outpost of any country. In fact, Cuba was an antagonist of both the Soviet and America. Cuba affected the history the crisis through many aspects of its socialist ideas and the rebellion, and although the countries did not resolve the crisis amicably, facts show that Cuba’s motives, actions, insights, and behaviors during the three stages of the crisis i.e. October 22, October 22 to 28, and October 28 to November 20.

      People view the Missile predicament as the pinnacle of the Cold War albeit it was only 13-days long to America and the Soviet Union. Cuba sought out support from the Soviet Union as a result of the imminent America’s invasion of Cuba, and the Soviets installed missiles all over Cuba. America viewed this as an intimidation from the Soviet Union wherein she prepared for the invasion with economic embargoes on Cuba and plans to assassinate Castro. However, after 13 days of plans and predicaments, America and the Soviet came to an agreement that saw the Soviet withdraw its missiles from Cuba. This left Cuba at a crossroad on the permanence of the crisis since its standoff with America remained. On the other hand, following the agreement America and the Soviet were cautious of using missiles during the entire period to the end of the Cold War. Cubans do not relate the crisis to the Cold war; thus, the difference in thinking between the primary viewpoint on the crisis and Cubans’ viewpoint.

Before 1962 October 22

      Between 1898 and 1959 America and Cuba were allies. However, after Castro took authority from Fulgencio Batista America cultivated enmity with Cuba that saw several embargoes against Cuba. After Castro took over the authority of the country he called for socialism, which angered the Americans. Further, following the swearing-in of Castro, Cuba experienced the Cuban Rebellion, which Cubans see as the cause of the crisis. The rebellion forced America to think of ways of ending the revolution and the calls for a socialist society; hence, America’s ideas of obliterating the rebellion caused the Cuban Crisis. Economic embargoes and institutions of seditious forces against Cuba, and the Bay of Pigs incursion demonstrated America’s intent to invade Cuba. This caused Castro means of defending Cuba; thus, he turned to the Soviet for help who were more than willing to help Cuba. In fact, Cubans were afraid of any direct incursion by America since they had witnessed the horrors committed in Dominican Republic and Vietnam. Leaders from Cuba believed that America reacted to the 1961 Bay of Pigs fiasco by organizing for much superior invasion of Cuba. Actually, the leaders believed that Americans were intent on overthrowing Cuba’s leadership with the help of America’s military forces. The Soviets shared Cuba’s sentiment; hence, offered to help with the installation of several missiles across Cuba. Cubans’ interpretation of America’s hostility led inescapably to the conclusion of an impending America invasion.

This caused Castro means of defending Cuba; thus, he turned to the Soviet for help who were more than willing to help Cuba. In fact, Cubans were afraid of any direct incursion by America since they had witnessed the horrors committed in Dominican Republic and Vietnam. Leaders from Cuba believed that America reacted to the 1961 Bay of Pigs fiasco by organizing for much superior invasion of Cuba. Actually, the leaders believed that Americans were intent on overthrowing Cuba’s leadership with the help of America’s military forces. The Soviets shared Cuba’s sentiment; hence, offered to help with the installation of several missiles across Cuba. Cubans’ interpretation of America’s hostility led inescapably to the conclusion of an impending America invasion.

       In 1962, Cuba was suspended from OAS (Organization of American States), which stimulated. Cuba’s reservations of an impending incursion. In June 1962, however, Kennedy concluded strategies to contain Cuba’s political separation by speaking to the forum of OAS symposium at Punta del Este, Uruguay.   On the proposals of America, the OAS affirmed Castro’s administration irreconcilable with the inter-American organization and, closing that Cuba should be debarred from the OAS, corresponded with America suggestions to enforce an arms ban. With hindsight, then, both America and Cub held each other responsible for their shared animosity and the twisting of trepidation and resentment leading Crisis. For Castro, this resentment was entrenched in his obligation to break Cuba’s reliance on America and make Cuba a socialist nation.  Castro was persuaded that American regalism had caused Cuba’s tribulations and that only the eradication of Cuba’s reliance on America could overturn the tribulations.  In spite of untimely America’s endeavors to work with the Castro’s administration, Castro had no intent of joining forces America.  To a certain extent, Castro looked for any excuse to break the two countries’ ties.

With hindsight, then, both America and Cub held each other responsible for their shared animosity and the twisting of trepidation and resentment leading Crisis. For Castro, this resentment was entrenched in his obligation to break Cuba’s reliance on America and make Cuba a socialist nation.  Castro was persuaded that American regalism had caused Cuba’s tribulations and that only the eradication of Cuba’s reliance on America could overturn the tribulations.  In spite of untimely America’s endeavors to work with the Castro’s administration, Castro had no intent of joining forces America.  To a certain extent, Castro looked for any excuse to break the two countries’ ties.

         Cuba saw the suspension as a preparation tactic or diplomatic action taken prior to an invasion. Several reports of an impending invasion followed the action with Miro Cardona indicating that John Kennedy planned on invading Cuba. Following the reports, America threatened to extend its economic restrictions to countries that traded with Cuba. In fact, America tried hard to frustrate Cuba’s trade negotiations with countries such as Japan, Israel, Jordan, Iran, and Greece. Cuban leaders interpreted the America’s orchestrated activities as part of a well schemed strategy to destabilize and destroy Cuba. Furthermore, the Cubans saw the Operation Mongoose as an orchestrated plan meant to bring about a rebellion of the Cubans. America wanted a revolt that would overthrow Castro’s government. The operation was a vast strategy that included blowing up bridges, cutting communication, destruction of sugar mills, and oil facilities, and sabotage of machines. The CIA and secret radio broadcasts infiltrated numerous teams to support guerrilla forces in Cuba. Cubans saw the guerrilla warfare as an integral strategy aimed at assassinating Castro. In fact, America did not want to replace Castro’s administration with Che Guevara, and they organized for a military invasion that would see major invasions after the death of Castro. Conversely, Cub believed that the exiles would not overthrow the government, a fact best demonstrated by Castro’s interview with Prada. Reports indicate that Cuba was aware of the operation Mongoose since Cuban agents penetrated the Mongoose team. Events preceding the operation and America’s impending invasion may have stimulated Cuba’s decision to accept Soviet’s missile operation.

Furthermore, the Cubans saw the Operation Mongoose as an orchestrated plan meant to bring about a rebellion of the Cubans. America wanted a revolt that would overthrow Castro’s government. The operation was a vast strategy that included blowing up bridges, cutting communication, destruction of sugar mills, and oil facilities, and sabotage of machines. The CIA and secret radio broadcasts infiltrated numerous teams to support guerrilla forces in Cuba. Cubans saw the guerrilla warfare as an integral strategy aimed at assassinating Castro. In fact, America did not want to replace Castro’s administration with Che Guevara, and they organized for a military invasion that would see major invasions after the death of Castro. Conversely, Cub believed that the exiles would not overthrow the government, a fact best demonstrated by Castro’s interview with Prada. Reports indicate that Cuba was aware of the operation Mongoose since Cuban agents penetrated the Mongoose team. Events preceding the operation and America’s impending invasion may have stimulated Cuba’s decision to accept Soviet’s missile operation.

In fact, America did not want to replace Castro’s administration with Che Guevara, and they organized for a military invasion that would see major invasions after the death of Castro. Conversely, Cub believed that the exiles would not overthrow the government, a fact best demonstrated by Castro’s interview with Prada. Reports indicate that Cuba was aware of the operation Mongoose since Cuban agents penetrated the Mongoose team. Events preceding the operation and America’s impending invasion may have stimulated Cuba’s decision to accept Soviet’s missile operation.

       Accordingly, the Kennedy’s government seemed to straighten out on a strategy of pestering and ambassadorial segregation in order to restrain Castro and keep him uneven.   The aggravation incorporated the use of operations such as Operation Mongoose, and clandestine operations between Cuba and Florida, demolishing factories, and performing hit-and-run assaults alongside the Cuban coast. America formerly intended to storm the Bay of Pigs another time, but then, the humiliation the country underwent forced it forego the plans. America feared Cuba’s relationship with the Soviet. The operations and America’s harassment strategies point to the fact that America intended to wholly disintegrate Castro’s government.

The crisis

         President Kennedy, in his October 22nd report to the American people, he referred to the existence of standard and long-range ballistic artillery in Cuba. Prior to the address, the CIA had indicated the existence of two IRBM and four MRBM instigation sites in diverse stages of manufacture and structured into a minimum of three regiments.  Of these sites, two contingents of eight missile launcher each were supposed to be portable and structured to instigate the MRBMs while people believed the one contingent of eight permanent launchers to be designed for the IRBMs. This evaluation shows or clarifies the true threat that faced America at the time of the crisis. The missiles and rocket launchers showed Soviet’s intent to help Cuba fight off any invasion that America planned to carry out in an objective to end the Castro’s uprising. During the crisis, Cuba harbored about 42,000 Soviet military personnel. In addition, Cuba had about 270,000 armed people, which meant that America would have suffered enormous losses coming after the Vietnam War. An air assault would not have shattered all the missiles installed across Cuba, which meant America would have at the end of the assault forced to open war. This would have provided Cuba and the Soviet with a chance to crush America’s army. However, the war would have meant that Cuba suffer the greatest loss since the war was supposed to be in its soil. Besides, with Cuba and the Soviets prepared to “battle to the very last man,” a lengthy, prolonged war could well have been anticipated.  Accordingly, Castro, faced with just an alternative to fight agreed to the employment of missiles in Cuba.

The missiles and rocket launchers showed Soviet’s intent to help Cuba fight off any invasion that America planned to carry out in an objective to end the Castro’s uprising. During the crisis, Cuba harbored about 42,000 Soviet military personnel. In addition, Cuba had about 270,000 armed people, which meant that America would have suffered enormous losses coming after the Vietnam War. An air assault would not have shattered all the missiles installed across Cuba, which meant America would have at the end of the assault forced to open war. This would have provided Cuba and the Soviet with a chance to crush America’s army. However, the war would have meant that Cuba suffer the greatest loss since the war was supposed to be in its soil. Besides, with Cuba and the Soviets prepared to “battle to the very last man,” a lengthy, prolonged war could well have been anticipated.  Accordingly, Castro, faced with just an alternative to fight agreed to the employment of missiles in Cuba.

The missiles and rocket launchers showed Soviet’s intent to help Cuba fight off any invasion that America planned to carry out in an objective to end the Castro’s uprising. During the crisis, Cuba harbored about 42,000 Soviet military personnel. In addition, Cuba had about 270,000 armed people, which meant that America would have suffered enormous losses coming after the Vietnam War. An air assault would not have shattered all the missiles installed across Cuba, which meant America would have at the end of the assault forced to open war. This would have provided Cuba and the Soviet with a chance to crush America’s army. However, the war would have meant that Cuba suffer the greatest loss since the war was supposed to be in its soil. Besides, with Cuba and the Soviets prepared to “battle to the very last man,” a lengthy, prolonged war could well have been anticipated.  Accordingly, Castro, faced with just an alternative to fight agreed to the employment of missiles in Cuba.

The missiles and rocket launchers showed Soviet’s intent to help Cuba fight off any invasion that America planned to carry out in an objective to end the Castro’s uprising. During the crisis, Cuba harbored about 42,000 Soviet military personnel. In addition, Cuba had about 270,000 armed people, which meant that America would have suffered enormous losses coming after the Vietnam War. An air assault would not have shattered all the missiles installed across Cuba, which meant America would have at the end of the assault forced to open war. This would have provided Cuba and the Soviet with a chance to crush America’s army. However, the war would have meant that Cuba suffer the greatest loss since the war was supposed to be in its soil. Besides, with Cuba and the Soviets prepared to “battle to the very last man,” a lengthy, prolonged war could well have been anticipated.  Accordingly, Castro, faced with just an alternative to fight agreed to the employment of missiles in Cuba.

This evaluation shows or clarifies the true threat that faced America at the time of the crisis. The missiles and rocket launchers showed Soviet’s intent to help Cuba fight off any invasion that America planned to carry out in an objective to end the Castro’s uprising. During the crisis, Cuba harbored about 42,000 Soviet military personnel. In addition, Cuba had about 270,000 armed people, which meant that America would have suffered enormous losses coming after the Vietnam War. An air assault would not have shattered all the missiles installed across Cuba, which meant America would have at the end of the assault forced to open war. This would have provided Cuba and the Soviet with a chance to crush America’s army. However, the war would have meant that Cuba suffer the greatest loss since the war was supposed to be in its soil. Besides, with Cuba and the Soviets prepared to “battle to the very last man,” a lengthy, prolonged war could well have been anticipated.  Accordingly, Castro, faced with just an alternative to fight agreed to the employment of missiles in Cuba.

Cuba’s Involvement

         Cuba was involved in the crisis as much as the Soviet and America were involved. In fact, some people point out that Cuba remained the main antagonist during the entire crisis since America wanted to invade it and the Soviet provided missiles to the country. In addition, since the crisis was tied to the invasion of the Bay of Pigs, Cubans understood that the invasion was between America and Cuba. The Soviet plans to support Cuba were always in ambiguity. On one hand, the Soviet claimed that its aim was to support Cuba from America while Cuba saw it as a support to its interests. The agreement between Cuba and the Soviet saw the Soviet place the missiles to support Cuba. However, the aim of the Soviet to resolve the issue remained ambiguous even to Cubans. The decision to remove the missiles after 13 days demonstrated Soviet’s unwillingness to support “Little Cuba” as it claimed. This shows that the animosity that existed between America and Cuba continued. Cubans, therefore, saw the Soviets help as more than support against America. In fact, the Soviet sought to repay America’s unkindness for surrounding the Soviet Confederation with missiles and military base. Since Cuba is strategically located near America, the Soviet saw the crisis as a major chance to demonstrate to America its happiness. Khrushchev also intended to use the missiles as bargaining whittles during the U.N. forums and to further its ideals during the Cold War. In this regards, Cuba understood its stand during the crisis, and after the Soviet agreed to America’s terms it was not left with any chance, but to resort to socialism calls. Castro understood all along that America was intent on invading Cuba no because of the crisis, but mainly because of the Cuban Rebellion.

         Cubans understood their importance during the crisis; thus, Castro’s administration planned well throughout the crisis. The administration understood that the crisis emanated as a result of Cuba’s calls for socialism and not because of the missiles. In this regards, the government understood that even after agreeing to the terms of the deal between the Soviets and America, it remained free of both countries. However, the administration knew that the crisis still existed since the main issues surrounding the crisis were never resolved. In this regards, Cuba played the most significant role in the progress of the crisis and the conclusion of the crisis six years later. Although most people think that the crisis ended after 13 days, it continued with animosity between America and Cuba rising continually each day. Although Castro denied the claims that he instigated an appeal to place the missiles, he stated during a speech in 1963 that the installation of the missiles was a mutual accord between Cuba and the Soviet. However, data shows that Castro instigated a plan that would compel the Soviet to provide the missiles to Cuba. In fact, Castro influenced the activities and actions that led to the Soviets agreement to deploy the missiles to Cuba. The missiles provided Cuba to deter any America’s invasion and reduce the country’s reliance to America. By possessing the missiles, Castro knew that he would retaliate to any America’s oppression especially the oppression that Cuba had suffered for more than 200 years under the hands of America. The lack of any battle during the crisis helped deter any warfare that would have emerged. In addition, had America invaded Cuba, Cuba would have realized guerrilla warfare across the whole nation; thus, the withdrawal of the missiles may have offered a chance for the countries to remain at peace with each other.

Conclusion

       During the period of the Crisis, people believed that America had attained an enormous triumph. In addition, Cubans believed that there was no resolution in regards to the crisis; thus, they remained the main losers to the crisis. After the agreement between the Soviets and America, the Soviets removed the missiles from Cuba, which left Cuba with no support. This shows that Cuba was solitary in its endeavors during the crisis, and the crisis was nothing but America’s intent to crush socialism in Cuba.  Furthermore, the agreement between the Soviet and America forced Cuba to agree to the requisites of the deal; thus, Castro’s reputation inside Latin America suffered significantly. However, Cubans understood that America did not win during the crisis since Kennedy did not achieve his goal of overthrowing Castro. Although the Soviet removed the missiles, Castro remained the president. In fact, today, America enforces an economic embargo against Cuba, which shows that there was no resolution on the crisis. America still enforces a restriction on Cuba while Castro persists to be a nuisance to U.S aims in the Caribbean. Accordingly, even though Cuba does not enjoy Russia’s economic subventions and military aid, the struggle between America’s egalitarian principles and Castro’s socialism continues.  While America’s efforts concerning Cuba have realized little victory, it is noticeable that Castro still holds Cuba’s administration, and that communism and an intrinsic mistrust of America remains.

         The crisis demonstrates the antagonism and repressions that existed between the three countries. Although people see the war as a supreme battle between America and the Soviet, Cuba’s involvement in the crisis demonstrates that the crisis was between America and Cuba with the help of the Soviet for some times. However, after the agreement to withdraw the missiles the crisis remained a contention between America and Cuba. Indeed, the countries did not resolve the crisis since the animosity between America and Cuba remains to date. Conclusively, the crisis offers a chance for historians to rethink the roles of the country during the crisis.

References

Chrisp, Peter. The Cuban Missile Crisis. Milwaukee, WI: World Almanac Library, 2002.

Haas, Mark L.. “Prospect Theory And The Cuban Missile Crisis.” International Studies Quarterly 45, no. 2 (2001): 241-270.

Immell, Myra. The Cuban Missile Crisis. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2011.

Laffey, Mark, and Jutta Weldes. “Decolonizing The Cuban Missile Crisis.”International Studies Quarterly 52, no. 3 (2008): 555-577.

Renshon, Jonathan. “Mirroring Risk: The Cuban Missile Estimation.” Intelligence and National Security 24, no. 3 (2009): 315-338.

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