Content theories interrogate the question of what are the things that motivate people. They are also referred to as need theories and assume that everyone has certain needs or desired outcomes that can be satisfied through work. Within the work environment, they have had the greatest impact on management practice and policy. The process theories address more the issues relating to how the process works and sustain itself over time.
“Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Maslow put forward the idea that there existed a hierarchy of needs consisting of five levels in the hierarchy.
These needs progressed from lower-order needs through to higher-level needs. The basic premise of the theory is that we all have these five levels of needs and that starting at the lowest level we are motivated to satisfy each level in ascending order. As each level is sufficiently satisfied, we are then motivated to satisfy the next level in the hierarchy. The five different levels were further sub-categorised into two main groups, these being”
Physiological needs it includes the most basic needs for humans to survive, such as air, water and food.
Safety or security needs, People want protection against unemployment, the consequences of sickness and retirement as well as being protected against unfair treatment. If the safety needs are satisfied, new needs will appear. Social needs the vast majority of people want to be part of a group, and it is only through group activity that this need can be satisfied. Ego needs what other people think of you and perceive you.
Status and promotion can offer short-term satisfaction. Esteem, being respect as a worthwhile and worthy human being. Self-fulfillment needs the need to achieve something meaningful in life.
Alderfer revised Maslow’s theory in 1972. He reduced the levels in the hierarchy from five to three, Existence needs, Relatedness needs, and Growth needs.
Existence needs: These include needs for basic material necessities. In short, it includes an individual’s physiological and physical safety needs. Relatedness needs: Individuals need significant relationships (be with family, peers, or superiors), love, and belongingness, they strive toward reaching public fame and recognition. This class of needs contains Maslow’s social needs and external components of esteem needs. Growth needs: Need for self-development, personal growth, and advancement form together with this class of need.
Expectancy Theory According to Yale business Professor Victor Vroom, motivation is the result of conscious choices we make that will either maximize pleasure or minimize pain. This theory highlights that motivation is partly a decision-making process that evaluates effort for outcomes. Expectancy theory does highlight the significance of matching rewards for effort on an individual/personal basis. It focuses on the relationship between anticipated future rewards and present behavior. The actual evaluation process is broken down into a number of parts: if i made an effort, can I expect to perform the required task? Will performing this act or task achieve the desired outcome? Can I expect the outcome will be accessible?
In this case: Joy of Chocolate Company was created by Suzy Campbell. Suzy’s motivation was to fulfill her ambition of having her own business and achieve her dream of creating chocolate. After Suzy worked very hard She used her knowledge and skills to make her aim a reality. Esteem was linked to job importance. Self-actualization was associated with job satisfaction. Physiologically, Joy of Chocolate Suzy’s main goal is to make a living with her business. Safety was related to her family, job security, etc… Social was linked to love, belonging to someone. She cared about her employees, developed good relationships with them
Explain the methods used by managers to improve job performance within the workplace and justify their suitability
Training improving in managerial performance, companies can gain the advantage of providing training for their employees because well-trained workers help increase performance and profits. Improved performance from employee training can reduce staff turnover, the time spent correcting mistakes and the problem solving necessary to correct bad performances, regular training ensures your staffs keep up with your industry’s regulations and the latest technology. Training can also enhance morale on the job and loyalty to the company. employed by JOY of chocolate were all the staff is supported in developing their skills for the production staff ensured a high level of expertise throughout the business
“One of the best ways to develop your employees is to delegate tasks that will improve them. They benefit from learning new skills and overcoming a challenging task. You benefit from an improved employee who can help you with your own workload and further the career of a rising star.” You can delegate tasks to help them that will help them develop new skills and expand their capabilities. Improving your employees makes them more productive and able to handle larger challenges in the future. The goal for every manager is to have a high-performance team. Improving an employee using delegation is one tool you can use in this pursuit. You want the delegated task to not only improve on or give them a new skill but to push their capabilities. When Joy of Chocolate merged with CG Chocolates, Hafiz suggested to Suzy that Mary Taylor was ready for another promotion running the factory in Newcastle.
Autonomy in the workplace refers to how much freedom employees have while working. Autonomy in the Organization Research shows that when employees are given the freedom associated with autonomy, job satisfaction rises. Employees are happier and more engaged Autonomy has also been shown to increase motivation and happiness, along with decreasing employee turnover. Team Autonomy in the workplace can also be applied to teams. An autonomous team is one that is self-managed and receives little to no direction from a supervisor. When team members work well together, they can help to enhance each other’s strengths and can compensate for each other’s weaknesses. Managerial Autonomy may be more prevalent in decentralized organizations where managers have the ability to exercise greater authority over their employees. In this type of environment, managers are free to reward and motivate employees as they see fit. As a result, the manager often feels more motivated to do a good job and feels a greater sense of job satisfaction
Financial methods of motivation, the pay is important, it is an important cost for a business and People feel strongly about it. It helps attract reliable employees with the skills the business needs for success. Pay also helps retain employees, rather than them leave and perhaps join a competitor. For most employees, the remuneration package is the most important part of a job, and certainly, the most visible part of any job offers most businesses recognize the need for non-financial methods of motivation. Job rotation involves the movement of employees through a range of jobs in order to increase interest and motivation. Job enrichment attempts to give employees greater responsibility by increasing the range and complexity of tasks they are asked to do and giving them the necessary authority. It motivates by giving employees the opportunity to use their abilities to the fullest. Team working and Empowerment involves giving people greater control over their working lives. Organizing the labor force into teams with a high degree of autonomy can achieve this. This means that employees plan their own work, make their own decisions and solve their own problems. Teams are set targets to achieve and may receive rewards for doing so. Empowered teams are an increasingly popular method of organising employees at work.
Explain precisely the importance of team working and state how it operates in the case study.
Employee teamwork enables your workforce to Split difficult tasks into simpler ones, then work together to complete them faster. Develop specialized skills, so that the best person for each task can do it better and faster in a nutshell, teams make work more efficient. That can lead to better productivity, reduced costs, greater profitability, and many other benefits. Teams self-monitor in teamwork, many people have responsibility for the same goal. Most significantly, teammates observe and depend on the quality of each other’s work. When one team member’s performance dips, the others have the knowledge and motivation to help them improve. Without management intervention, effective teams can often regulate their own performance. For any task or problem, there are usually countless solutions. When one employee tackles a project, they might be able to think of a few different ideas given time. But when a team tackles a problem, the project benefits from multiple perspectives, skillsets, and experiences all at once. A team approach can therefore lead to faster, deeper innovation. Teammates learn from each other.
Teamwork promotes strong working relationships Great teamwork translates to great performance when it is managed well. A teamwork environment promotes an atmosphere that fosters friendship and loyalty. When employees work together and succeed as a team, they form bonds that can turn into trust and friendship.
Explain the ‘forming, storming, norming, and performing’ idea, so that people understand why problems are occurring, and so that they see that things will get better in the future. Coach team members in assertiveness and conflict resolution skills, where this is necessary.
One of the strongest sources of group cohesiveness is the similarity in attitudes and values among group members. Meaning people who hold similar opinions, morals, beliefs, and code of conduct etc… because the person who shares the same opinions as we do provide us with a kind of social validation for our beliefs. If someone disagrees with us, this might make us scared that we are wrong. However, it’s important to note that similarity of interest or opinion is not the only factor that drives team cohesion. In some instances, the primary task that needs to be accomplished keeps the group members united. In this case: the similarities of attitudes and values is, in the case of JOC the quality culture, the fact that every employee takes part of the strict adherence to health and safety, food production quality regulation etc… also pay intention the importance of the team working and personal Developpement (through a blind tasting of the JOY product, jobs rotation, skill Development or staff encouragement etc…) and fulfill the culture of training and development in all of the business,
When each member of a group has independent activities, the cohesiveness among the members of such group will be less as compared to the group whose members are doing the operations which are dependent upon each other, mutual dependency leads to greater cohesiveness. The inter dependency value the fact that the recruitment of manager of Suzy, Haviz, and Leon was motivated not only form the business point of views but also allowed Suzy to other activities as visit customer to ensure that their individual need being met and meet with suppliers to discuss production, etc…
The behavior of management has a direct influence on the degree of cohesiveness that exists within a group. The manager can make close relations difficult by creating unhealthy competition among employees. On the other hand, he can build solidarity by rewarding cooperative behavior. A cohesive group can help attain the group goals more effectively if the group members are properly inspired by the manager. CG chocolate, Charlie believed that the only reason how he could motivate the people was by a rewards and punishment system, any mistakes made by the employers would lead Charlie opposing the culprit and threatening them till arriving at the point of sacking them