This paper explores the six major theories of motivation, the prescription for criminal justice management, and the integrated model of motivation. The authors, the criminal justice organization, of the book, vary their definitions of the topics above. Stojkovic, Kalinich & Klofas (2014) suggest that the six major theories of motivation impact other areas of criminal justice administration and management. Other books suggest that other factors impact the areas of criminal justice administration and management which offer different outcomes. This paper examines Stojkovic, Kalinich & Klofas views of the integrated model of motivation, as stated, and its six basic elements that are useful to criminal justice employees and managerial staff.
Theories of motivation have a total of six major theories, Theory X and Theory Y, Need theory, Theory Z, Expectancy theory, Achievement-power-affiliation theory, and Equity theory. The Need theory says that individuals’ have needs that can affect their behavioral patterns such as physical and psychological needs. Physiological needs, such as food and water, assure the basic survival of the individual and must be assured before any other needs can be fulfilled (Stojkovic, Kalinich & Klofas, 2014, p.
134). The Need theory suggests that after physical needs people need to feel a sense of security in their surroundings, and free from any fear that may be caused by aggressors. The Need theory has a ‘Need Hierarchy’ that suggests that self-actualization, self-esteem, and belonging is a higher-order need, and Safety, security and physiological is a primary need.
Theory X and Theory Y has two-parts to it, and it suggests that for theory X to motivate, employees must have some type of reward, punishment, persuasion, control, and direction in assignments or task.
Theory X is based on several subsidiary beliefs regarding people in organizations that can be categorized as lazy, ambitionless, self-centered, refuse to change, and ones that are not bright (Stojkovic, Kalinich & Klofas, 2014, p.137). Theory Y states that high needs such as self-fulfillment, ego, and social needs are required to be focused on by management so that the achievement of the company purpose and goals are met (Stojkovic, Kalinich & Klofas, 2014, p.137). Achievement-power-affiliation theory was created by David McClelland and the theory suggests that motivation created on high achievement and people achieve success through their effort, through projects, through work on projects that are challenging (Stojkovic, Kalinich & Klofas, 2014, p.138). The achievement theory suggests that people that have high achievements look forward to achieving their success by only their efforts but not achieving their success by doing other things, work on assignments that are not impossible but challenging, and receiving distinguishable and consistent reviews about their efforts and job well done.
The expectancy theory is the motivation that posits that a certain amount of work will result in a calculated outcome (Stojkovic, Kalinich & Klofas, 2014, p.140). The expectancy theory posits that motivation performance goes hand and hand along with ability and performance is the key to an individual’s willingness and motivation to finish an assignment in the first place. Equity theory theorizes that an individual’s motivation level is affected by her or his perception of fairness in the workplace and the individual motivation must be understood concerning how other employees are treated by management and the organization (Stojkovic, Kalinich & Klofas, 2014, p.142). The equity theory lives by two rules, people assess their relationships as they would any other service and people obtain expectations about their assessments in the organizations that equal the number of individuals’ influences that they make. Theory Z is the extension of theory Y and it explains that management must come to grips with the fact that organizations, either private or public, no longer can exist in a social vacuum (Stojkovic, Kalinich & Klofas, 2014, p.145).
The Z theory has three beliefs that the authors in the book discussed which were: management is worried about the production, management is worried about the well-being of workers as being beneficial employees and the company cannot be seen as an independent for the larger economic, social, and political situations in the world. The prescriptions for criminal justice management have two programs quality circles and management by objectives. Qualify circle is defined as small groups of people who are normally not management personnel, who meet regularly to categorize, examine, and endorse answers to structural problems (Stojkovic, Kalinich & Klofas, 2014, p.149). Qualify circle programs are based on two sets of rules that it governs its life: communication between employees should contribute to the maximum growth of the person and by providing ways for the maximum growth of employees, the company will become progressively operational. The second program is management by objectives and the authors define management by objectives as the process where the management and the employees’ design goals and work toward completing those set goals and receive evaluations in a set period.
The integrated model of motivation is a model that combines an assortment of theoretical and practical notions that is towards completing company aims and goals. The integrated model of motivation has six values that are it governed by which are sufficient personnel and material resources, usage of motivations and rewards, interpersonal and group processes that support members goals, interpersonal values and motives, reinforcement, and specific and clear goals,
Emphasis on personal motives and values suggest that criminal justice workers have motives and values that stress public service similarly as personal interests that they require to be in an exceeding profession that is both appreciated and stipendiary fair and befitting. (Stojkovic, Kalinich & Klofas, 2014, p.153). The use of incentives and rewards explains how workers need incentives so they can satisfy the rewards and prospects for jobs that are completed well. Reinforcement explains that administrators and management must create feedback mechanisms so their workers can understand that their conduct at work is suitable in an allocated task. Specific and clear goals suggest that all of the theories of motivation shine a light on the significance of goals or expected results on the motivation processes. Sufficient personal and material resources explain that organizations should have an assortment of resources that govern finances and people, to form the proper motivating atmosphere for personnel (Stojkovic, Kalinich & Klofas, 2014, p.153). The last basic element, interpersonal and group processes that support member goal, posits that within criminal justice companies should develop workgroups that identify personnel personal interest and group concerns.