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Piaget was born in Neuchâtel, in the Francophone region of Switzerland. He was born on August 9, 1896 and he died on September 16, 1980 at the age of 84. He was also known as constructivism, theory of cognitive development, object permanence, egocentrism and also a genetic epistemology, which is the study of knowledge. Piaget was a precocious child who developed an interest in biology and the natural world. In the 1920s Piaget observed children reasoning and understanding differently, depending on their age. He proposed that all children progress through a series of cognitive stages of development, just as they progress through a series of physical stages of development.
Piaget introduced some important concepts which is the SCHEMA or SCHEMATA from the word prior knowledge, ASSIMILATION from previous concept down to new concept, ADAPTATION involves new information, EQUILIBRIUM is the search for “balance”. According to Piaget, there are four stages that described his theory. First is the SENSORIMOTOR STAGE, from birth to 2 years of age.
Second is the PREOPERATIONAL STAGE, from 4 to 7 years of age. Third is the CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE, from 7 to 11 years of age. And last is the FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE, from 11 to 16 years of age, onwards.
As I was Piaget is widely considered to be the influential development psychologist in history. Because base from his theory it describes on how a child understand on what a teachers taught. Piaget believed that cognitive development occurred in sequential distinct stages with abrupt improvement of skills from stage to stage. For example, children between the ages of 7-11 are in concrete operational stage.
At this stage, they can use cognitive strategies to solve problems involving concrete objects. Elaboration and abstract thinking skills are to be developed as children get older, in the formal operational stage. To be more specific, on Piaget’s theory describes that cognitive skills of one child improve not only by age but also through increases in processing speed and efficiency, increased use of cognitive strategies such as rehearsal, increased chunking due to expanding knowledge base, and increased ability to inhibit distractions.
Lev Vygotsky born on November 19, 1896 and he were born in Orsha, Russian Empire, now in Belarus. He died on June 11, 1934 at age of 37. He is a Russian and his also known as Cultural-historical psychology and Zone of proximal development. He believed in guided learning and introduced the idea of ZPD (Zone Of Proximal Development) in which a child is left to work independently through a task that is at their developmental level, but is encouraged to perform tasks slightly beyond their current developmental stage with a bit of guidance.
Vygotsky’s theory emphasizes on culture affecting/shaping cognitive development and also on social factors contributing to cognitive development. Vygotsky states cognitive development stems from social interactions from guided learning within the zone of proximal development as children and their partners co-construct knowledge. According to Vygotsky, child occurs through social interaction with a skillful tutor. The tutor may model behaviors and/or provide verbal instructions for the child. Vygotsky refers to this as cooperative or collaborative dialogue. The child seeks to understand the actions or an instruction provided by the tutor then internalizes the information, using it to guide or regulate their own performance.
Vygotsky’s theory development emphasizes socio – cultural influences on development. Some important elements of this theory include scaffolding, inner and outer speech, and the zone of proximal development. According to Vygotsky, the most effective teaching and learning goes on in a student’s Zone of Proximal Development which is, what the student can do independently and what the student can do with maximal help from a teacher. When a student is first learning a concept, the teacher provides a lot of hints and support. As the student masters the concept, this support called scaffolding.
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