We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy

report sem 7

Categories

Report, Pages 9 (2205 words)

viewsViews

viewsViews

Report, Pages 9 (2205 words)

left35115500GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

Marwadi Education Foundation Group of Institutions

Affiliated with GTU

A

Project Report on

“Online Monitoring of Power Quality Issues for Industrial Consumers”

Final Year Project

Semester-VII

Electrical Engineering

Submitted By:

Sr. No. Name Enrolment No.

1. Raj Hapalia 160570109030

2. Harshil Baravalia 160570109013

3. Pranav Jagani 160570109015

4. Vishal Pambhar 160570109026

Guided By:

Prof. Tapan Trivedi

Head of Department:

Prof. Amit Ved

Academic Year

2019-2020

Certificate

This is to certify that Raj Hapalia(160570109030) of BE Semester-7th (Electrical Engineering) has completed his project-I work titled “Online Monitoring of Power Quality Issues for Industrial Consumers” satisfactorily in partial fulfilment for requirement of Project-I course, Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad, in the academic year 2019-2020

Electrical Engineering

Project Guide: Prof. Tapan Trivedi

Year: 2019-2020

Certificate

This is to certify that Harshil Baravalia(160570109013) of BE Semester-7th (Electrical Engineering) has completed his project-I work titled “Online Monitoring of Power Quality Issues for Industrial Consumers” satisfactorily in partial fulfilment for requirement of Project-I course, Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad, in the academic year 2019-2020

Electrical Engineering

Project Guide: Prof.Tapan Trivedi

Year: 2019-2020

Certificate

This is to certify that Pranav Jagani(160570109015) of BE Semester-7th (Electrical Engineering) has completed his project-I work titled “Online Monitoring of Power Quality Issues for Industrial Consumers” satisfactorily in partial fulfilment for requirement of Project-I course, Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad, in the academic year 2019-2020

Electrical Engineering

Project Guide: Prof.Tapan Trivedi

Year: 2019-2020

Certificate

This is to certify that Vishal Pambhar(160570109026) of BE Semester-7th (Electrical Engineering) has completed his project-I work titled “Online Monitoring of Power Quality Issues for Industrial Consumers” satisfactorily in partial fulfilment for requirement of Project-I course, Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad, in the academic year 2019-2020

Electrical Engineering

Project Guide: Prof.Tapan Trivedi

Year: 2019-2020

Acknowledgement

It is indeed a great pleasure for us to present this project on Online Monitoring of Power Quality Issues for Industrial Consumers as a part of our final year project (Semester-VII).

We take this golden opportunity to express our special thanks of gratitude to Mr. Tapan Trivedi and our institute MEFGI for giving us a chance to do this Project, through which we came to know about many new things.

Abstract

Power quality is among main things that is emphasized and is taken into consideration by utilities in order to meet the demands of their customer. At each passing day this issue has becoming more serious and at same time the user’s demand on power quality also gets more hypercritical. Thus its essential to establish a power quality monitoring system to detect power quality disturbance. Our study presents online monitoring of power quality issues using Arduino as the base software.

We are currently focusing on 4 parameters that affect the power quality and they are harmonics, voltage sag, voltage swell and power factor. Our program is based on mathematical Method of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). FFT will extract and localized the features of voltage disturbances occur in the recorded data. The recorded data contains voltage sag, voltage swell and harmonic is analysed using FFT to extract its magnitude and frequency components of the disturbances.

The extracted data will be uploaded to the internet by using an ESP Module. Our project will store the data for few days for studying and analysing power quality issues in industries.

Table Of Content

Chapter Title Page No.

I Introduction 9

1.1 Introduction 9

1.2 Objective of Project 10

1.3 Background of Study 10

1.4 Problem Statement 10

1.5 Work Plan 10

1.6 Tools/Component Required 11

II Canvas Sheets 12

2.1 AEIOU Summary 12

2.2 Empathy Mapping Canvas 13

2.3 Ideation Canvas 14

2.4 Product Development Canvas 15

III Literature Review 16

3.1 Power Quality 16

3.2 Voltage Sag 16

3.3 Voltage Swell 17

3.4 Harmonics 17

3.5 Power Factor 18

IV Project Description 19

4.1 Block Diagram 19

V Components Used 20

5.1 Arduino Due 20

5.2 Current Sensor ACS-712 21

5.3 Voltage Sensor ZMPT 101B 21

5.4 ESP 8266 22

VI Programming 23

6.1 Program to find rms Current 23

6.2 Program to find Dominant Frequency and to plot the Harmonics on serial plotter 25

Conclusion 27

References 28

Chapter I

Introduction

Introduction

Today in 21st century, industries has revolutionized with more automation and more modern equipment’s. That means that the equipment’s used in modern day industries are energy efficient & electronically controlled. Hence they are more sensitive to deviations in power supply. Power quality is among main things that is emphasized and taken into consideration by utilities in order to meet the demands of their customer. At each passing day this issue has becoming more significant and at the same time the user’s demand on power quality also gets more critical. Thus it is essential to establish a power quality monitoring system to observe power quality disturbance.

Our project presents online monitoring of power quality issues for industrial consumers. We are currently identifying 4 parameters namely Voltage Swell, Sag, Harmonics and power factor that affect the power quality. Our program is based on mathematical Method of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). FFT will extract and localized the features of voltage disturbances occur in the recorded data. The recorded data contains voltage sag, voltage swell and harmonic is analysed using FFT to extract its magnitude and frequency components of the disturbances.

The extracted data will be uploaded to the internet by using an ESP Module. Our project will store the data for few days for studying and analysing power quality issues in industries.

Objective of Project

The Main Objective of our project is to develop a power quality monitoring system which analyse the rms current and voltage signals, and based on that it should identify the factors affecting the power quality namely harmonics, voltage sag, swell and power factor. The system data should be uploaded to the internet via ESP module and it should store the data for few days for analysing the power quality.

Background of Study

Power quality can be defined differently for different users. For manufacturer it is defined separately and for consumer it is defined separately. For manufacturer power quality is defined as power supply level for most efficient operation of their machines. While for consumers, power quality is defined as continuous/uninterrupted power supply that ensures continuous running of their business and routine life. But According to IEEE, Power quality can be defined as the concept of powering and grounding sensitive electronic equipments in a manner suitable for the equipment.

In short Power Quality= Performance + Life Expectancy

Problem Statement

Monitoring of power quality requires detection of parameters that affect the quality of power. Automatic detection is difficult as all the disturbances varies in wide range of time and frequency domain. Hence it is difficult to diagnose power quality problem.

Work Plan

We will make a working model of our project at the end of the semester-8. Currently we are preparing program for finding rms current, voltage in Arduino. We are also working on programming of FFT analysis in Arduino.

Tools/Component Required

Arduino Due

Current Sensor ACS-712

Voltage Sensor ZMPT 101B

ESP 8266

Load

Chapter II

Canvas Sheets

2.1 AEIOU Summary

Group ID: 58042 Date: 05/07/2019

AEIOU Summary Domain: Monitoring of

Power Quality

Environment

Small Scale Industries

Medium Scale Industries

Substations

Transmission lines

Power Plant Interactions

Workers

Guide

Engineer

Technical Person Objects

Arduino Due

Current Sensor ACS-712

Voltage Sensor ZMPT 101B

ESP 8266

Activities

Harmonics

Voltage Sag

Voltage Swell

Power Factor

Storage

Display Users

Energy Auditor

Industries

Educational Institutions

Government

Commercial Users

2.2 Empathy Mapping Canvas

Empathy Mapping Canvas

Design For: Industries Design By: Group 58042

Date: 05/07/2019 Version: 1.0

USERS

Energy Auditor

Industries STAKEHOLDERS

Government

Educational Institutions

ACTIVITIES

Voltage Sage Voltage Swell Power Factor

Display Harmonics Storage

STORY BOARDING

HAPPY: In present day scenario small changes happens In our life, we don’t consider it serious in our normal life. But somehow it affects somewhere in the future. Similarly in industries small changes in power is not considered. So quality of power must be considered. Our project will help to analyse the power quality and save industries from losses.

HAPPY: Good thing in our project is that it can save the data. So we can analyse the fault and issues, when it came and what is the problem when fault occurred. Our project can do the things like view real time screens, record data, capture voltage and current transients, view recorded data.

Sad: In the industrial area enormous machinery runs 24/7. Then the power quality is worth taking into the account. The quality of power affects the outcome of the company. So it is needed to consider the changes occurring in the power like voltage sag, swell, power factor and harmonics.

Sad: Most power quality issues are hidden from normal utilities bills and plant information system, but their consequences include plant downtime, reduced capacity, production waste, premature equipment failure, utility penalties and significant financial impact. To overcome issues continuous monitoring and data saving is required.

f

2.3 Ideation Canvas

Project: Online Monitoring of Power Team: 58042

People

Dealer Client Admin

Activities

Harmonics Power Factor

Voltage Sag Storage

Voltage Swell Display

Situation/Context/Location

Small Scale Industries

Medium Scale Industries

Substation

Power plant

Transmission Lines

Props/ Possible Solutions

Online Monitoring Data Storage Continuous Monitoring

The ideanaut: Ideation Canvas Quality Issues for Industrial

2.4 Product Development Canvas

Product Development Canvas Team/Date/Version: 58042/ 16/10/2019/ 1.0

Purpose

To reduce cost

Accurate measurement

To analyse power quality issues Product Experience

Economical

Accurate Customer Revalidation

Client

Order

OTP

Security

Product Function

Measurement

Display

Storage Data People

Dealer

Admin

Clients Product Features

Data Saving

Displaying

Low Cost

Online Monitoring Reject, Redesign, Retain

More Efficient

More cheaper

More Sensitive

Components

Arduino Due

Current Sensor ACS-712

Voltage Sensor ZMPT 101B

ESP 8266

Load

f

Chapter III

Literature Review

3.1 Power Quality

Power quality can be defined differently for different users. For manufacturer it is defined separately and for consumer it is defined separately. For manufacturer power quality is defined as power supply level for most efficient operation of their machines. While for consumers, power quality is defined as continuous/uninterrupted power supply that ensures continuous running of their business and routine life. But According to IEEE, Power quality can be defined as the concept of powering and grounding sensitive electronic equipments in a manner suitable for the equipment.

In short Power Quality= Performance + Life Expectancy

3.2 Voltage Sag

Voltage Sag is defined as the decrease in the RMS voltage level to 10% to 90% of nominal at the power frequency for durations of 0.5 cycles to 1 minute. (IEEE-1159)

It is also known as voltage dip.

Causes: Natural and Human created, Starting of large motors, lightning, accidents etc.

Effect: System Shutdown or reduced efficiency & Life span of equipment. Hence malfunction of device will result into huge losses.

3.3 Voltage Swell

Voltage Swell is defined as the increase in the RMS voltage level to 110% to 180% of nominal at the power frequency for durations of 0.5 cycles to 1 minute.

Causes: De-energization of large loads, abrupt interruption of current in a line.

3.4 Harmonics

It is defined as sinusoidal component of a periodic wave having a frequency That is an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency

center182880Fundamental+ 3rd Order + 5th Order

4000020000Fundamental+ 3rd Order + 5th Order

3.5 Power Factor

Power Factor is defined as the ratio between the active power of the fundamental wave to the apparent power of the fundamental wave.

Therefore, power factor is the cosine of the displacement angle between the voltage and the current waveforms.

Chapter IV

Project Description

4.1 Block Diagram

173160654069

45496942466LOAD

0LOAD

36550421206503655677103259

44200984504

285831532121213007617615118396217615

380365168275Power supply

00Power supply

365964823216

261237996553Iabc

00Iabc

1388840109316Vabc

00Vabc

1193800132436Measurement

Sensing & condition

00Measurement

Sensing & condition

261384875734

12315432614Microcontroller

(Algorithm)

-classify

-Identify

-Display

-compare

00Microcontroller

(Algorithm)

-classify

-Identify

-Display

-compare

right10813cloud

cloud

403816043195392901359051

446444332385Display

Display

404261691829

Chapter-V

Components Used

5.1 Arduino Due

The Arduino Due is a microcontroller based on the Atmel SAM3X8E ARM Cortex-M3 CPU.

The Arduino Due is said to be first Arduino board based on a 32-bit ARM core microcontroller.

It can be connected to computer with USB cable

It communicates with computer via Arduino Software.

5.2 Current Sensor ACS-712

It is used for current sensing

It has 3 pins: Vcc, Ground, Output

Sensitivity: 185 mV/A

5.3 Voltage Sensor ZMPT 101B

5.4 ESP 8266

Chapter-VI

Programming

6.1 Program to find rms Current

//#include <rtc_clock.h>

const int sensorIn = A0;

int mVperAmp = 185; // use 100 for 20A Module & 66 for 30A Module

double Voltage = 0;

double VRMS = 0;

double AmpsRMS = 0;

void setup(){

Serial.begin(9600);

pinMode(13, OUTPUT);

}

void loop(){

Voltage = getVPP();

VRMS = (Voltage/2.0) *0.707; //root 2 is 0.707

AmpsRMS = (VRMS * 1000)/mVperAmp;

Serial.print(AmpsRMS);

Serial.println(” Amps RMS”);

//Serial.println(VRMS, 0.00001);

if( AmpsRMS > 0.6 )

{

digitalWrite(13,HIGH);

}

else

{

digitalWrite(13,LOW);

}

}

float getVPP()

{

float result;

int readValue; //value read from the sensor

int maxValue = 0; // store max value

int minValue = 1024; // store min value

uint32_t start_time = millis();

while((millis()-start_time) < 1000) //sample for 1 Sec

{

readValue = analogRead(sensorIn);

// see if you have a new maxValue

if (readValue > maxValue)

{

/*record the maximum sensor value*/

maxValue = readValue;

}

if (readValue < minValue)

{

/*record the minimum sensor value*/

minValue = readValue;

}

}

// Subtract min from max

result = ((maxValue – minValue) * 5.0)/1024.0;

return result;

}

6.2 Program to find Dominant Frequency and to plot the

Harmonics on serial plotter

#include “arduinoFFT.h”

#define SAMPLES 128 //Must be a power of 2

#define SAMPLING_FREQUENCY 1000 //Hz, must be less than 10000 due to ADC

arduinoFFT FFT = arduinoFFT();

unsigned int sampling_period_us;

unsigned long microseconds;

double SCL_FREQUENCY;

double vReal[SAMPLES];

double vImag[SAMPLES];

void setup() {

Serial.begin(115200);

sampling_period_us = round(1000000 * (1.0 / SAMPLING_FREQUENCY));

}

void loop()

{

/*SAMPLING*/

for (double i = 0; i < SAMPLES; i++)

{

microseconds = micros(); //Overflows after around 70 minutes!

vReal[i] = analogRead(0);

vImag[i] = 0;

while (micros() < (microseconds + sampling_period_us)) {

}

}

/*FFT*/

FFT.Windowing(vReal, SAMPLES, FFT_WIN_TYP_HAMMING, FFT_FORWARD);

FFT.Compute(vReal, vImag, SAMPLES, FFT_FORWARD);

FFT.ComplexToMagnitude(vReal, vImag, SAMPLES);

double peak = FFT.MajorPeak(vReal, SAMPLES, SAMPLING_FREQUENCY);

/*PRINT RESULTS*/

//Serial.println(peak); //Print out what frequency is the most dominant*/

for (int i = 0; i < (SAMPLES / 2); i++)

{

/*View all three lines in serial terminal to see which frequencies has which amplitudes*/

Serial.print((i * 1.0 * SAMPLING_FREQUENCY) / SAMPLES, 1);

Serial.print(” “);

Serial.println(vReal[i], 1); //View only this line in serial plotter to visualize the bins

}

delay(2000); //Repeat the process every second OR:

//while (1); //Run code once

}

Conclusion

After completing this project it will be useful in monitoring the power quality online. Anyone can get the processed data on his/her mobile and based on that they can analyse the power quality.

References

IEEE Standards Association. 519-2014-IEEE Recommended Practices & Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electric Power Systems. New York, IEEE. 2014.

Sabin DD, Bollen MH. Overview of an IEEE Std 1564-2014 guide for voltage sag indices. In 2014 16th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power (ICHQP) 2014 May 25 (pp. 497-501). IEEE.

Rens J., Van Rooyen T., De Jager F. Where is the power of the IEEE 1459-2010? In2014 IEEE International Workshop on Applied Measurements for Power Systems Proceedings (AMPS) 2014 Sep 24 (pp. 1-6). IEEE.

Sankaran C. Power quality. CRC press; 2001 Dec 21.

United States Patent Application Publication: Publication No. US 2006/0212238 (Power Quality Monitoring).

United States Patent Application Publication: Publication No. US 09/274700.

United States Patent Application Publication: Publication No. US 13/461511

United States Patent Application Publication: Publication No. 14/562817

United States Patent Application Publication: Publication No. 14/429970

Cite this essay

report sem 7. (2019, Dec 03). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/report-sem-7-example-essay

Stay safe, stay original

It’s fast
It’s safe
It’s FREE
check your essay for plagiarism

Not Finding What You Need?

Search for essay samples now

image

Your Answer is very helpful for Us
Thank you a lot!