Children aged 2 to 4 years old choose their own interpretation of what they see rather than the actual view that is shown to others during the egocentric stage, which is the first phase of pre-operational stage (Piaget, 1967). This is evident when Ming snatched the toy from Sara without considering how she would have felt and when he yelled at her saying that the car belonged to him (Running Record, 10:05).
However, Ming offered Lynn a tissue after she was reprimanded by her mom for not wanting to come to school (Checklist, No:12).
This means that Ming also falls within the intuitive stage, the second phase of pre-operational stage, which is derived from the reasoning and the perception of children aged 5 to 7 years old. Therefore, Ming is still in the midst of progressing from the egocentric stage to the intuitive stage.
According to the Ministry of Social and Family Development (2018), children aged 4 to 5 are discovering and learning to express their emotions. They might want to please their peers by following their lead and actions.
This is evident when Ming exhibited the social norm of accepting the play concept of Jake and parked his car further from the “airport” (Running Record, 10:05).
According to Parten’s Classification of Play (1932), children aged 4 to 6 years old engage in cooperative play as they share, take turns, and allow others to be leaders of the group. However, they can be quite difficult when it comes to cooperating with their friends (Ministry of Social and Family Development, 2018). This can be seen when Ming snatched the toy and yelled at Sara when she wanted to borrow it from him (Running Record, 10:05). Also, he was unable to cooperate with Sam to come to a resolution on who to take on the respective roles for the “Police and Thief” game and ended up screaming and crying (Checklist, No:14). With more opportunities given to regulate his emotions through play, Ming will be able to better express his feelings, have more control over his behavior, experiment with decision making that will lead to fewer temper tantrums.
Ming was able to role play with his peers as he took on the role of the customer and engaged himself in different play episodes (Checklist, No:14). Social dramatic play allows children to place themselves in another person’s shoes and impersonate them. This will aid in the development of empathy and consideration of others (Elkonin, 1969).
I will be suggesting two activities to support Ming in regulating his behaviour and understanding other’s perspectives based on his interests, needs and abilities from the observation data collected.
Description of activity: Since Ming loves to read, the teacher can read to the class the storybook “The Rainbow Fish”. Then, she can get the class to dramatise the story by getting them to role play the different characters which include “The Rainbow Fish” and the other fishes. Through this dramatisation, Ming will be able to understand and see the positive effects of sharing and the perspectives of the other fishes who admire the Rainbow Fish’s sparkling scales.
Rationale: This activity will help Ming to share things and understand the perspectives of others.
Description of activity: Child A will play the “Traffic Police” and face the wall. The other children will portray the different types of vehicles and will stand at the other side of the room, forming a straight starting line. When the “Traffic Police” shouts “Green!” the children will move forward. When the “Traffic Police” shouts “Red!” the children will stop while child A turns behind to see if everyone stopped moving. If any child is spotted moving, they can be sent back to the starting line. The winner is the first person to tap the “Traffic Police” without getting caught.
Rationale: This activity will allow Ming to control his impulses and movements which will gradually regulate his behaviour.
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