Radio Access to Students

Scope of study

The scope of this study to analyse how accessible radio to students, what are some environmental factors that affect Rembau's students' listening habits and their level of satisfaction that they derive from listening to radio. This research will conduct in Faculty of Communications and Media Studies among MassComm student UiTM Rembau that randomly pick among them. The total of respondent is depend on Krejcie Morgan table for determining sample size from a given population among MassComm student. The total of respondent is 181 respondent which is 30% of the total of population in the campus.

Significance of study

These findings of the study would benefits more to the radio station itself who want to know about listening habits among university student. It also can be used to the produce of any radio station to make sure that their content meet listener needs. It will engage more listener when the content itself meet their need beside generate income to the radio station.

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Definition of terms


Listening is the ability to accurately receive and interpret messages in the communication process. Listening is key to all effective communication.

Without the ability to listen effectively, messages are easily misunderstood. As aresult communication breaks down and the sender of the message can easily become frustrated or irritated.


Habits are routine behaviours done on a regular basis. They are recurrent and often unconscious patterns of behaviour and are acquired through frequent repetition. Many of these are unconscious as we don't even realise we are doing them.

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A tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain idea, object, person, or situation. Attitude influences an individual's choice of action, and responses to challenges, incentives, and rewards together called stimuli.



Radio plays an important role in providing its listeners with news, music and entertainment, while the radio also acts as a voice that represents them as a community at a higher level. Therefore, there is no argument that the radio serves as a means of communication. In terms of information, the radio provides information in terms of news that is day-to-day information inside and outside the country. Radio also encourages its listeners to know more about entertainment, education, and politics; they can also participate through phone programs, talk programs and program motivation. Radio generally helps listeners to improve their intellectual and moral knowledge.

Nature of Radio

Radio is one of the way to get messages that can deliver too many people at the same time, as it transcends the boundaries of space and time, as well as beyond the illiteracy barriers. Asekun-Olarinmoye (2013) explains that radio is the most important media tool, as it reaches a larger audience anywhere in the world. This is because it is fast, as events that are happening are related to potential audiences.

According to Onabajo (1999) radio can persuade and influence large of audiences, thereby contributing substantially to the construction of national consensus. It is a powerful instrument in the field of public enlightenment, health issues, family planning, cultural revival, business improvement and other social development issues. Radio has the ability to reach millions of people at the same time, but it speaks to individuals personally, and listeners feel good friends in the radio especially when discussing something very relevant, reasonable or personal to him.

Kuewumi, (2009) mention that how amazing radio can reach a large number of people and it's still so private to every individual Listen to it. The listener relies heavily on radio for information, entertainment and education. Radio is a companion the audience. Therefore, interesting programs have a strong hold on the listener who there is a power failure or no battery availability, the day of listener seems to be incomplete.

According to Kuewumi (2009) radio for those who love it, maybe more than a friend, because radio language is often soft and gentle, interesting, teaching and persuasive. Radio has the ability to speak back to its listeners when messages are sent, via phone calls, text messages, social media that consist of Twitter, Facebook and Instagram. This interactive radio properties puts viewers into contact with one another, and creates a horizontal communication stream that give a good impact to the listeners.

McLeish (2005) explains that radio is selective. This means the choice for the listener is only in his mental retaliation that occurs during an item that fails to maintain his or her interest, or when he or she change the frequency to another station. Radio allows listeners to choose whether or not they intentionally choose content, unlike other mass communication media where readers have too much content to determine what they need to attend in fulfilling what they need when listening to radio.

Kuewumi (2009) quotes McLeish (2005) referring to the radio as a blind medium that paints pictures in the minds of his listeners. A blind medium, that has the capacity to stimulate the imagination until when the voice comes out of a loud speaker, the listener trying to visualize what he hears and makes in the eyes of the owner's voice. Basically, listeners often detect and make scenarios only by hearing sound but it still a blind medium that need imagination by hearing the voice not the visual.

Strengths and Weaknesses of Radio

The most important radio benefit offer is its ability to reach a certain audience through special programming. The radio can be adapted to different parts of the world, and can reach people at different times today, because the signal is strong and can reach almost all the world, with instant messages. Radio is not expensive. To get radio sets is very cheap, compared to other mediums. It can take the form of radio transistor, Walkman, and cell phone. It's mobile. It can be easily carried. Unlike other media that require full attention, the radio can be heard during other activities such as driving, homework, reading, and so on. Radio is faster and flexible in presenting news and events than any other mass communication; this is because the event happens, it is related to the audience. It provides the audience with an opportunity to make the right decision. It is interactive and allows immediate feedback from the audience. Listeners are allowed to call and talk to radio personality immediately on the subject being discussed. This makes the program more interactive where various listeners can give their opinions.

Radio messages can be easily understood. One of the biggest disadvantages of radio communication technology is the limited signal network. Strong radio signals are only capable of reaching recipients in certain geographic areas, requiring extensive range of network stations to be available to communicate effectively to large or scattered receivers. According to Hartman, (1999) radio signal also exposed to interference from atmospheric conditions and other broadcasts. In addition, it is difficult to receive clear signals from a particular location, such as a mountain-protected area. Insulation of electrical structures or disturbances from other equipment can reduce the effectiveness of individual radio receivers.

Like most of other electronic communications, the radio requires electricity presence, both at the point of transmission and receiving point. While battery-powered radios are common, these power requirements are more complicated than landline phones, which can operate on electricity that is online to make calls even during an emergency or power outage. Hartman, (1999), stated that the strong radio transmitters, such as regional broadcasting stations, require large amounts of electricity at all times to transmit their signal. Finally, radio communication relies on a very limited broadband frequency spectrum.

Radio Listenership

According to Ismaila (2013). Majority of the population listen to radio regularly especially adults and young ones. Surprisingly, many listeners are loyal to their favourite stations and are often tuned for long periods to a station. Listeners use and relate to radio in a very different way to other media. Radio Advertising Bureau (2013) stated that Ninety percent of listeners are actually doing something else while listening to radio. Typically this will be routine tasks for example, driving, chores, housework. The majority of people are listening to radio on their own. Even if they are listening when other people are around, it is still very rarely a group experience: they will have their own personal experience of the output which is not shared with other people. Radio Advertising Bureau (2013) state their inner eye, and their feelings, is doing the work. This possibly explains why individuals have preferences amongst the radio stations at their disposal.

According to Nielsen (2015), the Malay language station grew to 10.5 million listeners (56.3%) overall compared to 10.2 million listeners (54.9%) in the previous year. The top three Malay stations are ERA FM average weekly reach of 4.8 million listeners (26.0%) followed by SINAR FM average weekly reach of 3.7 million listeners (20.0%) and Hot FM weekly average coverage 2.7 million listeners (14.8%). Both IKIM FM and Best FM recorded a weekly average of 738,000 listeners (4.0%) and 329,000 listeners (1.8%).The best FM was listened to by its listeners to an average of 12 hours a week (11h: 25m) while both SINAR FM (9h: 13m) and ERA FM (8h: 05m) were ordered about nine hours a week followed by HOT FM (7h: 32m).

While listeners for the Chinese language station remained steady until the entire weekly base station remained stable at 4.1 million listeners (21.8%) compared to the previous year at 4.1 million listeners (22.2%). MY FM maintains its top position as the most preferred Chinese language station by Malaysian consumers with a weekly average of 2 million listeners (10.9%) followed by one FM with 900,000 listeners (4.8%) and MELODY FM with 398,000 listeners (2.1%). Malaysians recorded more than 10 hours each week to listen to MELODY FM (10h: 04m) while listeners were waiting for MY FM for information and entertainment for almost eight hours (7h: 52m). Listener tunes into One FM more than six hours of weekly listeners (6h: 18m).

English language stations in Malaysia are stable with overall weekly reach of 10.4% (1.9 million listeners). Malaysia's leading English language station is still with a weekly reach of 1.2 million listeners (6.6%) followed by fly FM with a weekly reach of 528,000 listeners (2.8%). Lite FM 250,000 listeners and Mix FM 245,000 listeners recorded a weekly reach of 1.3% respectively. Listener recorded for six hours of infotainment on both flying FMs (6h: 43m) and (6h: 22m).

THR Raaga and THR Gegar also maintained an average weekly expectation of (3.7 million listeners (20.0%) with listeners connecting to this two-language station for nearly 12 hours a week (11h: 55m), this statistics show that people are still listening to the radio.

According to Lee Risk (2016) 97.2% of Malaysians listen to radio, which means that it is in fact still one of the largest platforms available to get. The research shows that the average listener clocks up just over 2 hours of listening time per day. The most common place for Malaysians to listen to the radio is at home (75.6%) followed by in the car (64.4%). However, listeners aged 18 - 34 prefer to use newer forms of technology to listen to radio. 33.5% tune in via their mobile/smart phones, as compared to the national average of 28.9%. This reflects the changing lifestyles of young Malaysians, and highlights a need for radio to continue evolving with the technology.

A deeper analysis from the previous research finds that 70% people state they "can listen to it anytime and anywhere" and 66% said that radio keeps accompany them. 64% of respondents said they would miss it a lot their favourite radio station if it was cancelled. It is evident here that radio's strength lies in its accessibility, and its role as a substitute for human company is also what makes radio so companionable.

According to Shurentheran (2017), Malaysians aged 10 and above mostly tune in to breakfast shows, aired on weekdays (Monday to Friday, 6am-10am) and drive time shows (Monday to Friday, 4pm-8pm).The data showed the majority of listeners caught the broadcasts in their cars, with a reach of 15.4 million people. Home radio had 12.1 million listeners.

Updated: May 19, 2021
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Radio Access to Students. (2019, Nov 25). Retrieved from

Radio Access to Students essay
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