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psy midterm

PSY 100 – Introduction to Psychology

Midterm Examination

Dr Hassan Belhiah

Name: _Mohamed habott__________________________________

Instructions: This test has 45 multiple choice questions. Read each question carefully and select the best answer on this sheet. Each question has only ONE correct answer.

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1) In the definition of psychology, the term mental processes refers to ________.

a) internal, covert activities

b) outward behavior

c) overt actions and reactions

d) only animal behavior

2) Which of these is the most accurate definition of the discipline of psychology?

a) the scientific study of behavior

b) the scientific study of mental processes

c) the scientific study of behavior and mental processes

d) the scientific study of human evolution

3) The goals of psychology are to ________.

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a) explore the conscious and unconscious functions of the human mind

b) understand, compare, and analyze human behavior

c) improve psychological well-being in all individuals from birth until death

d) describe, explain, predict, and control behavior

4) Fouad was sent to the school psychologist to be tested. Based on his IQ scores, it was decided that he would do well in the gifted child program. This is an example of which goal of psychology?

a) describing behavior

b) explaining behavior

c) predicting behavior

d) controlling behavior

5) The question “When will it happen again?” refers to which of the following goals in psychology?

a) description

b) explanation

c) prediction

d) control

6) In 1879, in Leipzig, Germany, the first psychological laboratory was overseen by ________.

a) William James

b) William Tell

c) Wilhelm Wundt

d) Sigmund Freud

7) Participants in research early in psychology’s history might have been asked to view a chair and describe its color, shape, and texture and other aspects of their conscious experience. These individuals would have been using a method called ________.

a) hypnosis

b) objective introspection

c) psychosurgery

d) psychoanalysis

8) How our minds help us adapt to the world around us was a primary question addressed by which early movement of psychology?

a) Behaviorism

b) Cognitivism

c) Functionalism

d) Structuralism

9) “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts” is a statement associated with the perspective of ________.

a) introspection

b) functionalism

c) psychoanalysis

d) Gestalt psychologists

10) While on a visit to a large city, you observe several billboards in which a series of lights seem to move. Which perspective in psychology would most likely help you understand this phenomenon?

a) Gestalt

b) behavioral

c) humanistic

d) psychodynamic

11) The belief that the unconscious mind has an influence on one’s behavior is part of what early field of psychology?

a) structuralism

b) functionalism

c) psychoanalysis

d) behaviorism

12) Freud stressed the importance of ________.

a) early childhood experiences

b) adolescence

c) early adulthood

d) middle adulthood

13) Which type of psychologist would be most likely to argue that a criminal engages in unlawful behavior because he grew up around older boys who engaged in criminal activities?

a) Gestaltist

b) behaviorist

c) psychodynamic

d) functionalist

14) The Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov discovered that ________.

a) dogs would salivate to the sound of a ticking metronome due to habituation

b) dogs would salivate to the sounds of a ticking metronome due to reflexology

c) dogs would salivate to the sound of a ticking metronome due to a learned reflexive response called conditioning

d) dogs would salivate to the sounds of a ticking metronome due to their fear response

15) A person who has suffered a major stroke and is now experiencing severe personality problems because of the damage would BEST be advised to see a ________.

a) psychiatrist

b) cognitive psychologist

c) psychiatric social worker

d) psychologist

16) As part of a psychology experiment, Brett decides to measure a person’s “anxiety” by noting the number of blinks a person makes in a twenty- minute-social-interaction with a stranger. Brett appears to have offered a(n) ________ of anxiety.

a) variable

b) operational definition

c) theory

d) hypothesis

17) A researcher is investigating the effects of exercise on weight. What are the independent and dependent variables in this experiment?

a) The dependent variable is weight; the independent variable is exercise.

b) The independent variable is calories consumed; the dependent variable is diet.

c) The independent variable is weight; the dependent variable is calories consumed.

d) The dependent variable is amount of exercise; the independent variable is calories consumed.

18) Ali is planning on studying the influence of intelligence on the ability to recall events. If Ali does not account for variables such as age, which could also influence one’s ability to recall these events, age could be considered a(n) ________.

a) random variable

b) dependent variable

c) confounding variable

d) independent variable

19) Which of the following situations best illustrates the placebo effect?

a) You sleep because you are tired.

b) You throw up after eating bad meat.

c) You have surgery to repair a defective heart valve.

d) You drink a nonalcoholic drink and become “intoxicated” because you think it contains alcohol.

20) College students faced with unsolvable problems eventually give up and make only half-hearted attempts to solve new problems, even when the new problems can be solved easily. This behavior is probably due to ________.

a) learned helplessness b) latent learning

c) classical conditioning d) operant conditioning

21) Which of the following statements about learning is NOT true?

a) Learning is another word for “maturation.”

b) Learning is relatively permanent.

c) Learning involves changes in behavior.

d) Learning involves experiences.

22) Learning to make a reflex response to a stimulus other than to the original, natural stimulus is called ________.

a) classical conditioning

b) operant conditioning

c) memory linkage

d) adaptation

23) A person who makes their moral judgments (i.e., of why an action is either right or wrong) on the basis of society’s rules is probably in which stage of Kohlberg’s theory

of moral development?

a) Pre-conventional

b) Conventional

c) Post-conventional

d) Initiative vs. guilt

24) According to Piaget, a child develops “object permanence” when he or she understands that

a) Things exist even when they disappear from view. b) Eventually all living things will die.

c) Matter can be neither created nor destroyed.

d) All things are either solids, liquids, or gasses.

25) Which of Erik Erikson’s psychosocial crises revolves around the child’s learning to direct his or her own behavior?

a) trust versus mistrust

b) initiative versus guilt

c) industry versus inferiority

d) autonomy versus shame and doubt

26) Fraternal twins are ________ similar genetically than are regular, non-twin siblings.

a) much more

b) no more

c) slightly more

d) much less

27) Which of the following theorists believe that people go through stages, each of which has a “crisis” associated with it?

a. Bandura

b. Kohlberg

c. Piaget

d. Erikson

28) 28) Preoperational, concrete operations, and formal operations are all stages devised by _______.

a. Bruner

b. Freud

c. Skinner

d. Piaget

29) A grandmother gives her grandchild a cookie because the child cleaned her room. What is the cookie in this example?

a) punisher

b) positive reinforcer

c) negative reinforcer

d) conditioned response

30) When Joe thinks about his missed wife, he drinks alcohol, which helps dull his feelings. This best illustrates:

a) positive reinforcement.

b) negative reinforcement.

c) positive punishment.

d) negative punishment.

31) Which of the following is an example of punishment by removal?

a) receiving harsh criticism for lying to your parents

b) losing telephone privileges for staying out late

c) getting stung by a bee when walking barefoot outside and stepping on the bee

d) getting punched for making a rude comment to a girl

32) Which of the following criteria helps to increase the effectiveness of punishment?

a) when it immediately follows the undesirable behavior

b) when it is inconsistent

c) when it is given with classical conditioning

d) when it is indirect

33) Sarah is punished for spilling her cereal. Her parents give her a spanking and send her to her room where she cries. Later, her puppy makes a mess on the floor. Sarah kicks her puppy and puts it out in the yard where it whines sadly. Which of the following statements explains her behavior toward the puppy?

a) Sarah is correctly applying Skinner’s principles of negative reinforcement to change her dog’s behavior.

b) Sarah is using negative punishment on her dog and it will change the dog’s behavior.

c) Sarah is modeling the aggressive behavior her parents demonstrated to her.

d) Sarah’s parents probably think that the best way to raise kids is “spare the rod, spoil the child.”

34) Learning that occurs but is not immediately reflected in a behavior change is called ________.

a) insight

b) innate learning

c) indirect learning

d) latent learning

35) The “aha!” experience is known as ________.

a) latent learning

b) insight learning

c) thoughtful learning

d) conditioned learning

36) Which type of learning occurs when we observe how other people act?

a) insight learning

b) operant conditioning

c) classical conditioning

d) observational learning

37) Observational learning theory’s foremost proponent is ________.

a) Watson

b) Thorndike

c) Skinner

d) Bandura

38) Laila is trying to teach her son to do the laundry by watching her. According to observational learning theory, to be effective what must occur?

a) Her son must always model the behavior immediately.

b) Her son must be motivated to learn how to do the laundry.

c) Her son must be able to complete other tasks while watching her.

d) Laila must show her son how to do the laundry while she is making dinner.

39) During which stage of Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development might it be most important for a child to have opportunities for success (e.g., with school activities such as reading and writing)?

a)Trust vs. mistrust

b)Autonomy vs. shame and doubt

c)Initiative vs. guilt

d) Industry vs. inferiority

40) The scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age from conception to death is called ________.

a) abnormal psychology

b) biology

c) human development

d) maturational studies

41) In a _______design, one group of participants is followed and assessed as the group ages.

a) cohort

b) longitudinal

c) behavior genetics

d) cross-sectional

42) A researcher is interested in studying the development of a sense of humor. She collects data from groups of 6-year-olds, 16-year-olds, 26-year-olds, and 46-year-olds. What type of research design is the researcher using?

a) cohort

b) cross-sequential

c) behavior genetics

d) cross-sectional

43) Prof Belhiah believes people who are very aggressive have become so because of their life experiences. Prof Mouti believes people are more or less aggressive from birth because of genetic factors. Which of the following terms best describes their disagreement?

a) nature versus nurture

b) cognition versus emotion

c) classical versus operant conditioning

d) cross-sectional studies versus longitudinal studies

44) Infant reflexes are _______.

a) innate involuntary behavior patterns

b) voluntary behavior patterns

c) learned

d) not used as a means for survival

45) If you spank a child because he was being impolite, this is an example of:

a) positive punishment

b) negative punishment

c) positive reinforcement

d) negative reinforcement

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