Name: _Mohamed habott__________________________________
Instructions: This test has 45 multiple choice questions. Read each question carefully and select the best answer on this sheet. Each question has only ONE correct answer.
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1) In the definition of psychology, the term mental processes refers to ________.
2) Which of these is the most accurate definition of the discipline of psychology?
b) the scientific study of mental processes
c) the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
d) the scientific study of human evolution
3) The goals of psychology are to ________.
a) explore the conscious and unconscious functions of the human mind
b) understand, compare, and analyze human behavior
c) improve psychological well-being in all individuals from birth until death
d) describe, explain, predict, and control behavior
4) Fouad was sent to the school psychologist to be tested. Based on his IQ scores, it was decided that he would do well in the gifted child program. This is an example of which goal of psychology?
5) The question “When will it happen again?” refers to which of the following goals in psychology?
6) In 1879, in Leipzig, Germany, the first psychological laboratory was overseen by ________.
7) Participants in research early in psychology’s history might have been asked to view a chair and describe its color, shape, and texture and other aspects of their conscious experience. These individuals would have been using a method called ________.
8) How our minds help us adapt to the world around us was a primary question addressed by which early movement of psychology?
9) “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts” is a statement associated with the perspective of ________.
10) While on a visit to a large city, you observe several billboards in which a series of lights seem to move. Which perspective in psychology would most likely help you understand this phenomenon?
11) The belief that the unconscious mind has an influence on one’s behavior is part of what early field of psychology?
12) Freud stressed the importance of ________.
13) Which type of psychologist would be most likely to argue that a criminal engages in unlawful behavior because he grew up around older boys who engaged in criminal activities?
14) The Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov discovered that ________.
a) dogs would salivate to the sound of a ticking metronome due to habituation
b) dogs would salivate to the sounds of a ticking metronome due to reflexology
c) dogs would salivate to the sound of a ticking metronome due to a learned reflexive response called conditioning
d) dogs would salivate to the sounds of a ticking metronome due to their fear response
15) A person who has suffered a major stroke and is now experiencing severe personality problems because of the damage would BEST be advised to see a ________.
16) As part of a psychology experiment, Brett decides to measure a person’s “anxiety” by noting the number of blinks a person makes in a twenty- minute-social-interaction with a stranger. Brett appears to have offered a(n) ________ of anxiety.
17) A researcher is investigating the effects of exercise on weight. What are the independent and dependent variables in this experiment?
a) The dependent variable is weight; the independent variable is exercise.
b) The independent variable is calories consumed; the dependent variable is diet.
c) The independent variable is weight; the dependent variable is calories consumed.
d) The dependent variable is amount of exercise; the independent variable is calories consumed.
18) Ali is planning on studying the influence of intelligence on the ability to recall events. If Ali does not account for variables such as age, which could also influence one’s ability to recall these events, age could be considered a(n) ________.
19) Which of the following situations best illustrates the placebo effect?
b) You throw up after eating bad meat.
c) You have surgery to repair a defective heart valve.
d) You drink a nonalcoholic drink and become “intoxicated” because you think it contains alcohol.
20) College students faced with unsolvable problems eventually give up and make only half-hearted attempts to solve new problems, even when the new problems can be solved easily. This behavior is probably due to ________.
a) learned helplessness b) latent learning
c) classical conditioning d) operant conditioning
21) Which of the following statements about learning is NOT true?
a) Learning is another word for “maturation.”
c) Learning involves changes in behavior.
22) Learning to make a reflex response to a stimulus other than to the original, natural stimulus is called ________.
23) A person who makes their moral judgments (i.e., of why an action is either right or wrong) on the basis of society’s rules is probably in which stage of Kohlberg’s theory
24) According to Piaget, a child develops “object permanence” when he or she understands that
a) Things exist even when they disappear from view. b) Eventually all living things will die.
c) Matter can be neither created nor destroyed.
d) All things are either solids, liquids, or gasses.
25) Which of Erik Erikson’s psychosocial crises revolves around the child’s learning to direct his or her own behavior?
26) Fraternal twins are ________ similar genetically than are regular, non-twin siblings.
27) Which of the following theorists believe that people go through stages, each of which has a “crisis” associated with it?
28) 28) Preoperational, concrete operations, and formal operations are all stages devised by _______.
29) A grandmother gives her grandchild a cookie because the child cleaned her room. What is the cookie in this example?
30) When Joe thinks about his missed wife, he drinks alcohol, which helps dull his feelings. This best illustrates:
31) Which of the following is an example of punishment by removal?
a) receiving harsh criticism for lying to your parents
b) losing telephone privileges for staying out late
c) getting stung by a bee when walking barefoot outside and stepping on the bee
d) getting punched for making a rude comment to a girl
32) Which of the following criteria helps to increase the effectiveness of punishment?
a) when it immediately follows the undesirable behavior
c) when it is given with classical conditioning
33) Sarah is punished for spilling her cereal. Her parents give her a spanking and send her to her room where she cries. Later, her puppy makes a mess on the floor. Sarah kicks her puppy and puts it out in the yard where it whines sadly. Which of the following statements explains her behavior toward the puppy?
a) Sarah is correctly applying Skinner’s principles of negative reinforcement to change her dog’s behavior.
b) Sarah is using negative punishment on her dog and it will change the dog’s behavior.
c) Sarah is modeling the aggressive behavior her parents demonstrated to her.
d) Sarah’s parents probably think that the best way to raise kids is “spare the rod, spoil the child.”
34) Learning that occurs but is not immediately reflected in a behavior change is called ________.
35) The “aha!” experience is known as ________.
36) Which type of learning occurs when we observe how other people act?
37) Observational learning theory’s foremost proponent is ________.
38) Laila is trying to teach her son to do the laundry by watching her. According to observational learning theory, to be effective what must occur?
a) Her son must always model the behavior immediately.
b) Her son must be motivated to learn how to do the laundry.
c) Her son must be able to complete other tasks while watching her.
d) Laila must show her son how to do the laundry while she is making dinner.
39) During which stage of Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development might it be most important for a child to have opportunities for success (e.g., with school activities such as reading and writing)?
40) The scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age from conception to death is called ________.
41) In a _______design, one group of participants is followed and assessed as the group ages.
42) A researcher is interested in studying the development of a sense of humor. She collects data from groups of 6-year-olds, 16-year-olds, 26-year-olds, and 46-year-olds. What type of research design is the researcher using?
43) Prof Belhiah believes people who are very aggressive have become so because of their life experiences. Prof Mouti believes people are more or less aggressive from birth because of genetic factors. Which of the following terms best describes their disagreement?
c) classical versus operant conditioning
d) cross-sectional studies versus longitudinal studies
44) Infant reflexes are _______.
a) innate involuntary behavior patterns
45) If you spank a child because he was being impolite, this is an example of:
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