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When it comes to child development there are two major influences. These influences are nature which are traits we inherit and nurture which are the traits we learn. Nature and nurture are different in several ways but they both play an important role in child development. Although they both influence development the topic of which has the greatest influence in frequently debated. This paper will describe the relationship between nature and nurture, explain the biological, environmental, societal, and cultural influences on child development in relation to nature and nurture, and discuss whether nature or nurture has the most influence on child development.
Nature and nurture are different in several ways but share one similarity which is the fact that they both have an influence on child development. Both of them play an important role in how children develop as well as the type of people they will grow up to be. In the video “Nature vs. Nurture in Child Development” Shirael Pollack states that children are born with some traits and characteristics while they learn others (Pollack, S.
n.d.). Nature is one(s) genes. The traits and characteristics that they inherit such as skin tone, eye color, and hair color. Nurture is what they are taught or what they learn from the people around them such as manners; learning to say “please” and “thank you”.
Read more: ssay explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of personal factors.
There are different influences on child development in relation to nature and nurture.
These influences are biological, environmental, societal, and cultural. Nature is responsible for the biological influences. Biological influences are traits that are passed parents to their children. They include appearance, talents, and abilities, and also certain illnesses (Groark, C., McCarthy, S. & Kirk, A., 2014). Nurture is responsible for environmental influences. These are things that are in a child(s) environment that they are exposed to or experience. Nurture can also be responsible for cultural and societal influences on child development which can be instilled subtly through natural interactions with others.
The cultural and societal influences can be direct and indirect impacts of culture, race, and ethnicity as well as the powerful effects of economics, gender roles, marriage, divorce, single parenthood, and religion (Groark, C., McCarthy, S. & Kirk, A., 2014). No matter what type of influence there is on child development it is either related to nature or nurture.
Some people believe that nature and nurture are partners because of the fact that they both play a role in child development. However, theorists have different views about the two. Some theorists believe that nature is ultimately responsible for growth while other theorists believe that children become whatever their environment shapes them into (McDevitt, 2010). Regardless of what the different views of theorists are on the topic of nature versus nurture, the fact of the matter is that both of them play a role in how children develop and have some type of impact on what and how they will be when they grow up.
Both nature and nurture play important roles in child development. Regardless of if one has more of an influence than the other, the fact is that they both impact how children develop. Truth of the matter is that they are different but share one important factor which is the fact that they help make children who they are. This paper described the relationship between nature and nurture, explained the biological, environmental, societal, and cultural influences on child development in relation to nature and nurture, and also discussed which of the two influences is more influential than the other.
References Groark, C., McCarthy, S. & Kirk, A. (2014). Early child development: From theory to practice. Bridgepoint Education: San Diego, CA. McDevitt, T.M. (2010). Nature and nurture: Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/nature-nurture/ Pollack, S. (n.d.). Nature vs. nurture in child development [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.howcast.com/videos/513307-Nature-vs-Nurture-Child-Development
1. Explain why positive relationships with children and young people are important and how these are built and maintained Positive relationships with children are paramount as a child enjoys being with you and feels valued will respond better. They are more likely to enjoy both playing and learning and in turn are more likely to show signs of positive behaviour. Building a positive relationship with children begins with considering their own individual needs and adapting the way in which you work to meet them as effectively as possible. Each child should feel valued, nurtured and acknowledged although as a practitioner the way you go about this will vary according to each child’s personality and age. With babies for example, physical contact is important, while with slightly older children talking and playing, especially on a one-to-one basis with a key-worker, is a solid building block. Getting the parents involved from the very beginning with several visits so that the child can familiarize themselves with both the practitioner and the setting is key. Consistency is important. The child needs to be confident that they way in which you respond to them and their needs is consistent. Having a key-worker who is only there (whether literally or metaphorically) only half of the time is not going to inspire confidence in the child which in turn is going to affect their relationship with you. Observing, listening and responding to and respecting a child’s needs at whatever age is key; understanding that every child is an individual and will respond to different approaches needs to be considered at all times.
2. Demonstrate how to listen to and build relationships with children and young people
3. Evaluate own effectiveness in building relationships with children or young people. While there is always room for improvement, I feel that personally one of my biggest strengths is my relationship with the children in my care, in particular my key children. Feedback from parents has brought to mine and my colleagues attention that I have built up fantastic relationships. My children are happy to be dropped off on a morning and parents have informed me that their children regularly talk about me at home. By spending time with the children in groups and individually I have learnt what each child needs and responds to. We have a mutual respect for one another and by going out of my way to settle the children when they initially started in the room laid down the foundations for building strong bonds which have lasted even after they have moved on upstairs. Outcome 2 Be able to build positive relationships with people involved in the care of children and young people The learner can:
1. Explain why positive relationships with people involved in the care of children and young people are important
Because you are working together with the same goals in order to help the child, having a positive relationship with others you are working with is important. Your everyday colleagues and yourself should have strong working relationship as children are very intuitional and can pick up any tensions around them, effecting their behaviour and development. Working as a team to provide all the children in your care is an absolute must and it makes everything a lot easier for everyone (adult or child) if all involved have a strong relationship. If you and your colleagues have poor relationships, communication begins to break down and you may be working towards different outcomes which are both confusing and unproductive. It is equally important that any outside agencies involved in the care of a child, such as a Speech, Language and Communication Officer, is able to build up a good working relationship with yourself. Knowing the child best you need to be able to pass on any observations and personal judgements to be able to give the agencies an idea of what needs to be done. You will be helping one another to work with the child the achieve their full potential and if not reading from the same hymn sheet so to say, you will be hindering as opposed to helping, holding the child back at best. Carers and parents are probably the most important people to build a relationship with, second only to the child themselves. A good relationship means that you can pass on information effectively. They are able to inform you of how the child has been outside of the setting; they can pass on any wishes, such as when to begin potty training, knowing that you will be working with them to achieve the goal; they are, most importantly, comfortable leaving their child in your care on a regular basis.
In this piece of work I will describe what nature and nurture are and I will discuss the nature vs. nurture debate in relation to the individual development. What is nature vs. nurture?
There are plenty of factors that motivate our growth and development throughout our life such as: Nature is the theory that our personality, intelligence and our sexual adjustment is inherited by our families DNA. Nature is the environment around us that is argued to change the way we are brought up and behave. Psychologists believe that the environmental factors around us change the way we are not nature around us. Nature can consist of many different things such as: our families DNA, our family’s behaviour while around us, inherited illness -such as asthma, cystic fibrosis and diabetes and our sexual orientation. Those who adopt an extreme belief are known as nativists. Their basic assumption is that the characteristics of the individual as a whole are a product of nature and those individual differences are due to each person’s unique genetic code such as their DNA from our families. Even though asthma and diabetes can be inherited through our families DNA, nurture can have an effect on these since if people are smoking in the environment around you, and you’re breathing that smoke into your body, over time this could lead to lung damage which could ultimately end up in an individual developing asthma, living in a polluted area can also affect your lungs. So there are many types of environmental factors that can affect an illness that can be inherited Also nurture can affect somebody developing diabetes as well since the food we are exposed to such as: takeaways and snacks and high calorie fizzy drinks can cause a person to become overweight/obese which will lead to low blood sugars, this can make a person develop diabetes. Nurture is the theory that our personality and our intelligence are learnt by individualism and by our personal experiences. Nurture is linked to your childhood or how you were been taught to be brought up. Nurture is the effect the people in your life had on you growing up. For example this would be the values your parents taught you, like how to behave or speak to people. Nature is the genetics you gained while developing in the womb, like your eye colour, hair colour, hair texture, height and body frame.
Within the nature vs. nurture debate, scientists have carried out studies on twins to see if nature affected how they grew up or changed how they did things. On the second twin they used nurture to see if that changed how an individual did things. Identical twins will often not share the exact same values or beliefs as one and other. If genetically identical twins, were raised in different environments such as: one twin in nature and the other twin in the nurture side of the debate then their physical and behavioural traits would be very different. Psychiatrist Peter R. Breggin, who believes that the twin studies that have been done to prove that schizophrenia is genetic is wrong but he does believe that twin studies should be carried out to see how nature and nurture affect people’s upbringing.
Various studies show that genetic factors can affect a human’s health. Scientists suggest that by our genetic make-up can change the way we respond to environmental factors. Francis Galton compared identical twins to non-identical twins to see how nature affected the way they behaved and how they were brought up with the environment around them. Francis Galton debated which side was stronger whether it was nature or nurture by carrying out twin studies, Francis supported the nature side of the debate. Francis carried out twin studies to show the importance of genetics and how DNA affected human’s actions and upbringing. The results from Francis twin studies are that a human behavior’s is down to genetics. Genes cause people not only to have certain physical appearance which is the reason why identical twins look so much alike, but also how they behave, how they develop as a child, and whether they are at risk for inherited diseases or mental health problems.
Meanwhile in the nurture side of the debate, John Watson supported the theory that love, care and individualism can change the way we respond to things in life. John Watson believed we are blank slates at birth and that simply nurture can change the way we are brought up. The most well-known case backed up by nurture was Genie- feral child. Genie was not loved or cared for in her first thirteen years of life. She was tied up to a potty chair and wasn’t allowed to make any noise. If she made any noise she got severely beaten by her father. When Genie was discovered she did not know how to speak and wasn’t able to understand any language. Researchers were very interested in Genie case they discovered her brain waves had abnormal pattern. Researchers were unable to fully understand whether she was born with a learning disability or if her life of abuse had caused her to have such terrible brain damage, but the abuse she suffered would have slowed down Genie developing physically, intellectually, emotionally and socially. Lastly, even if she had a learning disability, she would have still been affected.
Genie was deprived of everything that nurturing in her life. Love, care, comfort, safety and security were something Genie had never experienced before in her life. But thanks to the researchers Genie started to learn a small part of the English language and she began to build social relationships with doctors This can be compared to the Oxana case. Oxana was born “normal” but she was 3 years old she was living in a dog kennel behind her house where she was cared for by dogs and learned the behavior of dogs and started to act like one. Nurture affected how Oxana developed in the PIES as a young girl. When she was discovered, Oxana found it difficult to manage with normal human social communication since she had been deprived of intellectual and social skills that were suppose to set her up for life her only emotional support had come from the dogs she lived with. Oxana’s lack of exposure to language in a social context made it very difficult for her to improve her language skills. While in these surroundings Oxana learnt this behavior from her only source of company which was the dogs. This is why John Watson believes that nurture changed how Oxana grew up. Nurture is the side john Watson supported. Oxana and Genie link together since they were both deprived of everything nurturing in their young lives. Oxana’s parents were alcoholics and simply could not care for her so they left her outside on one night and Oxana found warmth in a dog kennel. John Watson believed that if Oxana and Genie had a loving and caring home life, none of this would have happened and that they would have grew up as ordinary children. Nurture made genie and Oxana who they were not genetic’s (nature) which Psychologists believe in, this is where Psychologists and John Watson have debated over.
To conclude, the Nature vs. Nurture debate would have affected Amy Winehouse since it would have affected her developing physically, intellectually, emotionally and socially during her entire life. Since the environment round her could have affected her developing in many different ways throughout her life. Etc.
1 Understand the pattern of development that would normally be expected for children and young people from birth-19 years. 1.1 Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development that would normally be expected in children and young people from birth – 19 years.
Children do not develop at the same rate as each another. Every child has a different rate of development. Areas of development:
These are the main areas of development
1. Physical development
2. Social development
3. Intellectual development
4. Language development
5. Moral development
Read more: equence and rate of development chart essay
Below is the guide at which they might develop for the age ranges. 0-6 months:
* Physical development : By the time he is six months old, a baby will be able to turn their head to sound and movement, watch their parent’s face while feeding, smile at familiar faces and voices, reach their feet when lying down, reach for and grab objects, and put things in their mouths independently. * Social and emotional development: A six month old baby will respond to their mother’s face, smile, and need comfort and cuddles from their parents. * Language development: A six month old baby will be able to make a variety of happy sounds, will respond to music and singing, and will mirror their parents’ movements and expressions. Feeding problems: rejection of breast or bottle; excessive vomiting. Developmental regression: depression; unresponsiveness; failure to smile, show displeasure, or cuddle; rejection of comforting efforts. * Intellectual development: Learns through senses. Coos and vocalizes spontaneously. Babbles in syllables. * Moral development:
* Physical development: From 8 months, begins to crawl.
From 9 months, may begin to walk. Learns to let go with hands. Puts everything in mouth. Begins teething. Is physically unable to control bowels. By the time he is one year old, the toddler will have learnt to sit first with support, and then without, he will be able to roll over, he will begin to crawl or shuffle, he will be able to stand with support, he will raise his arms when he wants to be lifted, he will respond to his name, he will pass objects from hand to hand, look for things that have been hidden, and reach for food. * Social and emotional development: A one year old will enjoy the company of others and will enjoy playing simple games, and will show affection to his carer. Finds mother or mother substitute extremely important. Will talk to you, using babbling sounds. Will start to imitate behaviours of others. Eating is a major source of interaction. Will not “play nicely” with other infants; will poke, pull, push, instead. This is because the child doesn’t distinguish others as equal beings. Needs to feel sure that someone will take care of him/her. Becomes unhappy when mother or primary caregiver leaves. Draws away from strangers. Needs to be held and cuddled with warmth and love. * Intellectual development: Learns through the senses, especially the mouth. Likes to put things in and take things out of mouth, cupboards, boxes, etc. Likes to repeat the same behaviour, but also likes to see novel things. Likes to hear objects named. Begins to understand such familiar words as eat, Mama, bye-bye, doggie. May not speak until age 1 or later. * Language development. Passivity; withdrawal; lack of initiative, e.g., lack of response to stimulating people, toys, pets; crying frequently and easily; learning slowly; poor muscle coordination; injured easily. All of these problems interrelate; e.g., the child who is passive is less likely to develop the skills needed to explore the world, such as climbing and crawling. The resulting limited experience can manifest itself in slow learning and inability to take risks. * Moral development:
* Physical development: Begins to walk, creep up and down stairs, climb on furniture, etc. Enjoys pushing and pulling things. Begins to feed self with a spoon and can hold a cup. Can stack two or three blocks. Likes to take things apart. Likes to put things in and take things out of cupboards,
mouth, boxes, etc. Takes off pull-on clothing. Still cannot control bowels. * Social and emotional development: Enjoys interaction with familiar adults. Imitates and copies behaviour. Begins to be demanding, assertive, independent. Finds mother still very important. Waves bye-bye. Plays alone but does not play well with others the same age. Is possessive of own things. Needs the warmth, security and attention of a special adult. Is learning trust; needs to know that someone will provide care and meet needs. Has temper tantrums. Is generally in a happy mood. But may become angry when others interfere with child’s activities. May become frustrated because of not being able to put wishes into words. * Intellectual development: Learn through senses. Is curious, likes to explore; pokes fingers in holes. Can say the names of some common objects. Use one-word sentences, “No,” “Go,” “Down,” “Bye-bye.” Can point to and name common body parts and familiar objects. Can understand simple directions. Begins to enjoy simple songs and rhymes. * Language development: Excessive adaptability, e.g., withdrawal, passivity, fearfulness; obsessive head banging, finger sucking, rocking; lack of interest in objects, environment, or play; overly rebellious, e.g., excessive temper tantrums, uncontrollable hitting, biting, and hyperventilating, and/or constipation. * Moral development: Is inwardly sensitive to adult approval and disapproval, despite tantrums and bursts of anger.
* Physical development: Runs, kicks, climbs, throws a ball, jumps, pull, pushes, etc.; enjoys rough-and-tumble play. Is increasingly able to manipulate small objects with hands; likes to scribble; eats easily with a spoon; helps to dress self; and can build a tower of 6 to 7 blocks. Begins to control bowels; bladder control comes slightly later. * Social and emotional development: Still considers mother very important. Does not like strangers. Imitates and attempts to participate in adult behaviours, e.g., washing dishes, mopping floors, applying make-up. Can do things with others, such as listening to a story. Needs to develop a sense of self. Needs to do some things for self; enjoys praise. Tests his/her powers; says “No!” often; shows lots of emotion, laughs, squeals, throws temper tantrums, cries violently. Fears loud noises, quick moves, large animals, and mother’s
departure. * Intellectual development: Continue to learn through senses; still is very curious. Has a short attention span. Uses three- to four-word sentences. Begins to sing simple songs and say rhymes. * Language development: Excessive adaptability, e.g., withdrawal, passivity, fearfulness; obsessive head banging, finger sucking, rocking; lack of interest in objects, environment or play; overly rebellious, e.g., excessive temper tantrums, uncontrollable hitting, biting, and hyperventilating, and/or constipation. Excessive stubbornness; consistent over-reaction to reasonable limits; weak sense of positive, distinct self, which manifests, e.g., as not making choices, meekly accepting others’ impositions. * Moral development: Usually appears self-reliant and wants to be good, but is not yet mature enough to be able to carry out most promises.
* Physical development: Runs, jumps, begins to climb ladders; can start to ride tricycles; tries anything; is very active; tends to wander away. Scribbles in circles; likes to play with mud, sand, finger paints, etc.; can begin to put together simple puzzles and construction toys. Dresses self fairly well; cannot tie shoes. Can feed self with a spoon or fork. Takes care of toilet needs more independently; can stay dry all day but perhaps not all night; becomes very interested in own body and how it works. * Social and emotional development: Is sensitive about the feelings of other people toward self. Is developing some independence and self-reliance. May have fear of strangers, animals, and the dark. Is anxious to please adults and is dependent on their approval, love, and praise. May strike out emotionally at situations or persons when having troublesome feelings. Can leave mother for short periods but mother is still very important. Begins to notice differences in the way men and women act. Imitates adults. Starts to be more interested in others; begins group play; likes company. Is not ready for games or competition; groups are not well formed. * Intellectual development: Continues to learn through senses. Uses imagination a lot; starts dramatic play and role playing; likes to play grown-up roles, e.g., Mommy, Daddy, fire-fighter, spaceman, Wonder Woman. Begins to see cause-and-effect relationships. Is curious and inquisitive. * Language development: Excessive fears; extreme separation anxiety; bedwetting;
shyness; threatening or bullying peers; inhibited play; ritualistic behaviours, especially around food; persistent speech problems; toileting problems; excessive fear of strangers; lack of interest in others. * Moral development: Begins to know right from wrong. Finds other’s opinions of self to be important. Is more self-controlled and less aggressive. Uses extreme verbal threats such as, “I’ll kill you,” without understanding full implications.
* Physical development: Has large vocabulary, 1500 to 2000 words; has strong interest in language; is fascinated by words and silly sounds. Likes to shock adults with bathroom language. Has insatiable curiosity; talks incessantly; asks innumerable questions. Nightmares are common. Has imaginary friends and active fantasy life. Is very active and consistently on the go. Is sometimes physically aggressive. Has rapid muscle growth. * Social and emotional development: Really needs to play with others; has relationships that are often stormy; when playing in groups, will be selective about playmates. Likes to imitate adult activities; has good imagination. Relies less on physical aggression; is learning to share, accept rules, take turns. Exhibits a great deal of name calling; can be demanding and/or threatening. Often is bossy, belligerent; goes to extremes, bossy then shy; frequently whines, cries, and complains. Often tests people to see who can be controlled. Is boastful, especially about self and family. Has growing confidence in self and world. Is beginning to develop some feeling of insecurity. * Intellectual development: Has large vocabulary, 1500 to 2000 words; has strong interest in language; is fascinated by words and silly sounds. Likes to shock adults with bathroom language. Has insatiable curiosity; talks incessantly; asks innumerable questions. Nightmares are common. Has imaginary friends and active fantasy life. * Language development: Excessive fears; extreme separation anxiety; bedwetting; shyness; threatening or bully peers; inhibited play and talk; ritualistic behaviors, especially around food; persistent speech problems; toileting problems; excessive fear of strangers; lack of interest in others or in a child’s normal activities. * Moral development: Is becoming aware of right and wrong; usually has desire to do right; may blame others for own
* Physical development: Can dress and undress self. May be farsighted, a common condition, causing hand and eye coordination problems. Is able to care for own toilet needs independently. May have stomach-aches or vomit when asked to eat disliked foods; prefers plain cooking but accepts wider choice of foods; may have larger appetite. * Social and emotional development: May fear mother won’t return, since mother is the centre of the child’s world. Copies adults and likes their praise. Plays with boys and girls; is calm and friendly; is not too demanding in relations with others; can play with one child or a group of children, though prefers members of the same sex. Likes conversation during meals. Knows differences in sexes and is more modest. Is interested in where babies come from. If doesn’t like school, may develop nausea and vomiting. Is experiencing an age of conformity; is critical of those who do not conform. In general, is reliable and well-adjusted. May show some fear of the dark, falling, dogs, or bodily harm, though this is not a particularly fearful age. If tired, nervous, or upset, may exhibit the following behaviours: nail biting, eye blinking, throat clearing, sniffling, nose twitching, and/or thumb-sucking. Is concerned with pleasing adults. Is easily embarrassed. * Intellectual development: May stutter if tired or nervous; may lisp. Tries only what he/she can accomplish; will follow instructions and accept supervision. Knows colours, numbers, etc.; can identify penny, nickel, dime; may be able to print a few letters; a few children learn to read on their own. * Language development: Excessive fears; extreme separation anxiety; bedwetting; shyness; threatening or bullying peers; inhibited play; ritualistic behaviors, especially around food; persistent speech problems; toileting problems; excessive fear of strangers; lack of interest in others. * Moral development: Is interested in being good, but may tell untruths or blame others for wrongdoings because of intense desire to please and do right. Wants to do what he/she believes is right and avoid what is wrong.
* Physical development: Is vigorous, full of energy, and generally
restless, e.g., foot tapping, wiggling, being unable to sit still. Is clumsy due to poor coordination. Has growth spurts. May occasionally wet or soil him-/herself when upset or excited. Has marked awareness of sexual differences; may want to look at bodies of opposite sex (playing doctor, house, etc.); touches and plays with genitals less frequently; will accept the idea that a baby grows in the womb. Has unpredictable preferences and strong refusals. Eats with fingers and talks with mouth full. Commonly suffers more colds, sore throats, and other illness, because of exposure at school. * Social and emotional development: Feels insecure as a result of drive toward independence. Finds it difficult to accept criticism, blame, or punishment. Child is centre of own world and tends to be boastful. Generally is rigid, negative, demanding, inadaptable, slow to respond; exhibits violent extremes; tantrums reappear. If not the winner, often makes accusations that others are cheating. May blame mother for anything that goes wrong. Male children will identify strongly with father. Child doesn’t like being kissed in public, especially boys. Identifies with adults outside the family (e.g., teacher, neighbour). Friendships are unstable; is sometimes unkind to peers; is a tattletale. Must be a winner; changes rules to fit own needs; may have no group loyalty. In school, may develop problems if expectations are too high; has trouble concentrating; may fool around, whisper, or bother other children. Perpetual activity makes meals difficult. Breakfast may be the most difficult meal. * Intellectual development: May develop stuttering when under stress. Wants all of everything and finds it difficult to make choices. Begins to have organized, continuous memories; most children learn to read and write, although some don’t until after age 7. * Language development: Excessive fears; extreme separation anxiety; bedwetting; shyness; threatening or bullying peers; inhibited play; ritualistic behaviours, especially around food; persistent speech problems and problems centring around toileting; excessive fear of strangers; lack of interest in others. * Moral development: Is very concerned with personal behaviour, particularly as it affects family and friends; sometimes blames others for own wrongdoing.
* Physical development: Drives self until exhausted. May frequently pout.
Now has well-established hand-eye coordination and is likely to be more interested in drawing and printing. May have minor accidents. Is less interested in sex play and experimentation; can be very excited about new baby in family. Has fewer illnesses but may have colds of long duration; appetite is decreasing. May develop nervous habits or assume awkward positions, e.g., sitting upside down on the couch, constant foot tapping. * Social and emotional development: Will avoid and withdraw from adults; has strong emotional responses to teacher; may complain that teacher is unfair or mean. Likes more responsibility and independence. Is often concerned about doing well. Participates in loosely organized group play. Concerned with self and others’ reactions. May fear being late; may have trouble on the playground; “kids are cheating” or “teacher picks on me” often said. May use aggression as a means to solve problems. Starts division of sexes (girls play with girls/boys with boys). May complain a lot (“Nobody likes me,” “I’m going to run away,” etc.). May not respond promptly or hear directions; may forget; is easily distracted. May withdraw or not interact with others, in an attempt to build a sense of self. * Intellectual development: Is eager for learning. Uses reflective, serious thinking. Thoughts can be based on logic; child can solve more complex problems. Attention span is good. Enjoys hobbies and skills. Likes to collect things and talk about personal projects, writings, and drawings. Favours reality. Likes to be challenged, to work hard, and to take time completing a task. * Language development: Excessive concerns about competition and performance, especially in school; extreme rebellion; teasing; whining; headaches; nervous stomach; ulcers; nervous tics; consistent unconcern with completion of tasks (procrastination); overdependence on caregivers for age-appropriate tasks, e.g., combing hair, going to the store, tying shoes, finding a restroom in a restaurant; social isolation; lack of friends and involvements; few interests; inappropriate relationships with “older” people, e.g., teenagers; stealing; pathological lying; bedwetting;. * Moral development: May experience guilt and shame.
* Physical development: Is busy and active; has frequent accidents. Makes faces, wiggles, clowns. May frequently urinate as a result of anxiety. Has
good appetite; wolfs down food; belches spontaneously; may accept new foods. Has improved health with a few short illnesses. * Social and emotional development: Demands love and understanding from mother. Makes new friends easily; works at establishing good two-way relationships; develops close friend of own sex. Considers clubs and groups important; enjoys school, doesn’t like to be absent, and tends to talk more about it. Is not interested in family table conversations; wants to finish meal in order to get to other business. May “peep” at each other and at parents. Tells dirty jokes, laughs, and giggles. Have more secrets. May be excessive in self-criticism; tends to dramatize everything; is very sensitive. Have fewer and more reasonable fears. May argue and resist requests and instructions, but will obey eventually. Likes immediate rewards for behaviour. Is usually affectionate, helpful, cheerful, outgoing, and curious; can also be rude, selfish, bossy and demanding, giggly and silly. * Intellectual development: Wants to know the reasons for things. Often overestimates own ability; generalizes instances of failure with such statements as, “I never get anything right.” Wants more information about pregnancy and birth; may question father’s role. * Language development: Excessive concerns about competition and performance, especially in school; extreme rebellion; teasing; whining; headaches, nervous stomach; ulcers; nervous tics; extreme procrastination; overdependence on caregivers for age-appropriate tasks, e.g., combing hair, going to the store, tying shoes, finding a restroom; social isolation; lack of friends and involvements; few interests; inappropriate relationships with “older” people, e.g., teenagers; stealing; pathological lying; bedwetting; fire-setting. * Moral development: May experience guilt and shame.
* Physical development: Engages in active, rough-and-tumble play (especially boys); has great interest in team games. Has good body control; is interested in developing strength, skill, and speed; likes more complicated crafts and work-related tasks. Girls are beginning to develop faster than boys. * Social and emotional development: Boys and girls differ in personalities, characteristics, and interests; are very group and club oriented but always with same sex; sometimes silly within group. Boys,
especially, begin to test and exercise a great deal of independence. Is most interested in friends and social activities; likes group adventures and cooperative play. May have some behaviour problems, especially if not accepted by others. Is becoming very independent, dependable, and trustworthy. * Intellectual development: Has definite interests and lively curiosity; seeks facts; capable of prolonged interest; can do more abstract thinking and reasoning. Individual differences become more marked. Likes reading, writing, and using books and references. Likes to collect things. * Language development: Excessive concerns about competition and performance, especially in school; extreme rebellion; teasing; whining; headaches; nervous stomach; ulcers; nervous tics; consistent lack of concern with completion of tasks (procrastination); overdependence on caregivers for age-appropriate tasks; social isolation; lack of friends and involvements; few interests; inappropriate relationships with “older” people, e.g., teenagers; stealing; pathological lying; bedwetting; * Moral development: Is very conscious of fairness; is highly competitive; argues over fairness; has difficulty admitting mistakes but is becoming more capable of accepting failures and mistakes and taking responsibility for them. Is clearly acquiring a conscience; is aware of right and wrong; wants to do right, but sometimes overreacts or rebels against a strict conscience.
* Physical development: Girls may have rapid weight increase. Boys are more active and rough; motor skills are well-developed. * Social and emotional development: Is affectionate with parents; has great pride in father; finds mother all-important. Is highly selective in friendships; may have one best friend; important to be “in” with the gang; may develop hero worship. Is concerned with style. Is casual and relaxed. Likes privacy. Girls mature faster than boys. Not an angry age; anger, when it comes, is violent and immediate; seldom cries but may cry when angry. Main worries/concerns are school and peer relationships. * Intellectual development: Is alert, poised, and concerned with fads; argues logically. May like to read. May begin to show talent. Have many interests of short duration. * Language development:
* Moral development: Has strong sense of justice and a strict moral code. More concerned with what is wrong than what is right.
* Physical development: Is increasingly aware of body. Possibility of acting on sexual desires increases. Girls begin to show secondary sex characteristics. Boys are ahead of girls in endurance and muscular development. Rapid growth may mean large appetite but less energy. May show self-consciousness about learning new skills. * Social and emotional development: Is critical of adults and is obnoxious to live with. Strives for unreasonable independence. Has intense interest in teams and organized, competitive games; considers memberships in clubs important. Anger is common; resents being told what to do; rebels at routines. Often is moody; dramatizes and exaggerates own positions (e.g., “You’re the worst mother in the world!”). Experiences many fears, many worries, many tears. * Intellectual development: Challenges adult knowledge; has increased ability to use logic. May have interest in earning money. Is critical of own artistic products. Is becoming interested in world and community; may like to participate in community activities. * Language development: Excessive concerns about competition and performance, especially in school; extreme rebellion; teasing; headaches; nervous stomach; ulcers; nervous tics; consistent procrastination; overdependence on caregivers for age-appropriate tasks; social isolation; lack of friends and involvements; few interests; inappropriate relationships with “older” people, e.g., teenagers; stealing; pathological lying; bedwetting; * Moral development: Has strong urge to conform to peer-group morals.
* Physical development: Experiences sudden and rapid increases in height, weight, and strength with the onset of adolescence. Girls are gradually reaching physical and sexual maturity. Boys are beginning to mature physically and sexually. Acne appears, especially with certain types of skin. Is concerned with appearance. Increased likelihood of acting on sexual desires. * Social and emotional development: Withdraws from parents, who are invariably called “old-fashioned.” Boys usually resist any show of
affection. Usually feels parents are too restrictive; rebels. Needs less family companionship and interaction. Has less intense friendships with those of the same sex; usually has whole gang of friends. Girls show more interest in opposite sex than do boys. Annoyed by younger siblings. Commonly sulks; directs verbal anger at authority figure. Worries about grades, appearance, and popularity; is withdrawn, introspective. * Intellectual development: Thrives on arguments and discussions. Increasingly able to memorize; to think logically about concepts; to engage in introspection and probing into own thinking; to plan realistically for the future. May read a great deal. Needs to feel important in world and to believe in something. * Language development: Delays in physical and sexual development, depression, sense of isolation, loneliness, impulsiveness, extreme rebellion, denial of feelings, poor hygiene, fantasy as an escape from problems, alcohol/drug abuse, nervosa, obesity, sexual activity to provide missing nurturance, stealing, pathological lying, , truancy, running away, pregnancy, juvenile delinquency. * Moral development: Knows right and wrong; tries to weigh alternatives and arrive at decisions alone. Is concerned about fair treatment of others; is usually reasonably thoughtful; is unlikely to lie.
* Physical development: Has essentially completed physical maturation; physical features are shaped and defined. Probability of acting on sexual desires increases. * Social and emotional development: Relationships with parents range from friendly to hostile. Sometimes feels that parents are “too interested.” Usually have many friends and few confidants; dates actively; varies greatly in level of maturity; may be uncomfortable, or enjoy activities, with opposite sex; may talk of marriage. May be strongly invested in a single, romantic relationship. Worries about failure. May appear moody, angry, lonely, impulsive, self-centred, confused, and stubborn. Has conflicting feelings about dependence/independence. * Intellectual development: May lack information or self-assurance about personal skills and abilities. Seriously concerned about the future; beginning to integrate knowledge leading to decisions about future. * Language development: Depression, sense of isolation, loneliness,
impulsiveness, extreme rebellion, denial of feelings, poor hygiene, fantasy as an escape from problems, drug/alcohol abuse, obesity, sexual activity to provide missing nurturance, prostitution, stealing, pathological lying, violent assault, truancy, running away, pregnancy, juvenile delinquency, hatred and rejection of family. * Moral development: Is confused and disappointed about discrepancies between stated values and actual behaviours of family and friends; experiences feelings of frustration, anger, sorrow, and isolation. May be interested in sex as response to physical-emotional urges and as a way to participate in the adult world (but not necessarily an expression of mature intimacy).
1.2. Analyse the difference between sequence of development and rate of development and why the distinction is important The rate of development is the pace of which a child develops at. It has a link to the childs age and a guide for what they may be achieving. Through all areas of development, up to maturity. The pace differs for each individual. The sequence of development is where the child must first develop one stage to begin the next. It is still perfectly normal for children to develop at different rates for example a child at 10 months may start to walk while another child may not start till age 18months. The sequence is the fact that a child has to do one stage like crawl before they can walk etc. one has to be achieved before the next but the rate to what the child will do them at will vary between each individual child. It is important not to rely upon the rate of development linked to their age/stage of development as every child progresses at their own pace when they’re ready. However it does give you a guidance and guidelines of what to expect and what the individual child needs support in. also if there are any concerning developmental delays and how to assit learning development.
1.3. Analyse the reasons why children and young people’s development may not follow the pattern normally expected.
There are many reasons why children’s development may not be what it expected of their age/stage. Such as a child may be unsettles for many reasons such as family life. For instance if parents argue and fight this will have an
effect on the child such as stress. If parents are no longer together there may be difficulties for the parent in having to do everything on their own for themselves and their child and the child may suffer through time spent with their parent for nurturing and encouragement/ boosting of the child’s development. The child may be at a disadvantage in their environment due to their housing or area in which they live. If the house isn’t kept warm it may lead to health issues due to dampness. Overcrowding may make it harder for the child to play and explore as easily. The area in which the child lives may make it harder to access certain services or amenities. The child’s diet can have an effect on the child’s development as it can affect the child’s growth and in connection can hinder physical development. It is also connected to income as to how healthy a child’s diet is. Some children’s genetic code may affect the pattern in which they develop. This can mean that they are slower to develop but no reason can be found. Culture may affect the child’s development as some cultures have different diets/beliefs which could affect the child’s development physically. Social and emotional factors; in the child’s development family is a big part of children’s development as they are influenced by those close to them. Parent’s guide their children’s development. However some parents have differences of opinions which can cause conflict. Chronic illness is an issue with development as some conditions can effect motor skill development; For example asthma. This affects the lungs so that they cannot breathe properly. They can be allergic to pollen. This can also affect their emotional development and social development as if they have a group of friends that are doing something strenuous then they may not be able to join in and may feel alienated and left out.
2. Understand the factors that impact on children and young people’s development 2.1. Analyse how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of personal factors
Personal factors may include:
* Health status – Genetic
* Learning difficulties
General colds and viruses could have an influence on the child’s development. The environment may cause health issues. The environmental conditions can affect all aspects of a child’s development. The child’s genetic makeup can influence the child’s development as such conditions as sickle cell (abnormally shaped red blood cells which can cause infections, anaemia and affect organs), diabetes, cystic fibrosis (s condition that affects the lungs with mucus), etc. Disability:
Anything in which the child has any physical problems can influence their physical development. Disability can vary a lot. There are minor disabilities and major disabilities. These can influence children in many ways depending on the severity of their disability, from physical, emotional, social, and intellectual and language development. It could mean that their development is simply delayed or the area may not develop.
Many things that can influence the child’s development is their background. If parents are going through divorce, breakdowns or separation. This can cause stress. It can cause them to withdraw and make them self-conscious and have low self-esteem. They can lose focus due to family problems and changes in their routine and cause them to doubt themselves/their abilities. Having a big family could influence the child’s development by lack of attention/having to help out with younger siblings causing social and emotional problems.
Learning difficulties in a child cause developmental delay. Disabilities e.g. (sensory impairments) The disability may effect one area of development which in turn may effect another area, meaning that overall development cannot occur, this can lead to low self-esteem and self- worth.
2.2. Analyse how children and young people’s development is influenced by a
range of external factors
External factors may include:
? Poverty and
? Family environment
? Personal choices
? Looked after/ care
External factors can really affect a child’s learning. Such things could be poverty and deprivation, family environment, personal choices, care status/ looked after care and education. Poverty and deprivation
This is still an issue as poverty can result in children not being able to do extracurricular activities, tuition, trips to educational places, school trips/vacations etc. they may not get a good diet if parents are struggling to make ends meet and so it may affect their physical development. Diet can also effect concentration so may affect their overall development. Family environment and background.
Some families are where both parents are full-time workers so that has a knock on effect sometimes where the education or learning isn’t at the front of their to do list. Also parents of lower education may find it difficult to help a child especially with homework in the later years. Which means that the child may not be getting the support at home as the parents don’t understand the educational elements needed to complete the work. Personal choices.
If the child for whatever reason decides they don’t want to be educated or continue later education that is their choice which we cannot always help but can show alternative choices for staying at school. If a child isn’t committed to learning new skills we cannot force them but just encourage
them and praise them when they try, and reward when they succeed to promote their positive learning. Care status or looked after care.
This could influence the child in ways such as if they move around a lot. The teachers/ nursery staff won’t know the child’s learning style and the child may suffer until they get to know and form a relationship with teachers/nursery staff. This will affect their learning a lot. Separation and attachment issues are often the reason why children don’t want to come to nursery or school. This is constantly worked on in settings to try to make sure that the children are happy and have a good day being included in activities and provided for to give them a good standard of education. Education:
If a child for example hasn’t settled into a nursery, crèche or some kind of play group this may set the child back from what developmental stage they should be at when they start school, such as social interactions.
2.3. Explain how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practice.
Theories of development may include:
? Social Learning
? Operant conditioning
? Social pedagogy
• Cognitive (e.g. Piaget)
• Psychoanalytic (e.g. Freud)
• Humanist (e.g. Maslow)
• Social Learning (e.g. Bandura)
• Operant conditioning (e.g. Skinner)
• Behaviourist (e.g. Watson)
Piaget’s theories allow us to take the idea of ‘schema’ into practice and use it to effectively plan for the development of a child. Using these ‘schema’ and Piagets stages (sensorimeter, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational) we can assess where and how a child is currently learning, and plan activities and observations to help them develop into the next stages.
While Freud’s theories do not necessarily fit in with our rigorous scientific standards, and are today not considered to be very accurate he has been very influential as lots of theorists used his theories as a starting point. He has also helped those working with children understand that there is a link between our mind and our unconscious actions.
While Maslow’s theories have been called into question they have however formed as a basis for other theorists who expanded on his hierarchy of needs to build their own 5-level and 8 –level models. His explanations and interpretations are still useful today when trying to understand the behaviours and motivations of humans. This can be extremely useful in childcare when addressing a child’s personal needs, ensuring that their basic needs are met to help them develop.
Skinners theories are used widely in practices as we praise children for positive behaviour or for performing an action correctly; as well as giving time out to negative behaviour.
These theories are implemented in current practices by the reward of good behaviour, and the punishment of unwanted behaviour to encourage a child to behave positively. This include stickers, prizes, privileges, and in the
case of unwanted behaviour time outs, and ignoring of attention seeking behaviour.
The theorist whose theory is physical development is Arnold Gesell. His theory is that most physical skills cannot be taught but is programmed in our genetics, which means we will learn different physical skills when our body is ready to. The theorist who theory is language development is B.F. Skinner. His theory is that children use cognitive behaviour when understanding and giving communication. They will use trial and error to get the right words out until they succeed. He believes that children observe adults and other children for the correct way to communicate and repeat the actions they have seen until they get it right. The theorist whose theory is intellectual development is Lev Vygotsky. His theory is that children learn new skills by being guided by carers and parents. He believes that every new scene or interaction is a learning experience to children that they must be guided through until they know how to react correctly. The theorist whose theory is Social Development is Albert Bandura. His theory is that children learn by observing how the main people in their life behave and imitating them. People they will observe are parents/cares/siblings/friends/etc. A child will repeat the behaviour they have seen if it is rewarded with attention or praise. The theorist whose theory is Emotional Development is John Bowlby. His theory is that early relationships with caregivers play a major role in child development and will influence how children react to social interactions with other people. He believes that children who are securely attached to their main carers generally have high self-esteem and will be able to enjoy intimate relationships where the ability to share feelings will develop and will seek out social support. The theorist whose theory is Behavioural Development is B.F. Skinner. His theory was that if the main cares in a child’s life implemented behavioural modifications, the children would quickly learn the correct way to behave.
3 Understand the benefits of early intervention to support the development of children and young people. 3.1 Analyse the importance of early identification of development delay An analysis that shows the importance of
early identification of speech, language and communication delays or disorders and the potential risk of late recognition.
There are many reasons why a child may develop a speech, language or communication problem. Having hearing difficulties/impairment can prevent them from hearing what is being said and sounds properly. Having dummies past 1 year may cause speech problems/difficulties. Sometimes children used to dummies try talking around the dummy and get into the habit. Children who aren’t exposed to enough communication, language they may not see the need to talk because parents may speak for their children or give orders. This can lead to communication problems. Most of the time the causes of communication, speech and language problems are unidentifiable. Early identification of speech, language and communication delays/disorders means that the child can receive the right treatment and support sooner and hopefully correct the problem, increasing the chances of improving their skills and helping their development get back on track as quickly as possible. Late recognition of speech, language and communication delays can lead to problems with the child’s understanding or the child being able to express their feelings or wants leaving them frustrated and possibly lead to behavioural problems or acting out. It can also affect the child’s confidence and self-esteem in being able to make/build relationships with peers. Making them feel isolated at the fear of being laughed at or bullied. It can cause learning delays particularly in literacy later on in children’s development when they reach school having problems with sounds and letters and possibly reading and spelling delays.
3.2 Explain the potential risks of late recognition of development delay
Early identification of speech, language and communication delay is extremely important because then the chances of the child improving these skills are higher. Other outside agencies can be brought in and informed and then the child may receive the support (specialist) that they need/ require. If the delays aren’t noticed and go unidentified the child can suffer from not being able to communicate their thoughts and may be more than likely to act out and experience emotional problems. The child may also suffer with lack
of confidence. Other areas that the child may be affected in their development are cognitive, social, emotional and behavioural in late recognition. The child may find it difficult to form relationships with others and may feel frustrated and angry which can then lead to behavioural problems and isolation. If a child suffers a delay in development from this area there are a number of outside agencies that could be involved. They may be speech and language therapists that will establish the delay/disorder and advise parents/carers/settings/schools how they can support that child and their needs. The parents and child will be closely involved in the observing and monitoring and reviewing of the child’s developmental progress. Senco will encourage the communications between the agencies, so that they work together and organise meetings at their settings or schools to discuss progress, if the child however isn’t progressing then the educational psychologists may become involved and do some assessments and give ideas and recommendations of what to do next. Autism advisory teacher may come into school to suggest how to support the child who has autism. They will have a problem with social interaction and communication. A sensory support teacher may provide resources to children who have visual or auditory impairment and how give advice how to best support the child.
3.3 Evaluate how multi agency teams work together to support all aspects of development in children and young people
Information sharing helps practitioners work together more effectively to meet children and young people’s needs through sharing information legally and professionally. Integrated working in delivering services to meet the needs identified for a child or young person where more than one agency is involved, one of the practitioners takes a lead role to ensure that meetings of all the practitioners concerned are convened, and services are delivered that are integrated, coherent and achieving intended outcomes. This practitioner is called the lead professional and should be supported by a TAC (team around the child). This team is made up of professionals from across the children and young people’s workforce convened together to meet the needs of the child or young person. The lead professional is not responsible for delivering all of the services needed by the Child or young
person. Some examples of the tasks a lead professional may need to carry out to deliver the functions are to build a trusting relationship with the child or young person and their family (or other carers) to secure their engagement in the process. Be the single point of contact for the child or young person and family, and a sounding board for them to ask questions and discuss concerns. (In most cases, other practitioners will also need to make direct contact with the child, young person or family, and it will be important for them to keep the lead professional informed of this). Be the single point of contact for all children and young people’s workforce practitioners who are delivering services to the child or young person (including staff in universal health and education services, and Sure Start Children’s Centres) to ensure that the child or young person continues to access this support. Convene the TAC meetings to enable integrated multi-agency support in the delivery of services and appoint a suitable LP. Co-ordinate the effective delivery of a package of solution-focused actions; and ensure progress is reviewed regularly. Identify as part of the TAC where additional services may need to be involved and put processes in place for brokering their involvement. (In some instances, this may need to be carried out by the line manager or other designated person rather than by the lead professional themselves). Continue to support the child, young person or family, as appropriate, if specialist assessments need to be carried out. Support the child or young person through key transition points (e.g. between universal, targeted and specialist services; or between children and adult services). Ensure a safe, careful and planned ‘handover’ takes place if it is more appropriate for someone else to be the lead professional. TAC is a model of multi-agency service provision. The TAC brings together a range of different practitioners from across the children and young people’s workforce to support an individual child or young person and their family. The members of the TAC develop and deliver a package of solution-focused support to meet the needs identified through the common assessment. The model does not imply a multidisciplinary team that is located together or who work together all the time; rather, it suggests a group of practitioners working together as needed to help a particular child or young person. The model is based on the ethos that a flexible workforce is essential if children’s services are to be able to meet the diverse needs
of each and every child or young person. TAC places the emphasis firmly on the needs and strengths of the child or young person, rather than on organisations or service providers. Members of the TAC are jointly responsible for developing and delivering the delivery plan to meet the needs of the child or young person, and achieve the intended outcomes identified through the common assessment. Each member of the TAC is responsible for delivering the activities they agreed to carry out as part of the delivery plan. Each member of the TAC is responsible for keeping the other members of the team informed about progress in their area of responsibility providing reports promptly when requested and attending meetings. All TAC members should contribute to taking minutes and chairing meetings, and take on other tasks as necessary. TAC members should support the lead professional by providing information, offering guidance and advice. TAC members should contribute actively and positively to solving problems or resolving difficulties In order to ensure that these activities are well co-ordinated, and that there is clear communication with the child or young person and family, the TAC agrees (with input from the child or young person and family) a particular practitioner who will act as the lead professional. Information sharing is a key part of the government’s goal to deliver better, more efficient public services that are co-ordinated around the needs of children, young people and families. Information sharing is essential to enable early intervention and preventative work, for safeguarding and promoting welfare and for wider public protection. Information sharing is a vital element in improving outcomes for all. Effective integrated working is underpinned by the following: Information sharing:
Guidance, training and support materials are available to support good practice in information sharing by offering clarity on when and how information can be shared legally and professionally, in order to achieve improved outcomes. The guidance also explains how organisations can support practitioners and ensure that good practice in information sharing is embedded. Common Core of Skills and Knowledge for the Children and Young People’s Workforce: this sets out the knowledge and skills all practitioners (including volunteers) need to work effectively with children, young people
and families. Championing Children: a framework that establishes a shared set of skills, knowledge and behaviours for those who are leading and managing integrated children’s services. A resource book to support implementation is also available. Multi-agency working: there are a number of ways of delivering multi-agency services; an online resource is available for managers and practitioners in a range of settings who are starting to work with families in new ways.
3.4 Explain how play and leisure activities can be used to support all aspects of development of children and young people
Play can be fun and play can be a very serious and absorbing activity. Play is what you do when you are able just to please yourself. Playing is what you do when you interact with friends, families, teachers or even the environment around you. Play should be stimulating, challenging, enjoyable and satisfying. Some children will also require adult support to achieve good play experiences. A guiding principle is that play should be freely chosen and self-directed. Play is a process that is freely chosen, personally directed and intrinsically motivated. That is, children and young people determine and control the content and intent of their play, by following their own instincts, ideas and interests, in their own way for their own reasons. All children and young people need to play. The impulse to play is innate. Play is a biological, psychological and social necessity, and is fundamental to the healthy development and wellbeing of individuals and communities. If children and young people are not allowed to explore and learn through playing and taking part in positive activities, they will not learn how to judge risks and manage them for themselves. These skills learnt through play and other activities can act as a powerful form of prevention in other situations where children and young people are at risk. Play supports all aspects of a child’s development – learning, socialisation, physical development, self-esteem, and well-being and understanding risk. Children have the opportunity to learn skills through creative play and play, within a group setting, can support children’s socialisation skills as they learn to set and follow rules and work with others. It is crucial that children, in their early years, get the opportunity to interact with adults,
e.g. their parents, in a way that supports and enables them to take their play forward. Physically active play shows health benefits for the developing child into adulthood. There are 16 different play types and these are woven into the fabric of a child’s daily life, sometimes simultaneously. Symbolic Play – Play which allows control, gradual exploration and increased understanding without the risk of being out of one’s depth. Rough and Tumble Play – close encounter play which is less to do with fighting and more to do with touching, tickling, gauging relative strength. Discovering physical flexibility and the exhilaration of display. Socio-dramatic Play – the enactment of real and potential experiences of an intense personal, social, domestic or interpersonal nature. Social Play – play, during which the rules and criteria for social engagement and interaction can be revealed, explored and amended. Creative Play – play which allows a new response, the transformation of information, awareness of new connections, with an element of surprise. Communication Play – play using words, nuances or gestures for example, mime, jokes, play acting, mickey taking, singing, debate, poetry. Dramatic Play – play which dramatizes events in which the child is not a direct participator. Deep Play – play which allows the child to encounter risky or even potentially life threatening experiences, to develop survival skills and conquer fear. Exploratory Play – play to access factual information consisting of manipulative behaviours such as handling, throwing, banging or mouthing objects. Fantasy Play – play which rearranges the world in the child’s way, a way which is unlikely to occur. Imaginative Play – play where the conventional rules, which govern the physical world, do not apply. Locomotor Play – movement in any or every direction for its own sake. Mastery Play – control of the physical and affective ingredients of the environments. Object Play – play which uses infinite and interesting sequences of hand-eye manipulations and movements. Recapitulative Play – Play that allows the child to explore ancestry, history, rituals, stories, rhymes, fire and darkness. Enables children to access play of earlier human evolutionary stages. Role Play – play exploring ways of being, although not normally of an intense personal social, domestic or interpersonal nature.
4 Understand the potential effects of transition on children and young people’s development. 4.1 Explain how different types of transitions can
affect children and young people’s development
Types of transitions may include:
? emotional, affected by personal experience e.g. bereavement, entering/ leaving care ? Physical e.g. moving to a new educational establishment, a new home/locality, from one activity to another, between a range of care givers on a regular basis ? physiological e.g. puberty, long term medical conditions ? Intellectual e.g. moving from pre-school to primary to post primary
Children and young people naturally pass through a number of stages as they grow and develop. Often, they will also be expected to cope with changes such as movement from primary to secondary school and, for children with disabilities or chronic ill health, from children’s to adults’ services. Such changes are commonly referred to as transitions. Some children may have to face very particular and personal transitions not necessarily shared or understood by all their peers. These include: family illness or the death of a close relative; divorce and family break-up; issues related to sexuality; adoption; the process of asylum; disability; parental mental health; and the consequences of crime. It is also vital to recognise the role of parents and carers in supporting children and young people at points of transition and to understand the need for reassurance, advice and support that parents and carers may express at these points (Common Core of skills and Knowledge for the children and young people’s workforce) Transition can impact on a child or young person’s development and it’s important they are supported through this helping them to prepare and overcome fears.
The children and young people placed in care will experience many social changes in their lives and will need support to build self-esteem and confidence to fulfil their potential. Children and young people need strong attachments, consistency and trust; having someone they can trust will make transitions easier. Children and young people with positive relationships have the ability to cope better A child coming to a new setting they might experience a sense of loss from another setting, from their friends, feel disorientated, withdraw, be depressed, regress with what
they do, have separation anxiety, see changes in their behaviour, not have any motivation. practitioners would support them by providing activities, explain what’s going on, discuss what’s happening, share information, be positive, get in touch with others who can help support the child and professional practice etc. listen to what they say and be truthful, reassuring. Try explaining bereavement using some words such as gone to heaven, sleep, gone away, turned to earth, be in memories not around you. Having have routines in place so children feel reassured,
Types of transitions are
• Emotional – personal experiences such as parent’s separating, bereavement, beginning or leaving a place of care. • Physical – change in environments
• Intellectual – maturation, moving from one educational establishment to another. • Physiological – puberty or medical conditions
How may affect children’s behaviour and development
Short term effects:
• Outbursts of anger
• Crying and tearfulness
• Clinginess/need for affection
• Unreasonable behaviour
• Tantrums in younger children
• Regression in behaviour
• Difficulty sleeping
• Loss of appetite
• Loss of motivation
• Lack of concentration
How may affect children’s behaviour and development
Long term effects:
• Self harming
• Avoiding social contact
• Lack of concentration
• Not learning/developing
• Low self-confidence and self esteem
• Strained relationships
Supporting children through transition involves
• Explaining what’s going on
• Discussing what is happening
• Providing activities that help to distract focus and give opportunities for communication, language and literacy • Have routines that reassure children of what’s next
• organise visits that help children be familiar with places they’ll be attending
4.2 Explain the importance of children and young people having positive relationships through periods of transition
The role of the Key Person in transitions
The relationship developed between the Key Person and the parents/carers involved in the child’s life beyond the setting is crucial in ensuring that children are supported to make successful transitions. In many settings this relationship will commence with an induction visit at which the Key Person begins to complete the setting’s documentation with the parents. This will often include finding out about a child’s likes and dislikes, favourite toys and how he or she likes to be comforted, as well as current routines. Parents and carers are encouraged to share information that can help the practitioner to understand behaviour changes caused by transitions. It is also important that the Key Person shares details of the setting’s policy and practice with the parents to inform them about the transition into the setting. Sometimes transitions within the setting can be a cause for concern for parents who may become worried about how their child will cope with, for example, a room change. The Key Person will need to ensure that parents are fully informed about the management of the transition, the visits the child makes to the new room in preparation for the move and details about routines and expectations in the new environment so parents can support their child with the transition process. Recognising ‘transition anxiety’
Practitioners must ensure that they learn to recognise the signs of transition anxiety in the children that they care for. This may be
particularly difficult when many of the children concerned do not yet have the language to explain the experiences that they are finding difficult. Skilled practitioners will learn to listen to children’s body language and other changes in behaviour that indicate children who are struggling to cope. They will reflect on the behaviour they see and consider whether something has changed for the child. The importance of clear communication
Children will experience a range of transitions. Some will be common to the majority of their peers and they may be able to support each other. Others will be unique to the child or family involved and children may feel isolated. With information from parents or carers the Key Person will be able to play a significant role in supporting the child during the transition process. An on-going dialogue between the Key Person and the family will help ensure a consistency of approach for the child. The three main areas in which transitions take place are shown in the table below. For each area, a few of many possible examples are given. Consideration of each of the areas highlights once again the significance of clear detailed communication between all those involved in the care and education of the child. If the transitions are understood by everyone any change in the child’s behaviour can be understood and the child supported appropriately.
4.3 Evaluate the effectiveness of positive relationships on children and young people’s development
Having a positive relationship helps them to settle due to feeling comforted by the person being present, having someone to look up to as a role-model. Having someone who knows the child/young person in which means they can help monitor their transition and be provided with extra support. Bereavement, serious illness or separation in a family can affect children and young people’s emotions. This can be displayed by anger, and depression. They might even show aggression or be withdrawn. Physically they might suffer from a lack of sleep, have little or no appetite or they could possibly self-harm. Older children or young people might cut themselves or do something like drugs. Physiologically they might change their behaviour. This can include regressive behaviour, extrovert behaviour or maybe just
uncooperative behaviour like slamming doors, staying out late or getting into trouble. Intellectual changes can include a lack of concentration and not joining in activities. Moving into a new setting like changing schools, preschool to school, changing young groups or leaving care can be emotionally upsetting. Some children might be showing anxiousness at moving, sadness at moving and or loss of friends. This can change their behaviour younger children might show regression and clinginess. Children and young people might change behaviour and some might withdrawal. Others might show extroverted behaviour or illness. They might have a real illness or pretend so they don’t have to go. Older and younger children might have sleepless nights. Young children might have night mares, young people might be frightened of their future or where they might live. This can affect eating habits they might not have an appetite. Moving home can be very stressful. Like moving settings children and young people can lose friends. They face the same emotional, physiological and intellectual affects as the moving settings but they also have the problem of a new county/country this can also affect them as they might be viewed as an outsider. Young people might self-harm because of this. Puberty can affect children and young people emotionally hormones are pumped into the body causing mood swings. Teenagers become more self-conscious and can become aggressive and behavioural changes that can cause some teenagers to experiment with drugs etc. Physically the body will have growth spurts and sexual maturity will be reached as the sexual organs fully develop their bodies will look more like adults than children’s.
All children and young people need strong attachments as the theorist Bowlby has explained. They need consistency, trust and a good bonding whether it is with their key worker, teacher etc. Having someone that they can trust will make transitions easier for the child. Children with positive relationships on transitions can have long term positive impacts of their ability to cope and be more resilient. They are likely to be more successful academically and socially they will feel cared for, valued and respected their learning development will continue instead of dip. They will feel more confident to explore and have self esteem and confidence so feel more relaxed. Children will feel able to make new friendships. Young people might feel they need
guidance and will not be afraid to ask for help even on sensitive subjects. If a child has good transitions early in life this will make it easier for transitions later in life. Having positive relationships with children or young people makes them aware that your there for them and that you care and would like to help them through their adjustment.
5 Understand how assessing, monitoring and recording the development of children and young people informs the use of interventions 5.1 Explain different methods of assessing, recording and monitoring children and young people’s development
Observation, assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation Regular checks on children in the setting involve an on-going process that begins with observation and ends with evaluation:
* Observation – gathering information about a child.
* Assessment – analysing the information collected against expected patterns of development.
* Planning – using the information to set goals and plan strategies to help children progress and develop, change behaviour or just consolidate existing skills.
* Implementation – put the plans into action.
* Evaluation – consider how successful the implemented plans were in meeting the required goals. This information should then be used as a basis for the next observation.
These techniques include:
• Time sampling
• Event sampling
• Structured observation
• Naturalistic observation
• Participative observation
• Longitudinal observation
• Target child observation
This means observing the chosen child for pre-planned periods throughout the day, at pre-planned times. It should be decided beforehand if there is one
particular aspect of the child’s development to focus on. In this method notes should include: * what the child was doing or trying to do
* what help they seemed to need
This method is useful for monitoring particular forms of behaviour, especially those where change is desired. It helps the carer to get an accurate perspective of the behaviour as the basis for planning how to respond to it. Each time the particular behaviour occurs, it should be noted briefly:
* What actually happened
* When the incident occurred, the time of day or the point in the daily routine * How long the behaviour lasted on each occasion, or for what proportion of the day
* Whether other children were involved, if so in what way * Who else was around at the time
This technique involves setting up an organised situation. The carer should arrange a particular activity so that they can observe how the child is doing with a specific skill. This is usually a quite narrowly defined skill such as: * Completing an exercise
* Completing a puzzle
* Building a tower with wooden blocks
* Drawing a particular item
* Reading a passage in a book
The practitioner should try to choose an activity that interests the child that is being observed so that they enjoy it and the observer gets a true picture of what the child can achieve. It should be an activity normally offered, not something entirely new which may puzzle or unsettle the child. A structured observation when a child is tired, grumpy or out of sorts should be avoided.
There are many different methods of monitoring/observing and recording
children and young people behaviour and performance. There are two types of assessment formative and summative assessments. Formative assessment:
There are many observations and assessment methods that we use to record children’s development and will be on going. This is what is called formative assessment, which means even though you get to know a child’s strengths and areas that they may need more support in and will plan for them and carry on observing them. With Formative assessment there are many different methods that can be used such as target child, tick box/checklists, free description, time sampling methods…..all would be used in different settings and for different purposes by different people Summative assessment:
Every now and again you may need to do a report on a child’s development so that the child’s parents can see how that child progressing in their development, these sorts of reports can also be used to pass information between from one professional to another like teachers do these sorts of reports at the end of the school year so the children’s next teacher can see how their developing. Free description uses to record the behaviour of a child over a very short period of time or when doing a certain activities the observe notes down what he or she is seeing which paints a picture of the child activity during the time the observation was being done. Checklist and tick charts are normally quick and simple too.
5.2 Explain how and in what circumstances different methods for assessing, recording and monitoring children and young people’s development in the work setting.
The assessment framework is used to determine whether a child is in need and if so, the nature of their needs. Once the needs have been established the interventions can be put in place.
These can be carried out formally and informally. Information from
observations on a pupil’s progress is passed onto the teacher who will then report it to the parent/carer. Information observations
These are carried out daily when working with a pupil and overtime a picture can be built of the pupil’s progress and if there are any issues, however they may not always be recorded and information gathered may not be passed onto others. Formal observations
This may be carried out to support the teacher on assessing a pupil’s level of development such as a controlled assessment or a speaking and listening test. Standard Measurements
This is usually carried out by medical practitioners to ensure that a child is growing at the expected rate for their age. Information from carers and colleagues
Information from carers can be vital if there is a factor that may be influencing the development of a young person an example may be that the pupil is being bullied or they don’t understand the learning objective but are too scared to ask for help. As a colleague if you see a change in the child you must communicate this to the class teacher to help them to assess what assistance may be required. * Look – know and appreciate what aspects of the child’s responses/behaviour/achievements etc. you are looking out for. * Listen – take notice of the child’s conversations with other children and how they interact with different adults.
* Record – make an accurate note of any important aspects of the child’s responses, behaviour or achievements as soon as possible after observing them.
* Think – consider what you have seen. What assessment would you make from your observations? You may need to confer with other practitioners or talk with the child’s parents to help you clarify your thoughts.
5.3 Explain how different types of interventions can promote positive outcomes for children and young people where development is not following the pattern normally expected.
Early intervention means intervening as soon as possible to tackle problems that have already emerged for children and young people So, when early intervention is understood in this way, it means that it targets specific children who have an identified need for additional support once their problems have already begun to develop but before they become serious. It aims to stop those problems from becoming entrenched and thus to prevent children and young people from experiencing unnecessarily enduring or serious symptoms. Typically it achieves this by promoting the strengths of children and families and enhancing their ‘protective factors’, and in some cases by providing them with longer term support.
There are a number of reasons why early intervention with very young children makes sense:
? Some problems emerge in children when they are very young and the sooner they receive help, the less the damage to their development. ? the healthy growth of very young children’s brains can be impaired by poor early life experiences. In that early period, interactions and experiences determine whether a child’s developing brain architecture provides a strong or a weak foundation for their future health, wellbeing and development. ? If a problem is identified early on in a child’s life and effective help is given; this can have a positive ‘multiplier effect’ as the child grows up, so that the eventual benefit is disproportionately great compared either to the original problem that was spotted and successfully treated, or to the scale of the help given.
?Parents are often particularly open to asking for and accepting help when their children are very young, compared to when their children are older.
? This means the potential cost savings that can accrue to services as a result of effective early intervention are potentially greatest when children are very young
The timing of interventions has been found to be significant in other ways too. It has been suggested that there are critical times. When early intervention is likely to be more successful because parents and children tend to be more receptive; for example, i, around the time of the birth of a child, and when the child starts school or is moving from primary to
5.4 Evaluate the importance of accurate documentation regarding the development of children and young people
Record keeping is an important key role and the main aspect is to assist planning and set future learning goals to the learner. Records may contain learner’s information as well as teacher’s observation on the learner’s performance. They need to continually reassess to meet changing needs, e.g. personal situations may change and they may need to be considered to assist the learner to complete their studies/training. Records can also assist the teacher or college to evaluate the teaching programme, in other words, whether the teacher needs to improve or redesign any aspects of their teaching or the programme. Good and accurate records are important for teachers, learners, verifiers, training providers, and inspectors and for employers as they can keep a track on the individual’s development and progress as well as in the performance and professionalism in delivering the subject. Additionally, it is a legal requirement to keep accurate and up to date records on learners as it serves as a clear channel for external, as well as internal, audits. In other words, providing accurate and up to date records is to prove and account for the training/lesson effectiveness and the progress of learners or even special needs for other learners. Records, such as attendance register, are of extreme relevance as it may indicate why a learner is falling behind in their studies and it can also indicate, if a learner is regularly not attending, that this could be an indication that they are not satisfied with either the programme or the teacher or both. Furthermore, it can also indicate external problems which could be addressed. An external referral can be made to the appropriate professional in order to assist the learner get back on track. These types of records facilitate to track issues with both the teaching programme and the learner. Reasons to Observe Children
If I watch the children play, I can discover their interests. By observing children, I can assess their developmental levels. I look to see what strategies children use to attain their goals. Observing children helps me
know what skills the children need to practice. When I observe children at play, I learn a lot about their personalities. We want to use these reasons again, so we will provide an example that illustrates the general meaning of each:
Interests—He loves to play with trucks.
Developmental level—She throws the ball either very hard or not at all, but she does not vary the throw along a continuum of very hard, hard, and soft. Strategies—She tries to influence her friend’s actions by controlling all of the crayons. Skills—She has trouble stringing beads onto a knotted shoestring. Personality—She is reserved and does not like to take risks. In essence, we can learn at least five attributes of our children when we observe them closely:
Their interests and preferences
Their levels of cognitive and social development
Their strategies for creating desired effects
Their skills and accomplishments
Their personalities and temperament.
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