Instructional Materials Essay
Social Studies can be defined as a discipline in which we can learn about our world and man’s interaction with his immediate and remote environment. Since Social Studies deals with how men interact with its social and physical environments, how can this interaction of physical and social environment be learnt by the pupils? This can be learnt in the classroom where teaching and learning cannot be conducted by the teacher by merely feeling his pupils with facts and information. There is need to expose the pupils to varied activities. The environment of the child is rich in varied resources.
The teacher should utilize these varied resources to promote or stimulate learning among his pupils. Pupils learn positively not by hearing alone but by seeing and doing. How can the teacher stimulate the pupils’ interest? This can be done by the use of instructional materials. Instructional materials are meant to stimulate pupils’ interest in the classroom for meaningful learning to take place. They also afford the pupils the opportunity to make use of more of their senses in the process of learning experiences which are not available in the classroom or school environment, are “brought” to the classroom for pupils’ attention through the use of instructional materials. For example, the use of the map of the world in teaching some topics in social studies enables the teacher to bring to class these learning experiences. “This is why instructional materials is said to be aids to learning rather than teaching”.
1.2. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The study was planned mainly to:
a. Provide useful information which will contribute in some ways to the improvement of the teaching of social studies in Nigeria primary schools through the effective use of instructional materials. b. Generate data that will help school administrators in their policy formation as regards the use of instructional materials in schools. c. Make available valuable information that will be helpful to educational technologist in their design of appropriate instructional materials for schools.
1.3. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Nigeria is a potentially a great Nation. But for the Nation to fully attain the enviable position of greatness, her citizens must be dedicated honest, patriotic and hardworking. This is why the federal Government of Nigeria is at present embarking on the project of re-branding the country with the theme, great Nation, good people. Educators have rightly identified social studies as one subject that can help to make these lofty dreams of greatness a reality. Therefore, it cannot be overemphasized on the need to effectively teach this subject through the use of instructional materials. Here has the importance of this study.
It will be expected that result of this study may be useful in the following ways: a. Enabling social studies teacher to realize more than ever before the importance of the use of instructional materials while teaching especially social studies. b. Providing more useful information for social studies teacher as regards the various instructional materials they can employ in teaching. c. Providing more useful information for prospective designs of instructional materials on the need to provide suitable instructional materials for use in schools.
1.4. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It is the consensus among scholars in Nigerian that social studies is one subject that is crucial to the realization of the Nigeria dream of greatness. This is the reasons why social studies in one of the cone subjects at the primary school and junior school levels. However, it seems the teaching and learning of the subject is hampered by the problem of lack of in adequate use of instructional materials. Therefore, the problem of this research is to look at the problems surrounding the use of instructional materials in the teaching of social studies in primary schools. Specifically, this study has attempted to provide answers to the following research questions.
1.5. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. Do primary school teachers use instructional materials while teaching social studies? 2. Are primary school social studies teachers aware of the benefits of using instructional materials in teaching? 3. Does the use of instructional materials in teaching have any impact on pupils’ performance in primary school social studies? 4. Could the non use of instructional materials in the teaching of social studies in primary schools be as a result of their being inadequate? 5. What contribution does the use of instructional materials have on the teaching and learning of social studies?
1.6. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this research has been limited to some selected primary schools in Ibeju-Lekki Local Government Area of Lagos State. The project is to examine the impact of instructional materials in teaching of social studies in selected primary schools in Ibeju-Lekki Local Government Areas. And also to know how learning can be stimulated in primary schools pupils. The limitation is due to financial and time constraint.
1.7. DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. SOCIAL STUDIES: Social Studies can be defined as a study that equips learners with tools such as attitude, values and skills necessary in solving personal and community related problems. Social Studies is also a study of a man and his environment. It is also the study of many interactions with his physical and social environment. It is a study of how man lives in the society, what he does, how his life is affected by things, people as well as social practices around him. 2. INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: These are the resources used to facilitate teaching and learning.
3. TEACHING: This can be defined as the conscious and deliberate efforts by a matured or experienced person to impact knowledge, information, skill, attitude and beliefs to an immature or less experienced person. Is also a systematic way of impacting knowledge on to the people. 4. ENVIRONMENT: These are what we interact within our surroundings likes highlands, lakes, rivers and vegetations e.t.c. 5. LEARNING: Advanced knowledge gained by careful study. Is also a permanent changes in behavior due to past experiences. 6. FACILITATING: Make learning easy without any difficulty
7. ABSTRACT: These are what we cannot see in our surroundings 8. IMPACT: The important or the value one devices from doing something 9. STIMULATING: The art of reasoning quickly and thought and feeling CHAPTER TWO
2.1. LITERATURE REVIEW
The art of teaching and learning involves the interaction of both the human and materials resources in a classroom setting. Since human beings are social animals and they cannot live in isolation, they have to socialize and interact among themselves and with environment. This brings us to the question” What is Social Studies”? Social Studies can be defined as study that equips learners with tools such as attitudes, values, skills necessary in solving personal and community related problems. Information and knowledge gathered from reading books, journals, research works may reveal the area which have not been adequately researched into to us. Furthermore, reviews of literature sometimes provoke the urge to carry out a research based on what we read in the books or journal. Teaching and learning materials can be defined as any device piece of equipment, graphic representation, sound reproduction or illustration that helps the pupils to learn. Generally, instructional materials are used to reinforce and to enrich the mastery of the subject matter.
The roles of instructional materials have been of great importance to teaching in primary schools. According to Awosolu et al (1997), quoting Alani et al (1995) he said that since most pupils in primary schools are still very young, their intellectual abilities may not allow abstract presentation in facts without having to complement the content with concrete materials. It is in this regard that instructional materials are perceived as “aids to learning rather than aid to teaching”. Lawton and Dufour and Dahunsi (1979) classify social studies instructional materials in the following: 1. PICTORIAL MATERIALS: These include globes, maps, posters, flip and well charts diagrams. 2. PRINTED MATERIALS: These include textbooks, reference books, supplementary books, work books, journals, newspapers and magazines. 3. BOARDS LIKE: Chalkboard, Flannel or felt boards
4. MECHANICAL AIDS: These are audio-visual equipment and materials. Having known the various instructional materials, they serve as information
carriers which are designed specifically to fulfill objectives in a teaching learning situation. In fact, learning resources in social studies are multi various and limitless. Social studies by its nature and content deals with the realities of men living in his complex environment. Hence, anything has to do with man’s behavior and interaction as a social behavior qualifies as an instructional materials in social studies.
It is therefore possible to employ as many instructional materials as possible when teaching any topic in social studies because they help to stimulate pupils’ interest and reduce the numbers of verbal responses. A lot has been written on the impact of instructional materials in teaching and learning of social studies. Agun (1988) asserts that many curriculum innovations like inquiry or problem solving method of instruction or learning how to learn may not be meaningfully and effectively implemented without the use of a wide variety of learning resource. Generally, instructional materials are used to reinforce and enrich the mastery of the subject matter.
As a matter of fact, Durojaiye (1978) declared that there is a large number of failure due to the fact that teacher are not doing their work as conscientiously as they should. The critics feel that schools no longer offer true learning and creativity to their pupils. Supporting the vies of these critics. Popham (1971) feels that social studies teachers and curriculum designers in the schools do not make any significant impact on pupils due to the lack of the use of instructional materials. According to Adusual (1982), instructional materials size could affect teacher’s effectiveness because, the smaller the shape the greater the degree of contact, and more effective the teaching and learning interaction. Assuming that there were adequate number of teaching aids it can be give to each of the pupils, therefore, the teaching of social studies without making use of instructional materials is not helping his pupils to learn.
2.2. THE IMPORTANCE OF USING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS
It is pertinent for teachers to become aware of the benefits that accrue from the utilization of instructional materials in order to intensity their efforts at achieving effective result in their teaching activities. Weaver and Bollinger (1949) identified the following advantages: 1. They attract and hold intention: A verbal explanation become more effective in attracting and creating interest when supplemented by a visual aid.
2. Instructional materials help retention of information and visual images. The major part of the things people heard are forgotten in a relatively short time and it becomes difficult to recall accurately what is heard. On the other hand, the things they see make a more lasting impression and they experience considerably less difficulty in calling the object or process with increased accuracy. 3. They help informing correct images: People often interpret information in term of their own background of experiences. Consequently, it is possible and quite probable for a group of learners to form entirely different ideas about the same things as a result of verbal description.
The use of instructional materials helps to eliminate this inconsistency. 4. They assist in understanding proper relationships of components parts. 5. More of the benefits, teachers can reap when instructional materials are used in the teaching process: According to Ogunmilade (1984) the ability it provides in the share of expertise, helping knowledge to reach a lot of people. Simultaneously preservation of records and documents. Bringing before us what otherwise could have looked imaginary or far-fetched; enriching learning and allowing students to learn at their own rate. Furthermore, using of instructional materials makes teaching more effective and facilitates also to master the topic taught to the learner. Finally, using of instructional materials make learning easier and pleasurable at the same time concretize the learning process in the learners.
2.3. PROBLEMS FACING THE USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN SCHOOLS In spite of the numerous benefits accruing from the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning situation its application in our schools has been discouraging because of the following process: 1. Lack of Direction: This is characterized by lip service, paid to use to educational technology in high quarter. Apart from the meager budgetary provisions often made by governments for instructional materials, when it comes to implementation, the funds are hardly released. 2. Resistance to change on the part of the teachers.
3. Lack of readiness of teaching staff to use audio-visual techniques and charge their methods and tools within the classroom. 4. Lack of insfrastructures and facilities that might make the use of instructional aid more meaningful such as lecture halls, audio-visual, libraries, studios, independent study spaces, audio-visual resource centre e.t.c. 5. Inadequate personnel or specialist to train users of instructional materials in schools. 6. Fear of failure in their use
7. Fear that new technology would replace teachers.
8. Inadequate instructional materials: Since the inception of social studies programme, teachers have consistently complained about the problems of quality and quantity of instructional materials. The problem is traceable to lack of good textbooks, cost of textbooks, commercialization of materials, non-functional libraries and resources centres, gap between publication and dissemination of instructional materials, lack of quality control of textual materials and so on. In most cases, teachers rely on outdated and stereotyped textbooks which hardly reflect the needs of pupils.
9. Lack of Fund: This is one of the big problems confronting teachers in general, and social studies teacher in particular. The problem here is lack of motivation and incessant agitation by teachers for improved condition of service. Thus, primary school teachers including social studies teachers have lost interest in teaching even though they are still called teachers. Those who have the slightest opportunity leave the classroom for greener pastures. The incessant replacement that follows such frequent resignations leads to lack of continuity in social studies classrooms. The pupils are usually the worse hit by this. Furthermore, funds are not available for the provision of instructional materials, thereby leaving teachers to either improvise or teach without any in majority of the cases. CHAPTER THREE
This chapter is concerned with the techniques used by the researcher in the collection of data for investigation. It covers explanation on the choice and description of instrument employed for the collection of data. Also included are the sampling techniques, method of administration of the questionnaire and the data analysis method.
The research instrument used for this study is the questionnaire. The choice of the questionnaire is because of its advantage of allowing respondents to answer questions without any outside influence such as facial appearance that may influence respondents as in the interview method. The questionnaire used is in two parts. The first part deals with the personal data of the respondents while the second part contains ten statements which attempt to find out the impact of the use of instructional materials have in teaching social studies.
3.2.SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
The sample of this study consists of 60 primary school teachers. The sample was chosen from five primary schools in Ibeju-Lekki Local Government Area of Lagos State. The sampling technique used in selecting the sample for the study was the systematic random sampling. The sampling technique removes bias in the selection of the elements, and it is convenient and more accurate than the random sampling.
4.3. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
1. Most social studies teachers aware of the need for instructional materials in teaching of social studies. 2. Most primary schools have inadequate instructional materials in the teaching of social studies 3. Majority of the social studies teacher do not make use of instructional materials during their lesson 4. Most of the social studies teachers agree that the chalkboard is one of the instructional materials which aid effective teaching of social studies. 5. Most of the teachers take their pupils on field trips majority of social studies teachers use community resources like red objects and resources persons because they promote learning in social studies. Most social studies teachers do not have overhead projectors, audio-visual equipment which can promote learning in social studies. 6. Almost all the teachers of social studies said that inadequate equipment is one of the problems which they face. 7. Most social studies teachers agree that effective use of instructional materials contribute positively to learning process.
From the research study most primary school teachers are aware of instructional materials for the teaching of social studies. This observation is consistent with the assertion of Nduanya (1986) that teachings are more effective when teachers locate and use appropriate resources. Furthermore, it is observed that most primary schools lack instructional materials be it concrete or abstract to teach social studies. This shows that most primary schools in Ibeju-Lekki Local Government either lack or have inadequate instructional materials for the teaching of social studies. From the research study, it can be observed that majority of social studies teachers do not make use of instructional materials during social studies lessons.
This is as a result of inadequate instructional materials which is due to lack of fund to provide instructional materials. This findings agrees with Agun (1988) who asserts that many curriculum innovations like inquiring or problem solving method of instructional or learning how to learn may not be meaningful and effectively implemented without the use of a wide variety of learning research. In fact, it can be deduced from the research study that most social studies teachers make use of chalkboard as an instructional material which is most important aids to effective teaching. This implies that the chalkboard is one of the instructional materials that is the most available instructional materials in every school. There is no school which will have inadequate instructional materials and will not have a chalkboard.
Indeed, the chalkboard as one of the instructional materials is commonly used by the teachers. This findings on the use of chalkboard agrees with Ajimoko (1973); Dahunsi (1979), Akanbi (1982) and Osofisan (1982) they said apart from the chalkboard, the textbook was the next most frequently used of the instructional materials. Consequently, from the findings it can be observed that majority of social studies teacher take their pupils out on field trips. Pupils are taking out on excursion to relate their experience with the theory they have been taught in the classroom.
When pupils are taking out on field trips they learn more about their surroundings as the nature of social studies and learning becomes more permanent in them. From the findings it shows that majority of social studies teachers makes use of resources centres. This indicates that pupils need to be taken out of the classroom to appreciate the fact that learning does not end within the premises of the classroom. When pupils go out, they need to be trained to observe event and learn without the teacher being around them. This finding agrees with Preston and Herman (1981). These resource centres become social studies laboratory in which pupils becomes young social scientists. From the research study, it can be deducted that most social studies teachers do not make use of audio-visual materials because they don’t have them. This finding agrees with Akibote (1983) on the very limited uses of electronic materials in school within Ondo Local Government Area.
This is as a result of the teacher’s inabilities to manipulate any of the equipment since they do not have teacher training. Another related problem may be due to lack of electricity because majority of the schools do not have electricity. Another finding of the study deduced that in teaching of social studies, inadequate equipment is one of the problems faced by social studies teachers. This implies that some social studies lessons are done in abstract. So, effective learning cannot be facilitated. This negative effect may be as a result of lack of funds to provide adequate instructional materials in schools and teachers are not ready to improve because of their salaries are very inadequate.
The results also shown that most of the social studies teachers agrees that most of the social studies teachers agrees that the effective use of instructional materials combine positively to learning process. The effect is that when instructional materials are effectively used, they facilitate learning and stimulate pupil’s interest. They also make their
lessons more interesting and relief the pupils from the burden of tiredness while learning. CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES The main objective of this study is to examine the impact of instructional materials in the teaching of social studies in primary schools. In this chapter, the summary of the major findings will be highlighted. The discussion will also include suggestions for policy making and areas where future research on the topic may be directed.
One of the major findings of this research is that most social studies teachers agreed on the importance of teaching the subject with instructional materials. Another outcome of this project is that there are inadequate instructional materials for teaching social studies in primary schools. So many instances, teaching is done without instructional materials. It was also revealed from the research that the chalkboard that is always available in schools is one of the instructional materials which aids the effective teaching of social studies. This study also reveals that although most primary schools do not have audio-visual aids, social studies teachers compensate for this by making use of real objects, resource persons and by taking their pupils on field trips. Finally, from this research, it was revealed that the use of instructional materials in teaching social studies contribute positively to the learning of the subject
Although this study has not claimed to be complete, some suggestions based on its findings could be made on how to improve the teaching of social studies in primary schools through the effective use of instructional materials. In the first place, because of the importance of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of social studies in primary schools, the various ministries of education and school boards in the country should ensure that adequate instructional materials are supplied to primary schools.
Secondly, the government should ensure that there is regular supply of electricity and schools in the villages that lack electricity should be provided with generators. This will enable the schools to make use of audio-visual aids such as television, projector and VCD. Thirdly, regular workshops and seminars should be organized by the various school boards for primary school teachers on how to make simple instructional materials and on the use of the various instructional materials. Finally, inspectors of education should constantly visit schools to ensure that the instructional materials available are judiciously used by teachers for teaching.
5.3. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES
Like with most researches, this study cannot claim to have exhausted all that is to be said on the use of instructional materials in teaching social studies in primary schools. Instead, this survey should be regarded as a guide for further research.
Therefore, as regards the future, this researcher suggests some specific projects. First of all, a further investigation should be carried out to find out how use of instructional materials or lack of this affects pupils’ academic performance in social studies. In addition, social studies teacher should consider the instructional materials when teaching social studies at the same time there is need for education technology practitioners to write texts more relevant to Nigeria situation and needs such texts should contain model and samples of instructional materials and the procedure for making them by individual teachers. Furthermore, there should be a study on the suitability or otherwise of the available instructional materials that are being used in teaching social studies in primary schools.
DEPARTMENT OF ARTS AND SOCIAL SCIENCES
ADENIRAN OGUNSANYA COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, EPE CAMPUS, EPE.
RESEARCH PROJECT 2013
QUESTIONNAIRE ON THE IMPACT OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ON THE TEACHING OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN THE PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN IBEJU-LEKKI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE
Alani, R.A; Oduyemi, O.G and Agagu A.A. (1995): Teaching Aids; Reading in Subject Methodology; Ijebu-Ode, Olaf Association, Page 29-34. Awosolu, E.O. and Fasasi A.K.(1996): “Teacher’s use of Instructional materials in Primary Social Studies in Epe Metropolis” The Beagle, Journal of Primary Education,, Vol. 1 and 2, page 71-77. Awosolu, E.O. and Fasasi A.K. (1996) “Teacher’s use of Instructional Materials in Primary Social Studies in Epe Metropolis” quoting Agun 1988, Nduanya 1986, Imogie 1988, Alani et al 1995, Dufour and Dahunsi 1979, Ajimoko 1973, Preston and Herman 1981, Akibote 1983, Akanbi 1982, and Osofisan 1982 in the Beagle, Journal of Primary Education, Vol 1 and 2, page 71 – 77. Olowoye, B. (1996): Principle and Method of Teachings. Ibadan, Afolabi Press Limited Page 107 – 120
Osunkalu, A.S. (1973): Instructional Media quoting Adesina 1982, Durojaiye 1978
Welberg 1970, Nwaogu 1980 and Pophas 1971 in a Journal of Teachers Guide Vol. 2 page 21 – 26.
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