This was the case of America, and is so true that even knowledge of the history we use is mediated through the vision of the West: Prior to the discovery, America is only recognized “prehistory,” characterized by “some findings picturesque “rather than valuable to the curious culture that we were imposing, if not blasphemous or barbarians, and today in America abound on the periphery of the school, to silence the cultural roots of our being American. But where are thousands of years of history?
Where do are multiple cultures? What about their empires and organizations? Why talk about prehistory if pre-Columbian cultures, such as the Maya were writing? And especially: Where is the eye of another, by the Indian, dominated compared to the phenomenon of discovery, conquest and of itself? The pre-Columbian cultures in the process of conquest were virtually destroyed: its temples, its cities, its people, documents, and with this, the same Indians attended the death of both his and his entire cultural heritage.
The roots were lost and the past tried to hide under the “true civilization” implies that “the salvation of souls.
However, not everything was lost in time. Some survived architectural and artistic works and stories that transcended orally from generation to generation; stories impregnated and devoted other visions of the pre-Hispanic America and formed the gaze of the other, that belies the Indian chronicler says, and / or supplementing many of the facts comment Western and that opens the door to another sense, wonderful, incredible, what was and, therefore, what could be America.
Thus, the Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, born in Cuzco on April 12, 1539 (eight years after the conquest of Peru) is given to the study and understanding of the past of their culture, in a final attempt to rebuild and reinvent in front of the world. However, being the Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, son of a Spanish (Garcilaso de la Vega) and an Inca princess (Chipu Ocllo), does address this perspective from what happened? In this regard, Antonello Gerbi it in The Disputation of New World says:
“The Inca Garcilaso was naturally a logical augural v baroque, so fertile land, rich in minerals and precious metals … criase veins blood generous and mines of understanding” (p. 230). In his quest, Inca Garcilaso de la Vega builds a “modern oral history” that legitimizes an entire universe, becoming a storyteller witness who establishes a common thread between memories and comment made by characters who, in some way, affected their cultural training.
Under this perspective that leads some ambiguous character, Inca Garcilaso de la Vega looking draw lines on a sheet of blank paper, which at the end we can only perceive a compendium of strokes short and long, with plenty of blots and tachones, symbolizing the great struggle sustained by trying to reconcile and, in turn, respect two voices: that of the Indian and the Spanish. Will be necessary to divide those centuries in two ages: tell how they lived before the Incas and then tell how those Kings ruled, is aware that at that age and the first former gentilidad some Indians had little better than beasts tame and many Brave worse than beasts.”(p. 10) It is in this way that the Inca Garcilaso de la Vega begins his account of the history, origin and customs of the Inca culture, in compiling his best comment real (1992), which handled so clear western notions of “barbarism and civilization”. That call first age is framed in a context in which the law is not known, such as marriage and marital ties stable worshiped many gods, including each person created his own.
For Inca Garcilaso de la Vega that responded to a need for more differentiation of an individual with respect to another, a spiritual order, since according to him, worshiped lower things themselves, such as the worship of animals. At this point, it is remarkable that the parallelism between the Indian states chronicler of this first age and Greco-Roman polytheism, bringing it above the first while representing their gods virtues as hope and victory.
However, it condemned both faiths in the pursuit of monotheistic thought that the Spaniards had acquired, and that largely determined the look on the Inca gave the prehistoric past. In both cases, his sentence was blunt and definitive: ridicules all the knowledge that these were Western cultures, saying that it was not sufficiently acute as to recognize the presence of only one God and set aside idolatry. This comment is nothing more than an attempt to demonstrate that the West also, with all its civilization, without being judged himself, or at least, had also known the “barbaric”.
But then, when we talk about “barbarism and civilization”, refers to the Inca Indians of the first age as “beasts”, we wonder: What is the difference in the approach of De Pauw described in section Gerbi of Antonello? It is striking that two authors as distant from each other departing from the same principle to categorize the American Indian, although Inca Garcilaso tries to justify it and claim it under the development of the Inca Empire.
It is here where De Pauw gives rise to severe criticism, radically opposed to the approach of Garcilazo, and even reduced to the absurdity of their Indian status. Thus, not only deslegitima but denies and enloda any cultural construction of this former empire that, in some way, to reaffirm a concept different from that of western civilization. In this regard insists that the Indians did not have either laws or other social order, contrary to the stated Garcilazo, and that they were incapable of an act of nobility or mutual aid within their social structures.
It belies the whole relationship makes Garcilaso on economic regime of the Indians of Peru, which was based on systems of “reciprocity and redistribution” (detailed below), and all laws that established the rule as a right and the duty to cooperate meeting each other in the sites of production. In addition, De Pauw never recognized the chronic Inca Garcilaso done on education in this pre-Columbian culture, as it considered the Indians incapable of any intellectual ability.
It is important to note that De Pauw sustains its anti-American speech on mere “observation” weather, i. e. a deep criticism of the climatic conditions of our continent, previously studied by authors such as Cuvier or De Vries, a weapon with which an entire concept of be American, of course, a one-sided concept. The idea of a possible deluge America gives rise to the belief in a continent decomposition; condition because of a great sin, which leads to the degeneration of wildlife and, consequently, of its inhabitants.
“Therefore, men and animals drowned or died for lack of food (… ) This is the reason that there are so few people in America, and that little is barbaric and uneducated” (p. 77) But how this thinker can build an entire universe under such radical perspective and try to justify it even if it came to stepping on American soil? Obviously it is in speech unfounded, biased. But what was happening in the thinking of the “American” Garcilaso de la Vega, so destroyed by De Pauw?
Both the leaders of some tribes that still lacked laws to govern such as communities that have lived without them, from cannibalism until their same language, all that past (in the thinking of Garcilaso) part of a dark era of darkness and chaos claimed that, intrinsically, by the establishment of a “new world order”. But for the Inca, but this would not be the first steps of a story that would grow linearly in a stadium less than other higher: the triumph of the Christian faith, as it says Wachtell Nathan in his book The Beaten (p. 244): “The same spirit rational (as we believe) is reflected in their representation of time.
Garcilaso identifies three times in Peru during the first age, the Indians living in a state of barbarism, the second age corresponds to the work of civilizing Incas, and the third to win and the advent of Christianity. ” In this regard it would be necessary to add that there is a “rational spirit” in the work of Garcilaso, this is trasvasado by subjectivities implicit and explicit, since our observer studied and the judge under investigation on the basis of their mental structure, the result of the process acculturation suffered by the inhabitants of the Americas in front of the Spanish domination.
However, we can not ignore the intent and the objectives of Garcilaso de la Vega to write The Comentarlos Royal, as they not only justify his work, but from another point of view, show the need to discover itself, diluted in a culture which excludes (Western culture), seeking to find their roots, to claim theirs, and even understand their reality mestizo, aculturada, the identity of the new American. As chronicler Garcilaso proposes:
What we have in my nineces heard many times to my mother and her brothers and uncles and others from their elders about the origin and principle, and will be better known by propalas words what the Incas have not the other authors of strangers. “(p. 17) The Inca Garcilaso de la Vega was devoted extensively to reconstruct the history, life and customs of the Inca empire, which many chroniclers Spaniards, some on his way to see the world, others for convenience and even as a justification for the excesses that these characters rammed against Incan culture (since this is the before us).
On the other hand, these early Incas called Manco Capac and Mama Ocllo Huaco, the Indians educated in their respective tasks, according to their gender: men were taught by Manco Capac to cultivate the land, to make their homes; taught rules to live in society, they imparted laws regarding murder, theft and married life, not just in both the lineage, but also in determining the age required to marry and take responsibility for a new farm, spinning and shoes, among other activities.
Under this idea of community, based on the mandate of the Sun to do good to their beloved sons were established systems of reciprocity and redistribution through which, while not living in abundance, nor spent needs. n the first case, the gifts were exchanged mutually between individuals or groups in the same hierarchy, in the second, the property was grouped by the state and redistributed to other groups, the State was responsible for the “excess production”, as stated Nathan.
Each individual, following the example of the sons of the Sun, was obliged to help those who could not work their land because they were divided and spread among all the Indians, except those reserved for the Inca and the Sun, and even the Curacas, who were not otherwise, but the leaders of each province of the State, to be divided in two, had two of this figure. However, in these lands should also work to make it produce.
But despite all this, the chronicler could not escape their own vision western therefore on more than one occasion not only shows faith but try not to be derogatory myths that gave rise to this culture and all the richness and complexity of their relationship, under a sacred sense, managed to crystallize a way of life unique. In any case, there is work chronicler of a sort of ambiguous speech in which makes it clear that the myth of the Inca Manco Capac, among other myths and visions of the world, does not consider it anything other than a fable, while recognizing the cunning and wisdom of this Inca to “use it to order his people.”
“Living or those people dying in the manner that we have seen, that our Lord God allowed themselves a saliese lucero dawn that those oscurisimas darkness give them some news of the law and civility and respect that men should take some with others making them capable of any good reason and doctrine, so that when the same God, the Sun of justice, either by having to send the light of its divine ray those idolaters, found not so wild, but more docile for the Catholic faith, teaching and the doctrine of our Holy Mother the lglesia Romana “(p. 17) While the prince in their work, noon, it appeared a man dressed in a long robe and wide, and he had a beard, unlike the Indians. The program, which was presented as the Son of the Sun and called himself Viracocha, he warned about the dangers that the rule ran in relation to a riot. But his father did not want to hear. These words that our lNCA told us we were most powerfully to clamp and remove our EMPIRE not weapons of your father and his companions brought to this land. ” – (Pg. 229).
Faced with the arrival of the Spaniards, otherwise it could not happen: those men never seen before, could only be associated with the god Viracocha, the answer is immediate: Spaniards were taken by saviors, but what? According to Wachtelll Nathan, by the time the Spaniards begin their conquest, the empire was divided. Soon allies Huascar the Europeans sought to end the andanzas of Atahualpa, who is accused by the chronicler Garcilaso king as a tyrant, unlike all previous dedicated to making cruelties. Thus, when the Spaniards seized were taken by rescuers.
However, Nathan says that even Peruvian Indians mourn the death of Atahualpa, rememorandola and recreating return it through folklore. Let us not forget that if one side for the Spaniards were gods, for the allies were enemies of Atahualpa. But the illusion of the first did not last long. . The process of the conquest was, in the literal sense, terribly shocking. The Spaniards attacked indigenous people with aggressiveness, violence, imposed through fear. His ambition and greed have a shield: faith. On behalf of her people and destroyed entire cities with them.
They brought diseases never seen that decimated the population significantly. Well, it could only have chaos in the minds of dominated.