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Housing in IndiaAssam TypeBackground: This kind of structures can be found in the Northeastern conditions of India. Ikra-type construction is also used in the Gangetic planes of Bihar, UP, Bengal and Orissa. This sort of development is broadly built in south and southeast Asian nations, particularly in Bangladesh, Thailand, Myanmar and so on., The Northeast part of India is the most seismically active regions in the world. Such types of houses are Assam type or Ikra houses. Summary: These types of houses are single storey house generally.
Two-storey houses are also found in some places. The main use of this type is Multi-family housing. These are single dwelling units and don’t have common walls with adjacent buildings. This is made using wood-based materials. Assam type houses performance has been good in many past earthquakes in the region. Structural strengths that influence earthquake safety of the house include good configuration, light weight materials used for walls and roofs, flexible connection between wooden elements at different levels.
These are vulnerable to fire because of use of untreated wood based materials. When these types of houses built on hill slopes, unequal length of vertical posts leads to unsymmetrical shaking that many damage the house. 187896523876000 Roof Construction:Roof Truss: These houses have sloped roof made of thatch infill and roofing resting on wood posts, rafters and purlins. The rafters are made of about 150mm diameter wood logs from locally available Sal wood, place at about 600-700 mm spacing. The purlins are made of bamboo of size upto 100mm, placed at about 300mm spacing.
The thatch roofing is made of Ikra reed.Wall Construction: These panels can be either mud-plastered or cow dungfine river sand plastered or cement/lime-fine river sand plastered on one/both faces, they are further painted on one/both faces, completely depending on the economic capacity of the house owner. In recent constructions, the Ikra walls do not continue till ground level, instead un-reinforced masonry walls of 120 mm thickness are constructed above ground level till sill level and then Ikra walls are supported on the masonry walls.Dhajja Dewari:Background: Dhajja dewari is a conventional building type found in the western Himalayas. Such houses are found in Pakistan and Indian Administered Kashmir. It is alluded as block nogged timber outline development according to Indian standard codes. Summary: It comprises of supported timber outline. The spaces left between the bracings outlines is loaded up with a slim mass of stone. Finished dividers are put in mud mortar. They are found on shallow establishments produced using stone workmanship. These are 1-4 stories tall and the rooftop might be a level timber and mud rooftop, or a pitched rooftop with timber sheeting. It is additionally utilized broadly in mix with timber outline. The floors are made with timber pillars that length between dividers. These are utilized for housing, regularly for families. They are increasingly identical to town houses.Roof Construction: It comprise of wooden supports clad in creased iron. It additionally comprises of timber An outline supports spreading over between timber sections, however this isn’t generally the situation. These are designed to shape a peak rooftop or in a hipped rooftop arrangement. The hipped rooftop contrasted with rooftops contributed just two headings. Hipped rooftops stay away from the excessive peak stone work. Rooftop covering has been made of different sorts of sheeting, for example, metal, asbestos, concrete or plastic layered sheets.Wall construction: Timber posts with timber supports. Rubble or cut stone wearing mud mortar. Mud mortar might be reinforced by the expansion of lime or the expansion of normal strands to dodge shrinkage of the mortar yet more probable the render.Timber Frame Brick House with AtticBackground: This kind of structures can be found in all parts of India with little or huge varieties. It has been taken from the Nirmar area of Madhyapradesh, which is inclined to direct quakes in seismic zone III yet this sort is spread consistently over focal and southern India. This sort of lodging development is found in provincial and urban regions. The level of houses in urban zones is high. Summary: The sort of house is utilized for private purposes. Timber is utilized for the edge structure components yet because of an intense lack of timber, this sort isn’t polished any longer. Different segments of structures change from spot to put contingent upon atmosphere, financial conditions, accessibility of material. Timber outlines which are put in longitudinal and tranverse bearings are loaded up with block workmanship dividers. The floor structure is made of timber boards. The vast majority of the structures are observed to be rectangular fit as a fiddle with couple of openings. The roofing material is typically light when it is produced using galavanized ironsheets. Seismic execution of a consummately encircled building is satisfactory. Existing old structures require maintenance and reinforcing. Nominal cost will be caused for introducing earthquake resistant features. Roof construction: Timber boards (Teak). The material components are halfway laying on external dividers and somewhat on irregular timber segments. These structures don’t require numerous assets for retrofitting and reinforcing.Wall construction: Wall: Brick frame: Timber(Teak wood). The lateral load resisting system is a timber frame load bearing wall system. If the building is made with adequate engineering abilities and techniques, it has adequate parallel load resisting strength. The frames are made of teak wood, which is considered very durable and free from bugs and termite.Rubble Stone masonry walls with timber frame and timber roofBackground: Houses of this sort can be found in Maharastra state especially for the Marathwada area, regularly found in towns. A comparable kind of building found in Jammu and Kashmir, for different states in India, allude to Vulnerability Atlas of India. This sort of development is generally found in country regions.Summary: This type of rural buildings in central, southern and northern India houses a huge number of individuals. It is cheap to build utilizing field stones and boulders, but extremely vulnerable in earthquakes account of its substantial rooftops and ineffectively built dividers. The heap bearing structure is a customary timber outline framework, called as khan. It is very vulnerable to earthquake effects.Roof construction: Roof structure comprises of timber planks and joints. For the sake of thermal comfort during hot summer (peak temperature) a 500-800mm thick mud overlay is provided at top of the roof. Parallel seismic powers are exchanged from the rooftop to the timber posts, which will in general influence horizontally. As the posts are typically constructed adjacent out-of-plane seismic forces in the stone walls. Now and again, there are no timber posts in segments of a house, and whole horizontal burden from the rooftop is exchanged to the dividers. Wall construction: The vertical load resisting system is timber frame load-bearing wall system. Gravity load-bearing framework comprises of timber outlines khands, which convey the heaviness of the rooftop and edge self-load down to the stone platforms. Stonewalls go about as walled in area and convey basically oneself load down to the establishments. It is a finished casing with timber posts spread over at about 2.6m. Thick stone dividers give fenced in area and fractional help to the rooftop. Dividers are either upheld by strip footings of uncoarsed rubble brick work or with no footings.Thathara houses in Himachal PradeshBackground: This kind of houses are found in Ravi waterway valley in Chamba region of the state Himachal Pradesh in Northern India. Despite the fact that a not many houses can be found in the town of Chamba itself, which is additionally the region headquarter, a reasonable number of these houses can be found in the towns. All towns in the remote parts of this area have Thathara-style house. Thathara style is a customary development system being drilled from old occasions. A few structures can be gone back 400 years, however attributable to restriction on tree falling, this system is obsolete now because of the shortage of wood. Presently, individuals are intrigued by building houses with new material which require lesser upkeep and are progressively adaptable as far as arranging. This kind of housing development is generally found in country, sub-urban and urban regions.Summary: This sort has recognized in Himachal Pradesh. Presently, this kind of structures can be seen for sanctuaries. The development style is called Thathara and it is utilized for wooden boards that make the vertical burden conveying individuals known as Thola. These are utilized for vertical and flat casing components. The area where this kind of building is utilizing is portrayed by chilly atmosphere and witnesses overwhelming precipitation amid substantial blustery season. This region has encountered solid quakes and it has in the end advanced to oppose seismic activity.Roof construction: Wood shingles, slates, Highly varying quality and strength. Slates are used as roof covering. Both gable and hipped roofs are used.Wall construction: Deodar or kail wood, locally accessible stones and mud outline: wood and stones. The primary burden bearing arrangement of this building typology comprises of Tholas and wooden pillars. Tholas are given at corners and edges of the building and bolster the level pillars which thus bolster the slanted rafters and purlins. A positive association among Tholas and pillars has commonly not been watched and the bars are essentially kept over the Tholas. The protection from lateral loads is given by wooden surrounding or in plane activity of dividers.Low strength dressed stone masonry buildingsBackground: This type of buildings are found in urban and rural areas throughout India. A very large proportion of the building stock in the Kutch region of Gujarat affected by the 2001 Bhuj Earthquake was of this building type. It is also used in other regions of India with lower seismic hazard where soft stone is easily available. This type is usually found in both rural and urban areas.Summary: Construction of stone brick work utilizing effectively accessible nearby materials is a typical practice in both urban and provincial territories. These are utilized by the working class and lower class individuals in urban regions, and by all classes in rustic regions. In rustic zones, these are commonly littler in size and are utilized as single-story single family lodging This is a run of the mill load bearing development, in which both gravity and sidelong loads are opposed by the dividers bolstered by strip balance. Dressed stones are utilized when the locally accessible stones is delicate and can be etched at low and moderate expense. These are built by nearby artisans without formal preparing and the subsequent developments are fundamentally powerless and unequipped for opposing substantial seismic forces.Roof construction: Timber with clay tiles. Most rustic houses have peak and timber rooftop bracket with customary or Mangalore type mud tiles as material laying on Bamboo or timber purlins. In single-story developments, the rooftop may comprise of divider bolstered adaptable bracket, which isn’t viable in conveying the story level idleness powers to the diverse opposing components. In these developments, openings are regularly found close to the corners which further debilitate their protection from lateral loads.Wall construction: Rectangualr sandstone stone work hinders with mud or bond mortar. The gravity load-bearing framework comprises of the dividers which convey the floor and rooftop loads. The dividers, thusly, transmit the heaps to the establishments, which comprise of strip footings, which fluctuate inside and out from 0.5 to 2.0m (contingent upon the quantity of stories and the neighborhood soil conditions).Mud wall construction in Spiti Valley (Himachal Pradesh)Background: This sort can be found in the Spiti waterway valley of the locale Lahaul and Spiti, in the province of Himachal Pradesh. This was named as ‘Spitian engineering’. This is a desert region where timber is rare and mud is the fundamental accessible development material. These are made of slammed earthern dividers and timber is utilized for floors and rooftops just as for doors and window frames. Normal stones are likewise rare and furthermore utilized for establishments. This is found in both rural and sub-urban territories. This has been utilized for over 200 years. Summary: This sort can be found in Himachal Pradesh, a northern state in India. Precipitation as a rule happens as snowfall with no to little precipitation. This dryness of the nearby atmosphere is reflected in the design of this development typology which comprises of thick mud dividers with little openings so as to protect the inside from the brutal outside atmosphere. This sort is transcendently utilized for private houses and sanctuaries is as yet being utilized however it demonstrates high seismic vulnerability. Roof construction: Wood, mud rooftop. As the territory has almost no or no precipitation, the rooftops are level and built similarly as the floors. These days, with fairly improved network for transportation, prevalent tree logs or steel areas are now and again utilized for the beams too.Wall construction: Locally accessible mud. Divider framework: Houses of spitian engineering have a loadbearing divider framework. The 300-500 mm thick mud dividers take up the whole burden. Development materials: The establishments and dividers upto 600 to 900 mm stature over the ground level are made of nearby accessible field stones. Over this base, the dividers are altogether built of slammed earth.Rural mud house with pitched roof:Background: This construction type can be found in all parts of India. Variations of this type of construction are found all over India except where very high rainfall is experienced, such as in the Northeast states of India. Information on percentage of housing stock of this type is not available, but their number is expected to be substantial. It is commonly found in rural areas. Summary: This is a rural construction found in India. It is a single family house, mainly occupied by the poorer sections of the population. The main loadbearing system consists of mud walls which carry the roof load. In some cases, wooden posts are provided at the wall corners and at intermediate locations. The wooden posts and walls are not structurally integrated, the loads are shared by the walls and the frame. There are very few openings in these buildings, in rural areas there are no windows at all. Generally, this type of building is built by the owners and local unskilled masons and the craftsmanship is very poor. It is low strength masonry construction and it is considered to be extremely vulnerable to seismic forces. Roof construction: Roof truss is either made up of bamboo, wood or built up steel section. The spacing between purlins and rafters are generally not regular. Generally old conventional typical house is covered with heavy clay tiles. The cladding material may not be firmly anchored to the trusses and wall.Wall construction: The wall is made up of mixed mud with wheat husks and water (mud-polymer composite). Generally, the wheat husk is mixed and kept for about a week to give it a homogenous texture. The mud mortar is placed and rammed to make it compacted. The wall is erected upto about 2.5 feet in each lift and allowed to dry for one or two days before the next lift.Dry stone construction in Himachal PradeshBackground: This type of building can be found in the North Indian state Himachal Pradesh, more specifically in the villages of the districts Chamba, Simla, Kullu and Kinnaur. This type of housing is found in rural and urban areas.Summary: This type of building has been identified in Himachal Pradesh, a northern state of India. It is a recent construction typology, which can be seen prevalent in the areas where people have been forced to leave their traditional construction practices due to scarcity of wood. Due to the regions, heavy precipitation both in terms of rainfall as well as snowfall, rubble stones are preferred over the constructive material i.e., mud. These buildings possess high vulnerability of dry stone buildings.Roof construction: Steel trusses for roof. As the area receives rain in monsoon and heavy snow in winters, the houses have sloping roofs, i.e., gable or hipped roofs where the gradient of the slope is slightly reduced over the verandah to create sufficient head room. Roofs are covered with slate stones which are locally available while deodar or kail wood is used for beams, rafters and purlins. In some recent constructions, steel trusses are also being used.Walls construction: Local masons are involved in the construction of these buildings, inheriting their skills from their fathers. Architects and engineers are not involved in the design or construction of this housing type. The stone walls are load bearing with a thickness of 500 mm and a height of 2.5 m. Both external and internal walls are of the same thickness. Walls are made of undressed stones of varying sizes, packed together without any mortar.Reinforced concrete frame building with masonry infill walls designed for gravity loads:Background: This type of buildings can be found in entire India. It is found in both rural and urban areas. In the past, it was only found in urban areas. Due to urbanization of the society and easy availability of necessity raw materials, these structures are also constructed in semi-rural and large rural communitites. Summary: This type of building with brick masonry has been a very common practice in urban for the last 25 years. This was designed for gravity loads only, in violation of the code of Indian standards for earthquake resistant design. These houses performed very poorly during the Bhuj earthquake of January 2001 and thousand buildings collapsed. Roof construction: Structural concrete: cast-in-place and precast solid slabs. The RCC floor and roof slabs are considered rigid analysis and design purposes.Wall construction: The construction of reinforced concrete buildings with brick masonry infill walls has been a very common practice in urban India for the last 25 years.
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