The developed nation around the world concentrates to male and female education. The women’s higher education in developing countries is the most rejected sector. Through the total enrollment in HEI’S has increased from0.276 million during 2001-02 to 1.298 million by 2014-15, but still, the higher education of women was just 10 % during 2015-16. therefore, women are facing wide-ranging socioeconomic and cultural barriers during the attainment of higher education. Education must be provided to all classes of citizens by breaking down limitations and barriers.
Once students have completed primary and secondary education, attention must focus on the increasing contribution of men and women equally in the field of Higher Education. The goal of Higher Education is to offer women’s access to vocational, technical, specialized education, and developing technologies.
Education is a human right and an essential tool for achieving equality economic development and peace. The higher education for female is considered a capital investment and it’s too important for social economical development of country.
The higher educational institutions had an important role in producing, professionals, scientists, political leaders and religious and social scholar, who serve the society for increasing its values and development its resources. It is worldwide acknowledgement as the higher education of the women plays a vital role in building the overall socio-culture, and economic development of a country. Today, the government provides equal educational opportunities to male and female starting in primary school through their university degree. Females have enough opportunities to get higher education, Professional and technical degree.
There are major issues for female trying to obtain a higher degree that are noted by the assessment participants, insecurity and economical issues and difficulties with the university entrance examination the low stander of the women education in the country, transport problem is the major problem in the country for the women pursuing higher education. female students that sexual harassment is major barrier to higher education in Pakistan These problems are not viewed as continue.
The assessment participants provided recommendations on how to reduced or eliminate some of these barriers. the higher education of women can be improved. However, all efforts to do so should be applied to take a long-term process on that focuses on the pupils of today and the future. The female of country as a whole deserve to know what positive effect and increased number of education women can improved. the problem with developing countries counting Pakistan is that they have given low importance to higher education. Higher education authorizes female in two ways. It supports qualified females to become leaders in society and certificate them to become role models for younger girls. At the same time, it encourages females to choose domains of proficiency, whether this is as decision makers through impact on policy issues related to social, economic, and cultural development. But education of females in Pakistan determinedly ignored by society and state.
The female literacy rate showing that investment in human development tends toward supporting men over women. Females have limited opportunities to attain higher education, professional and technical degrees. Thus, gender inequality increasing in education sector with passage of time.the present study is planned to expose the impacts of socio-economic and cultural challenges to female’s higher education in Pakistan. Addressing the freedom of females for travel in public transport, and the sexual harassment on campus and in public transport, also family support and disagreement to female’s higher education. Early marriage have negative impacts on female’s higher education in Pakistan 74.9 percent of individuals fully agreed that early marriage of girls stop them to get higher education, which is main reason behind low literacy rates and gender inequality. If state and society introduce new laws about female’s age for marriage there are positive chances to increase registration of females in higher educational institutions.
Higher education for women, female education
The study focused on why female’s education is important, describe the role of educated women in society
The objective of the review was to explore how the media in Pakistan post 18th Amendment connected to ILM-Ideas core areas of its Voice and Accountability Fund. Much of the content though created almost unimportant and incoherent demand from the provincial governments was to improve the quality of education other than becoming more responsive to the growing needs of the young population. The themes over which Mishal focused while reviewing the gathered literature were Public spending on education The provincial financial allocations for 2013-14 development expenditure in education are as follows: Baluchistan 30 percent, KP 19 percent, Punjab 18 percent and Sindh 10 percent. Amongst other provinces Khyber Pakhtunkhwa noted high increase of 30 percent compared to last year spending. At this level, Pakistan ranks 177th globally in terms of public spending on Education, according to the Human Development Report 2013 issued by UNDP. Girls education and women teachers More then half of the girls drop out due to the bad quality of education and the fact that schools are not inclusive of communities they serve. The ratio for females is badly lower, especially for certain parts of Pakistan such as in rural Sindh and Baluchistan, where the percentage for female literacy is 23 per cent and 16 per cent respectively. Trained teachers in primary education; female (% of female teachers) in Pakistan was last measured at 76.43 in 2010, according to the World Bank. Teachers are persons employed full time or part in an official capacity to guide and direct the learning experience of pupils and students, irrespective of their qualifications or the delivery mechanisms. The challenge is to ensure that innovation plays a positive role in improving educational opportunities for millions of children in Pakistan who continue under-served in a rapidly developing world.
In the modern era young men and women prepared with higher education skills lead countries to development and social justice. However, the problem with developing countries counting Pakistan is that they have given bad priority to higher education (Haider, 2008). The World Bank (2000) reported that developing countries will find it more difficult to advantage from the global knowledge-based economy if they fail to give relative importance to better higher education.
Success and progress of any country largely depends on the chances that are made available to its people in the field of education. Elimination of gender inequality in education has been a priority goal of many international development organizations (Ganguli, 2011). It is determined in literature that removing gender gap and educating girls will serve a range of improved outcomes including high economic growth especially for developing countries (Ghaida, 2004) but females had limited opportunities for acquiring higher education particularly in fields of professional and technical disciplines.
According to UNESCO (2012) education is important right of every human being and they are enabled to get education regardless of the circumstances in which they live. Education is useful for the whole human society. Education is also considered as one of the pointers of development and every person must have equal opportunity to be part of this development irrespective of any discrimination. For any country, higher education is considered a capital investment for its social and economic development (Batool, 2013). Higher education has utmost importance for social and economic development of any country. It is seen as a source of huge potential for the socio-economic development of any country (Yasmeen, 2005). Higher education serves as a tool of empowerment for individuals as it fulfills the human capital needs of a country. So purposes of higher education is closely associated with development needs of society in general (Virk, 2003). Higher education of females particularly serve larger benefits as it is related to the social, economic, personal and cultural aspects of human society (Shaukat, 2014). In one study, it is stated that “Education of women is important not only from the angle of equal education opportunity between the sexes, but also for the substantial social and economic returns to female education that can be achieved by raising women’s productivity and level of income” (Haworth, 2010, p.1). United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization places great importance to the role of female graduates as they become skilled and trained human resources and make a significant contribution in the development process of their country.
The purpose of the study was to expand a greater accommodation of the sense of empowerment doer by the women in Pakistan through contribution in higher education.
The target populations were female faculty members and the other students from the faculty of education department .The data was collected by male and female students and we also gather data through questionnaire and interview .we used primary data collection and followed qualitative method. Data was collected in two parts through questioner and interview to the different .the survey tool was used to obtain feedback from female faculty and students for knowing to their perception about the higher education of women using a five-points with possible responses of “strongly disagree ,”disagree, ”neutral,” “agree”, strongly agree” from the majority of questions .the survey was contained 10 questions which selected for collecting this data .The survey was presented the perception of the faculty members and students about the higher education for female .we have sufficient population so according to the population data was collected.
In conducting this cram, the survey questioner was used ., the authors put some questions in their survey for examine the major problems of the women in higher education. Their survey was relate the whole females achievements in the higher education and to observe their ratio in the higher educational institutes. They explained that 11.4 percent the women were free to move from home to their higher education institutions, whereas 111 females reported that they usually travel without any companion. The working women unified institutions has also reported that the sexual harassment in following words” verbal sexual suggestions or jokes, primly touch, press. Sheet( junaidi 2014).Julie (2013) reported that sexual harassment has a significant psychological effects in academic routines of female students and it negatively affect victim’s health mostly supported and opposition to females higher education comes from family .Pakistan gradually changed its identity from high religious and conservative country to open-minded and modest country for females education. The 59.9 percent results disclosed no opposition from family for higher education. However, only 13 percent parents detest the daughter’s enrollment in higher education .similarly, 22.9 percent dissent is reported by the relatives, grandparents and husbands. Thus it is confirmed that conflict force to females higher education not comes from family .the lower and middle class constantly neglected to attain higher education due to various challenges. Economic factors always have considerable pressure in education sector. Pakistan is spending two percent of its GDP on education which is lowest in the region. The economic inequality in vast majority of peoples settled in ruler areas of the country .therefore this one also the biggest problem of the higher education for female. That’s why the ratio of the women in higher education is sufficient than the men.
Researchers conclude that there is significant about the higher education for female. The perception of the students about the higher educaion for female was different .majority of the student’s claims that the women have many problems in their academic process. Students agree about the increasing number of the female in higher education now –a-days. Government is providing funds and supports to the women so about it the students have different perceptions .so, the government should provide the facilities to the women according to their academic activities .parents should to motivate their daughters for gaining their knowledge. Most of the students agree with the family pressure which the women face in the ruler area. Majority of the students agree the ratio of the women is less than the men.
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