Fire Station Case Study Research Essay

Custom Student Mr. Teacher ENG 1001-04 21 April 2016

Fire Station Case Study Research

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This research study would not be possible without the help of these people in making this research a success. The researchers family and parents who supported them emotionally and financially throughout since day one until the research is completed. For showing their unfailing support, for understanding the researchers and for believing in their skills and capabilities.

The researchers would also like to thank the graduate library and electronic library of Far Eastern University for allowing them to use their materials and resources such as books, thesis projects and computers that really helped the researchers for their case study.

The researchers would also like to thank their professor Architect Toni Nardo who helped them throughout this whole study, for being a considerate and kind hearted professor who is always there for her students, to support and check on their improvements and for always sharing her opinion and life experiences about this certain topic which makes the researchers eager to fulfil this research.

The researchers would also like to thank their friends who were also there to support, give advices and information that really helped the group. They never fail to cheer them up and show their outmost support especially in bad times.

Last but not the least, to our Almighty Father God, who created and brought life in this world, who created all things beautiful, who will forever be the reason of our existence, a supportive friend, a loving father, a God who guide, love and support us no matter what we’re going through, for giving us strength and blessing of intelligence for us to use in this research, for helping the researchers make this research a success.

The researchers
would like to dedicate
this study to their
family, most especially
to their parents who have given them full support in this case study research. May the almighty God bless them for their kind heart and loving gesture that is very much appreciated by the researchers.

ABSTRACT

We all know that a fire station is a structure with areas set aside for storage of fire fighting apparatus such as fire engines and related vehicles, personal protective equipment, fire hoses and other specialized equipment. It may also have dormitory living facilities and work areas for the use of fire fighters. Living areas are sometimes arranged above the garage bays where personnel without specific station duties during the night shift are allowed to sleep unless a dispatch is called. In that situation, fire fighters may have special means to allow entry to the ground floor quickly when a call for help is received, such as sliding down a brass pole called a fireman’s pole.

This arrangement also allows for a raised area to hang hoses to dry to prevent damage. In a single story station, a tower-like structure is sometimes used for hose hanging. An occupied station will usually have a station alarm system for receiving and annunciating an alarm, and indications of where and what caused the alarm. However, sometimes the only “alarm” is a telephone that is rung in case of emergency. In a more structured operation, full-time or on-call volunteer or career fire fighters staff the station some or all of the time. There may be office space for the officers, a library of reference and other materials, and a “trophy wall” or case where the fire fighters display memorabilia.

Activities in a fire station include regular inspection and cleaning of the apparatus and equipment, and continuing education in the fire service. Weekly or bi-weekly routine typically includes various drills in which fire fighters practice their skills. Some fire companies also host public activities at the fire station during annual “fire prevention week” In our case, we will be designing a first class fire station which means, this fire station will contain all of the necessary equipment and apparatus.

Also, it will contain all of the necessary and additional space areas such as recreational area, different offices, living, dining and kitchen areas, library, training area, etc. We are planning to design a fire station that has modern aesthetics that will give a positive impression to us as the designers. Good function of our space program is also what we’re striving, for which this is a fire station, and it needs great planning of spaces mostly in case of emergencies and easy access of the fire trucks to the outside.

We are really striving to design an image that would automatically determine that our structure is considered as first class. We will implement in our design the usage of glass which implies modern era and it will help the staff inside the building to be aware on their surroundings outside.

PART I:
OCULAR INSPECTION
Summary of Findings

After searching for good fire stations around Metro Manila, we decided to go to these three fire stations: Makati, Intramuros and San Lazaro City.

We took pictures of ourselves at the façade of each fire station as soon as we arrived there. First, went to Makati City fire station. As soon as we arrived, the area was filled with citizens of Makati because the area was used as substitute place where the people will register for voting, so it wasn’t the perfect timing but we still continued to go on with our ocular inspection despite the crowd. Makati Central Fire Station was huge. The area is given big amount of spaces for the apparatus bay.

We also noticed that the alignment of the apparatus bay was diagonal for more convenience and easy way out. Before we entered the fire station for inquiries and interviews, we went to measure the height, length and width of the different fire trucks such as the ladder fire trucks and the usual fire trucks to have an idea on what is their standard measurements. We also measured the emergency ambulance vehicles and the whole space area allotted for their apparatus bay. We observed and analysed the whole fire station including on how the spaces of different areas are divided and used.

After that, we already went inside to have an interview with whoever officer is available and appropriate for our questioning. Luckily, the city fire marshal was available. The city fire marshal of Makati is Supt. Ricardo C. Perdigon, he is very kind and welcoming. First, he answered each of our questions very precisely with an open mind and a lot of examples to broaden our perspectives and ideas in that field. He showed examples and different brochures from different countries about the modern fire stations that are designed and used these days.

He explained and discussed different techniques and required spaces to use in a fire station. He showed different photos of fire stations that is very interesting and it really helped us to design more functional and competitive fire station, since we’re going to design a first class fire station. After that, he showed to us where the different fire stations are divided throughout the entire city. He showed us a huge map and explained it very well. He taught us where each fire stations should be in a city.

After that we had a film showing about actual fire fighting and on how the different fire fighting equipment are used in actual emergency fire cases. It also showed there the different modern equipment and tools used by the fire fighters. After the interview, we requested to have a picture taking with the fire marshal and he openly accepted. But the learning doesn’t stop there. We asked the fire marshal if we can see the actual area where the fire fighters stay and do in cases of fire emergencies. He assigned one of his officers to escort us in the field.

He showed us the rooms where the fire fighters spend their time, sleep, etc. He also showed us the poles where the fire fighters easily go through. After going to Makati City Central Fire Station, we proceeded to Intramuros Fire Station. The fire station at Intamuros is a little smaller compared to Makati. When we arrived at Intramuros, we couldn’t resist the beauty of the place and its historical ambiance so we took a little time to cherish and take pictures. When we arrived at the fire station of Intramuros, we took pictures of the space area and apparatus bay.

It seems to have three slots for the openings of the fire trucks and vehicles. It also seems that the area was a little crowded in the exit way of the trucks, so we had an idea about designing proper exit ways to use without being crowded. When we entered the fire station, an officer is at the reception area and we asked permission to take pictures and to analyse the area. No fire marshal was available at that time we arrived, so we asked for an interview with the higher position that was available and the Senior Fire Officer IV was the one who assisted us and fulfilled our interview.

He is SFO-IV Oscar Bugarin. As what we have done at Makati, we also first did measuring of the entrance/exit way of apparatus bay, fire trucks and poles. After that, we started with the interview with Senior Fire Officer IV Oscar Bugarin. We asked the common questions just like what we asked with the other fire stations, and almost the same answer was given to us. But in this fire station, we were given different examples and experiences that the Makati City Central Fire Station wasn’t able to taught us. The Senior Fire Officer IV personally demonstrated to us how the fire fighting outfit is prepared and easily worn by the fire fighters in case of emergencies.

He explained and shown us how to tuck in together all of the outfit, the suit with the boots. He took the actual outfits and demonstrated to us one by one. It was really fun and amazing that it was so easy to wear. But the fun didn’t ended there, we were offered to wear the actual gears ourselves! Who wouldn’t wear that awesome outfit?

So there we are, wearing the outfits very happy and sophisticated. After all of the interviews and demonstrations, we had our little goodbyes and thank you and went out to proceed and go on to the next fire station, but we still can’t resist the beauty of Intramuros so we took a little more time to take pictures on our way to the next fire station which is located at San Lazaro City. It didn’t took time to go to San Lazaro City which we we’re only at Intramuros which is not that far.

We arrived at San Lazaro City for about 30—40 minutes. As we arrived t San Lazaro City Fire Station, we took pictures of the fassad, as usual. San Lazaro Fire Staton seems to be the same amount of space area with Intramuros, so Makati City Central Fire Station seems to have the biggest or widest space area among the three fire stations we went to. As usual, we did some measuring with the space area of the fire station, the apparatus bay entrance/exit which seems to have only 2 slots in San Lazaro City Fire Station. We also did measured the fire trucks and other vehicles. But what really amazed us in San Lazaro City Fire Station is the historical fire trucks that were displayed in there. It was so amazing and mesmerizing to think that the fire trucks before were very open with old vehicle parts, so we didn’t miss a chance to take pictures with them.

After that, we proceed to have an interview with the highest officer available at the time, and it was Senior Fire Officer IV Manolito Laroza. This interview took the most time compared with the other two interviews we did because a lot of facts and requirements was given to us by SFO IV Manolita Laroza. He gave us the spaces we can add in a first class fire station such as bigger training grounds, helicopters, recreational areas, and so on.

A lot of facts were given to us, also the standard personnel required in a fire station, office areas such as the duputy’s, sub station commander, radio division operator, etc. they also showed us the fire preventive man size tarpaulin that they will implement around their city. Senior Fire Officer IV Manolito Laroza was very kind and open to us. After this interview, we had our goodbyes and thank you with him and his officers and went out to go home because it was already a little late and dark outside. PART II:

RESEARCH STUDY
Chapter 1: Introduction

A. Background of the Problem

Historical

Fire fighting was implemented long time ago during our roman and greek era. The history of fire fighting began in ancient Rome while under the role of Agustus. Prior to that, there is evidence of fire-fighting machinery in used in Ancient Egypt, including a water pump invented by Ctesibius of Alexandria in the third century BC which was later improved upon in a design by Hero Of Alexandria in the first century BC. The first Roman fire brigade of which we have any substantial history was created by Marcus Licinius Crassus. Marcus Licinius Crassus was born into a wealthy Roman family around the year 115 BC, and acquired an enormous fortune through (in the words of Plutarch) “fire and rapine.” One of his most lucrative schemes took advantage of the fact that Rome had no fire department. Crassus filled this void by creating his own brigade—500 men strong—which rushed to burning buildings at the first cry of alarm. Upon arriving at the scene, however, the fire fighters did nothing while their employer bargained over the price of their services with the distressed
property owner. If Crassus could not negotiate a satisfactory price, his men simply let the structure burn to the ground, after which he offered to purchase it for a fraction of its value. Augustus took the basic idea from Crassus and then built on it to form the Vigiles in AD 6 to combat fires using bucket brigades and pumps, as well as poles, hooks and even ballistae to tear down buildings in advance of the flames. The Vigiles patrolled the streets of Rome to watch for fires and served as a police force. The later brigades consisted of hundreds of men, all ready for action. When there was a fire, the men would line up to the nearest water source and pass buckets hand in hand to the fire. Rome suffered a number of serious fires, most notably the fire on 19 July AD 64 and eventually destroyed two thirds of Rome. In Europe, fire fighting was quite rudimentary until the 17th century. In 1254, a royal decree of King Saint Louis of France created the so-called guet bourgeois (“burgess watch”), allowing the residents of Paris to establish their own night watches, separate from the king’s night watches, to prevent and stop crimes and fires. After the Hundred Years’ War, the population of Paris expanded again, and the city, much larger than any other city in Europe at the time, was the scene of several great fires in the 16th century. As a consequence, King Charles IX disbanded the residents’ night watches and left the king’s watches as the only one responsible for checking crimes and fires. London suffered great fires in 798, 982, 989, 1212 and above all in 1666 (Great Fire of London). The Great Fire of 1666 started in a baker’s shop on Pudding Lane, consumed about two square miles (5 km²) of the city, leaving tens of thousands homeless. Prior to this fire, London had no organized fire protection system. Afterwards, insurance companies formed private fire brigades to protect their clients’ property. Insurance brigades would only fight fires at buildings the company insured. These buildings were identified by fire insurance marks. The key breakthrough in fire fighting arrived in the 17th century with the first fire engines. Manual pumps, rediscovered in Europe after 1500 (allegedly used in Augsburg in 1518 and in Nuremberg in 1657), were only force pumps and had a very short range due to the lack of hoses. German inventor Hans Hautsch improved the manual pump by creating the first suction and force pump and adding some flexible hoses to the pump. In 1672, Dutch artist, and inventor Jan Van der Heyden’s workshop developed
the fire hose. Constructed of flexible leather and coupled every 50 feet (15 m) with brass fittings. The length remains the standard to this day in mainland Europe whilst in the UK the standard length is either 23m or 25m. The fire engine was further developed by the Dutch inventor, merchant and manufacturer, John Lofting (1659–1742) who had worked with Jan Van der Heyden in Amsterdam. Lofting moved to London in or about 1688, became an English citizen and patented (patent number 263/1690) the “Sucking Worm Engine” in 1690. There was a glowing description of the fire fighting ability of his device in The London Gazette of 17 March 1691, after the issue of the patent. The British Museum has a print showing Lofting’s fire engine at work in London, the engine being pumped by a team of men. In the print three fire plaques of early insurance companies are shown, no doubt indicating that Lofting collaborated with them in fire fighting. A later version of what is believed to be one of his fire engines has been lovingly restored by a retired fire fighter, and is on show in Marlow Buckinghamshire where John Lofting moved in 1700. Patents only lasted for fourteen years and so the field was open for his competitors after 1704. In 1631 Boston’s governor John Winthrop outlawed wooden chimneys and thatched roofs. In 1648, the New Amsterdam governor Peter Stuyvesant appointed four men to act as fire wardens. They were empowered to inspect all chimneys and to fine any violators of the rules. The city burghers later appointed eight prominent citizens to the “Rattle Watch” – these men volunteered to patrol the streets at night carrying large wooden rattles If a fire was seen, the men spun the rattles, then directed the responding citizens to form bucket brigades. On January 27, 1678 the first fire engine company went into service with its captain (foreman) Thomas Atkins. In 1736 Benjamin Franklin established the Union Fire Company in Philadelphia. George Washington was a volunteer fire fighter in Alexandria, Virginia. In 1774, as a member of the Friendship Veterans Fire Engine Company, he bought a new fire engine and gave it to the town, which was its very first. However the United States did not have government-run fire departments until around the time of the American Civil War. Prior to this time, private fire brigades compete with one another to be the first to respond to a fire because insurance companies paid brigades to save buildings. Underwriters also employed their own Salvage Corpsin some cities. The first known female fire fighter Molly Williams took her place
with the men on the dragropes during the blizzard of 1818 and pulled the pumper to the fire through the deep snow. On April 1st of 1853 Cincinnati OH became the first professional fire department by being made up of 100% full-time, paid employees.

In 2010, 70 percent of fire fighters in the United States were volunteer. Only 5% of calls were actual fires. 65% were medical aid. 8% were false alarms. The first fire brigades in the modern sense were created in France in the early 18th century. In 1699, a man with bold commercial ideas, François du Mouriez du Périer (grandfather of French Revolution’s general Charles François Dumouriez), solicited an audience with King Louis XIV. Greatly interested in Jan Van der Heyden’s invention, he successfully demonstrated the new pumps and managed to convince the king to grant him the monopoly of making and selling “fire-preventing portable pumps” throughout the kingdom of France. François du Mouriez du Périer offered 12 pumps to the City of Paris, and the first Paris Fire Brigade, known as the Compagnie des gardes-pompes (literally the “Company of Pump Guards”), was created in 1716. François du Mouriez du Périer was appointed directeur des pompes de la Ville de Paris (“director of the City of Paris’s pumps”), i.e. chief of the Paris Fire Brigade, and the position stayed in his family until 1760. In the following years, other fire brigades were created in the large French cities. It is around that time that appeared the current French word pompier (“fire fighter”), whose literal meaning is “pumper”. On March 11, 1733 the French government decided that the interventions of the fire brigades would be free of charge. This was decided because people always waited until the last moment to call the fire brigades to avoid paying the fee, and it was often too late to stop fires. From 1750 on, the French fire brigades became para-military units and received uniforms. In 1756 the use of a protective helmet for fire fighters was recommended by King Louis XV, but it took many more years before the measure was actually enforced on the ground. In North America, Jamestown, Virginia was virtually destroyed in a fire in January, 1608. There were no full-time paid fire fighters in America until 1850. Even after the formation of paid fire companies in the United States, there were disagreements and often fights over territory. New York City companies were famous for sending runners out to fires with a large
barrel to cover the hydrant closest to the fire in advance of the engines. Often fights would break out between the runners and even the responding fire companies for the right to fight the fire and receive the insurance money that would be paid to the company that fought it. Interestingly, during the 19th century and early 20th century volunteer fire companies served not only as fire protection but as political machines. The most famous volunteer fire fighter politician is Boss Tweed, head of the notorious Tammany Hall political machine, who got his start in politics as a member of the Americus Engine Company Number 6 (“The Big Six”) in New York City. Napoleon Bonaparte, drawing from the century-old experience of the gardes-pompes, is generally attributed as creating the first “professional” fire fighters, known as Sapeurs-Pompiers (“Sappers-Fire fighters”), from the French Army. Created under the Commandant of Engineers in 1810, the company was organized after a fire at the ballroom in the Austrian Embassy in Paris which injured several dignitaries. In the UK, the Great Fire of London in 1666 set in motion changes which laid the foundations for organised fire fighting in the future. In the wake of the Great Fire, the City Council established the first fire insurance company, “The Fire Office”, in 1667, which employed small teams of Thames watermen as fire fighters and provided them with uniforms and arm badges showing the company to which they belonged. However, the first organised municipal fire brigade in the world was established in Edinburgh, Scotland, when the Edinburgh Fire Engine Establishment was formed in 1824, led by James Braidwood. London followed in 1832 with the London Fire Engine Establishment. On April 1, 1853, the Cincinnati Fire Department became the first full-time paid professional fire department in the United States, and the first in the world to use steam fire engines. The first horse-drawn steam engine for fighting fires was invented in 1829, but not accepted in structural fire fighting until 1860, and ignored for another two years afterwards. Internal combustion engine fire engines arrived in 1907, built in the United States, leading to the decline and disappearance of steam engines by 1925.

Today, fire and rescue remains a mix of full-time paid, paid-on-call, and volunteer responders. Many but not all urban areas are
served by large, paid, fire fighting teams.

Etymological
Fire
From Middle English fier, from Old English fȳr (“fire”), from *fuïr, a regularised form of Proto-Germanic *fōr (“fire”) (compare Saterland Frisian Fjuur, West Frisian fjoer, Dutch vuur, Low German Für, German Feuer, Danish fyr), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *péh₂ur (compare Hittite ???(paḫḫur), Umbrian pir, Tocharian A/B por/puwar, Czech pȳř (“hot ashes”), Ancient Greek πῦρ (pŷr, “fire”), Armenian հուր (hur, “fire”)) and perhaps Albanian prush (“embers”). This was an inanimate noun whose animate counterpart was Proto-Indo-European *h₁ngʷnis, *h₁ngʷni-.

Old English fyr, from Proto-Germanic *fuir (cf. Old Saxon and Old Frisian fiur, Old Norse fürr, Middle Dutch and Dutch vuur, Old High German fiur, German Feuer), from PIE*perjos, from root *paewr- (cf. Armenian hur “fire, torch,” Czech pyr “hot ashes,” Greek pyr, Umbrian pir, Sanskrit pu, Hittite pahhur “fire”). Current spelling is attested as early as 1200, but did not fully displace Middle English fier (preserved in fiery) until c.1600. PIE apparently had two roots for fire: *paewr- and *egni- (cf. Latin ignis). The former was “inanimate,” referring to fire as a substance, and the latter was “animate,” referring to it as a living force (see water). Fire applied in English to passions, feelings, from mid-14c. Meaning “action of guns, etc.” is from 1580s. Firecracker is American English coinage for what is in England just cracker, but the U.S. word distinguishes it from the word meaning “biscuit.” Fire-engine attested from 1680s. The figurative expression play with fire “risk disaster” is from 1887; phrasewhere’s the fire? “what’s the hurry?” first recorded 1924.

Station

late 13c., “place which one normally occupies,” from Old French station, from Latin stationem (nominative statio) “a standing, post,
job, position,” related to stare “to stand,” from PIE root *sta- “to stand” (see stet). The meaning “place for a special purpose” (e.g. polling station) is first recorded 1823; radio station is from 1912. The meaning “regular stopping place” is first recorded 1797, in reference to coach routes; applied to railroads 1830. Meaning “each of a number of holy places visited in succession by pilgrims” is from late 14c., hence Station of the Cross(1550s). Station wagon in the automobile sense is first recorded 1929, from earlier use for a horse-drawn conveyance that took passengers to and from railroad stations (1894). Station house “police station” is attested from 1836.

B. Statement of the Study
The following study aims to answer these questions:
1. What design, materials and ideas contains in a first class fire station? 2. Why does first class fire stations are implemented and preferred nowadays? 3. What to expect in a first class fire station?

C. Significance of the Study
The following would benefit from this study:
This study aims to know what design, materials and ideas contains in a first class fire station, why does first class fire stations are implemented and preferred nowadays and what to expect in a first class fire station. This study would be really helpful in terms of guidelines in constructing and designing first class fire stations. To those who are planning to construct or to design a first class fire stations to know what to implement and to use, to have a smart space planning or programming and to have a satisfying way of life for their fire fighters and company.

To the government, for which this study will serve as a great guidelines in designing and constructing a first class fire station for their country or city, having many facts and ideas in this study.

D. Definition of Terms

The following terms have been defined operationally for the understanding of
this research.

1. First Class – Constituting or belonging to the highest or best class or quality, best-equipped and most expensive. 2. Fire Station – a building where fire-fighting vehicles and equipment are stationed and where fire fighters on duty wait Also called as firehouse station house. 3. Municipality – a city, town, or district enjoying some degree of local self-government. 4. Fire Fighters – a member of a fire department who tries to extinguish fires. 5. Fire Trucks – any of various large trucks that carry firemen and equipment to the site of a fire. 6. Apparatus Bay – is primarily the parking space of the fire trucks and vehicles in a fire station. 7. Sliding Poles – also known as fireman’s pole is a wooden pole or a metal tube or pipe installed between floors in fire stations, allowing fire fighters responding to an alarm to quickly descend to the ground floor faster than by using a standard staircase. E. Conceptual Framework of the Problem

The conceptual diagram shows and explain the following factors affecting the implementation of first class fire stations and its results brought out by the following factors. When first class fire stations are implemented and constructed, better services will be offered by the fire fighters because of their better equipment and things to use in a fire emergencies. Also, a better way of life for them because their fire station is transformed into a habitable space to stay in for a long period of time, having that comfort of home and more spaces for training grounds, recreational areas for entertainment, better dormitories, etc. With all of these factors, the impact will be positively great for our society, having more inspired and dedicated fire fighters and their team to give better services and thus will make our society a safer and a better place. This design guide provides the basic criteria to evaluate, plan, program. and design standardized Air Force fire station facilities for the United States Air Force. This information is intended to make wing commanders, base civil engineers, fire chiefs, and designers aware of the unique functional design requirements for the facilities, and to provide a basis for developing main and satellite fire station projects.

The upgrade and renovation of existing fire stations and the proper planning., programming, and design of new facilities will ensure the safety of all personnel and support our vision: “To Defend the United States Through Control and Exploitation of Air and Space. The number and location of fire stations must be reevaluated periodically, but at least annually, as a community’s structures and population change. The number of stations a department should have depends, like everything else, on a balance between the costs of the stations and their maintenance, on the one hand, and the need for more stations, on the other. If a station is located near the high-response section of a community (such as a heavily populated area of multiple-occupancy or wood-frame structures) that location will probably be appropriate. Station relocation is necessary over time if the types of hazards and the locations of most fires move to a significant distance from the station. This is an important consideration for selecting a new site for a fire station. If a department finds that relocation or construction of a new fire station is necessary, the three issues to consider are location, station design, and funding. Location: The location of a station in a community directly affects the total response time needed to combat fires effectively. For example, although a fire station is centrally located in a community, the majority of the responses might be at substantial distances from the station. Therefore, an evaluation of the time from receipt of an alarm to the arrival at a fire plays an important part in determining the need for relocating a fire station. The total time is the sum of the time it takes to complete each of the following five fire-fighting processes: 1. Detection: The time it takes to detect a fire. Automatic fire detection systems, such as smoke and heat detectors, give early warnings of fire and save considerable response time. Some detectors are connected directly to a fire station through a central station signaling system, whereas others sound only in the building in which there is a danger. In the latter case, detection time depends on human response and then on the number of people who are in the vicinity of the fire, how rapidly they respond, and the time of day. 2. Alarm: The time that elapses between detection of the fire and transmission of the alarm to the fire station. It depends on the availability of alarm boxes, directly connected alarms, telephones, the
extent of automation, reliability, and the speed of transmission. 3. Dispatch: The time required to alert responding companies. If information is recorded automatically and if dispatchers have the most modern communication equipment, the time needed for dispatch is minimal. 4. Turnout: The speed with which personnel—paid, off-duty, and volunteers—can report for duty. Turnout depends on the location of the personnel at the time of the alarm, whether at the station, at work, or in their homes. 5. Response time: The travel time for the apparatus and on-duty personnel from the station to the fire. It depends on the distance from the station to the emergency and on the topographic, traffic, and weather conditions. When traffic is particularly heavy, the police department might be needed to aid in traveling to the fire and in beginning evacuation. Each of these issues must be consciously considered as you work towards a decision on how and where to build a new fire station. I will have more on this critical topic in an upcoming post. F. Theoretical Framework of the Problem

When a fire occurs, the fire fighting services implemented by a fire department is one of the most important aids for the fire victims. So that is why we need the outmost services offered by the fire fighters, marshals and officers. This means that we cannot change the fact that when it comes to fire emergencies, the fire fighters and officers are the ones who will help us the most, so we need their services.

The services that they offer us can be a lot better with this implementation of first class fire station for the reasons, they having more modern and better equipment to use in fire emergencies, more advanced vehicles and gadgets. They also have better experience and alertness when it comes to this kind of circumstances because of the better training grounds in their very own first class fire stations.

Not only the services of our fire fighters and fire marshals are upgraded, also their way of living. The environment of a first class fire station captures the aura of their own homes, having the comfort and safety because of well planned space programming, modern materials used in the construction and breath taking designs.

The economy, competition and a changing business environment require companies to diversify, change their business plans and adapt. Television networks change their programming to compete with each other, cable channels and the internet for decreasing market share. The fire service has evolved far past having fire buckets outside each home to concepts never before envisioned. Boston Fire Chief John Damrell helped drive this evolution in 1866 when he warned about the dangers of fire, the lack of compatible fire hydrants, water supply issues and the need for building and fire codes. Phoenix Fire Chief Alan Brunacini did it with fire command and customer service. Fire departments have done it with regulations requiring smoke detectors, carbon-monoxide detectors and commercial and residential sprinklers. Many concepts have come from need as the traditional fire suppression department has evolved into the more-accurate emergency services. Other concepts have been forced upon us: lightweight construction, weapons of mass destruction and active-shooter incidents. New concepts and practices in the fire service have come about from the economic need to offset budget cuts while maintaining levels of service. These include alternate revenue sources from private-public partnerships such as Adopt-A-Fire Station programs, interfacility transports, even ads on fire apparatus. The fire department’s jurisdiction is organized by the governmental body that controls the department, although there are private fire departments as well. This comes from a municipality, county, prefecture, state, province, or nation type of government. The most common type of government control is at the municipality level. The jurisdiction size and organization would be set up by department or the government in charge of these duties. This deals with the placement of fire stations, equipment, and personnel within the area of control. Fire departments periodically survey their jurisdiction areas and use the data for redeploying proper coverage. This data comes from travel time, range from station, and/or a population survey. This brings equal service to the entire community and gives the department efficient places to launch operations. Some fire departments such as the Statue Of Liberty Fire Brigade which covers Liberty Island and Ellis Islands respond to medical emergencies and provide care until advanced personnel can take over. In the
United States, firefighters may get their First Responder Certification, Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) License, or Paramedic License. Some fire departments even offer ambulance services. A fire department may also provide “fire protection” or fire prevention services, whereby firefighters visit homes and give fire safety advice and fit smoke alarms for members of the public. In many countries fire protection or prevention is seen as an important role for the fire service, as preventing a fire from occurring in the first place can obviously save lives.

Chapter 2: Discussion and Analysis

A. Local Related Study on: Metro Manila – Oldtimers of Makati’s Fire Station

Do you like oldtimers or have a kid that is crazy about fire trucks? Then you should pay the Makati Central Fire Station a visit. The fire station possesses a collection of older but beautiful and seemingly well-maintained vehicles from past decades. The fire station is not secluded from the street and passer-by can have a close look at the ambulance and deep-red fire engines. As elsewhere in the Philippines, the municipal budget does not often seem to allow the purchase of expansive state-of-the-art rescue equipment. Concerns were already raised that the fire brigades in Metro Manila are not really prepared for fighting fires in the ever-growing condominiums throughout the megacity. However, the local government of Makati recently agreed to buy more search and rescue equipment and disaster preparedness tools, among them a chemical fire truck with foam. Three people were hurt when two fires broke out in Makati City Thursday morning, one near the Makati Medical Center, authorities said. The city’s fire department said the first fire started at around 10 a.m. in a slum colony at the corner of Ayala and Gil Puyat avenues in Barangay Pio Del Pilar, about 30 steps away from the MMC’s emergency department on Amorsolo Street. Makati Mayor Jejomar Erwin Binay Jr. said the fire was put under control at 11:30 a.m. after reaching the general alarm, which required the assistance of all available fire fighting units in Metro Manila. Binay said the fire officials refrained from ordering the evacuation of the hospital as the blaze was quickly contained by responding firefighters. Some
firefighters, on the other hand, were seen spraying water on MMC’s façade to prevent it from being set ablaze in case the wind blows the fire towards it. About 300 families who lost their homes blocked Urban Avenue and Dela Rosa Streets with whatever meager belongings they managed to save, causing gridlock. Each displaced family will receive P15,000 in assistance and P5,000 for renters, according to Binay. Prior to the inception of 117, emergency services were reached through a myriad of telephone numbers. The fire department in Manila, for example, had fifty telephone numbers, one for every fire station in the city.[2] At the time, 117 was solely used in the Metro Manila area by the Philippine National Police for the reporting of ongoing crimes as part of a program called the “Patrol 117 Street Patrol Program” in cooperation with the Foundation for Crime Prevention.[1] Efforts to expand the capabilities of 117 began in the 1990s, starting with the addition of emergency medical services to the scope of 117 in Metro Manila through a private-sector initiative called Project EARnet (Emergency Assistance and Response network). Government involvement in the expansion of 117’s scope began in late 1998, when the DILG announced the formation of Emergency Network Philippines, a project that sought to support a national emergency telephone number in order to enable the faster delivery of emergency services to the Filipino people. On August 8, 2001, a memorandum of agreement was signed between the DILG and Frequentis, an Austrian company specializing in communications and information solutions in safety-critical environments, on the implementation of the ENP project.[4] The National Economic and Development Authority approved the project later in the year, and project funding was secured with a loan agreement being signed between the Philippine and Austrian governments on December 6. By virtue of Executive Order No. 226, 117 became the official national emergency telephone number of the Philippines on July 14, 2003. The P1.4 billion project was completed on August 2, 2003, with the opening of a new 117 call center in Quezon City, serving the entire Metro Manila area. Four more 117 call centers were opened in 2006, and the full 117 network, consisting of sixteen networked call centers, was rolled out in 2007.

http://manilastandardtoday.com/2013/07/12/two-fires-hit-makati/

B. Foreign Related Study on: New fire station in Andersonville, community effort

The Andersonville Volunteer Fire Department celebrated a long-awaited new addition this afternoon.

The department celebrated the opening of its third fire station, located in the Belmont community. The new station is located at the site of the former Belmont School, which was destroyed by fire in the 1960’s. The fire station only cost about $22 dollars a square foot, instead of $80, for a total cost of about $110-thousand dollars. Some of the materials were donated and most of the construction was done by volunteers who once attended the former school.

“There’s no way to put a cost on what they mean to us. The four men particularly that worked and worked tirelessly, day in and day out, Sunday afternoons, Saturday’s late. There’s no way to put a figure on it,” said Chief Jeff Bagwell. The station includes a community room and community picnic area. Firefighters will live at the station for free and be available to answer calls at night to help reduce response time.

Andersonville residents who worked on the latest fire station will share their efforts with the public Tuesday at 4:00 p.m. According to a press release, the Belmont Fire Station will help make fighting fires in the community more efficient and serve as a public gathering place. In addition, the fire station’s contruction and design provides the neighborhood with a link to the past. The fire department expects to respond to fire calls in the area more quickly since firefighters will live at the station for no charge. The fire station serves more purposes than housing the fire department. Community groups can meet and hold picnics there. In addition to being more than a fire station, the facility has a legacy. It is on the site of a former school which burned down in the 1960’s. Former Belmont School students who are now retired helped build the new fire hall. Volunteers also lent a hand designing the exterior of the firestation
fashioning the cupola after one at the old school. Building material contributions and volunteer labor helped to keep the cost of the project down. The grand opening will start at 4:00 p.m. Tours will be offered. A ribbon cutting will take place at 6:00 p.m. The station is on the corner of Park Road and Sequoyah Road in Andersonville. The fire department expects to respond to fire calls in the area more quickly since firefighters will live at the station for no charge. The fire station serves more purposes than housing the fire department. Community groups can meet and hold picnics there. In addition to being more than a fire station, the facility has a legacy. It is on the site of a former school which burned down in the 1960’s. Former Belmont School students who are now retired helped build the new fire hall. Volunteers also lent a hand designing the exterior of the firestation fashioning the cupola after one at the old school. According to a press release, the Belmont Fire Station will help make fighting fires in the community more efficient and serve as a public gathering place. In addition, the fire station’s contruction and design provides the neighborhood with a link to the past. The fire department expects to respond to fire calls in the area more quickly since firefighters will live at the station for no charge. The fire station serves more purposes than housing the fire department. Community groups can meet and hold picnics there. The department celebrated the opening of its third fire station, located in the Belmont community. The new station is located at the site of the former Belmont School, which was destroyed by fire in the 1960’s. The Andersonville Volunteer Fire Department celebrated a long-awaited new addition this afternoon. The station includes a community room and community picnic area. Firefighters will live at the station for free and be available to answer calls at night to help reduce response time. http://www.wbir.com/news/article/286122/2/Andersonville-to-open-3rd-fire-station-

Chapter 3: Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

A. Summary

We all know that a fire station is a structure with areas set aside for
storage of fire fighting apparatus such as fire engines and related vehicles, personal protective equipment, fire hoses and other specialized equipment. It may also have dormitory living facilities and work areas for the use of fire fighters. Living areas are sometimes arranged above the garage bays where personnel without specific station duties during the night shift are allowed to sleep unless a dispatch is called. In that situation, fire fighters may have special means to allow entry to the ground floor quickly when a call for help is received, such as sliding down a brass pole called a fireman’s pole. This arrangement also allows for a raised area to hang hoses to dry to prevent damage. In a single story station, a tower-like structure is sometimes used for hose hanging. An occupied station will usually have a station alarm system for receiving and annunciating an alarm, and indications of where and what caused the alarm. However, sometimes the only “alarm” is a telephone that is rung in case of emergency. In a more structured operation, full-time or on-call volunteer or career fire fighters staff the station some or all of the time. There may be office space for the officers, a library of reference and other materials, and a “trophy wall” or case where the fire fighters display memorabilia. Activities in a fire station include regular inspection and cleaning of the apparatus and equipment, and continuing education in the fire service. Weekly or bi-weekly routine typically includes various drills in which fire fighters practice their skills. Some fire companies also host public activities at the fire station during annual “fire prevention week” In our case, we will be designing a first class fire station which means, this fire station will contain all of the necessary equipment and apparatus. Also, it will contain all of the necessary and additional space areas such as recreational area, different offices, living, dining and kitchen areas, library, training area, etc. We are planning to design a fire station that has modern aesthetics that will give a positive impression to us as the designers. Good function of our space program is also what we’re striving, for which this is a fire station, and it needs great planning of spaces mostly in case of emergencies and easy access of the fire trucks to the outside. We are really striving to design an image that would automatically determine that our structure is considered as first class. We will implement in our design the usage of glass which implies modern era and it will help
the staff inside the building to be aware on their surroundings outside. B. Conclusions

Based on the findings, the following conclusions have been drawn:

1. In answer to question number 1: What design, materials and ideas contains in a first class fire station?

The researchers found out that in a first class fire station, designs of modernism such as the usage of glass, metallic silver borders and bright glossy colors are used. Ideas of minimalism is always applied in modern first class fire stations, vast spaces is implied for better circulation and comfortable aura. Materials like glossy marble, picture glass window, etc. are used. The idea of having wide apparatus bay and more offices is implied in a first class fire station, having complete space areas and additional ones to. More dormitories and spaces for fire fighters, having a sense of home comfort during their stay in the fire station.

2. In answer to question number 2: Why does first class fire stations are implemented and preferred nowadays?

The researchers found out that first class fire stations are implemented and preferred in a lot of ways because primarily, first class fire stations have it all. The flexibility and functionality of a first class fire station when it comes to the services being offered by our fire fighters and officers are more upgraded because of modern technologies and design ideas used in a first class fire station. The needs and wants of the fire fighters and officers are met in a first class fire station. With this kind of environment, they are more eager to take and do their jobs more motivated because they are being paid off by the beauty and home comfort of their fire stations.

3. In answer to question number 3: What to expect in a first class fire station?

Well obviously, you will expect in any first class structures, buildings, etc. the quality of the materials and designs used. In a first class fire station, it is expect that the materials and equipments used are top of the line, the designs are great and the way the space are programmed is outstanding. You will also expect in a first class fire station the aesthetics or beauty of the structure, the modernism of its design. First class fire stations have it all. The equipments and facilities are expected to be compete. The offices for different officers are divided in such for their own work to be accomplished. Modern tools and apparatus are used, clothings and gears of fire fighters are complete, training grounds and recreational areas are found.

C. Recommendations

Authoritative

The following recommendations were made by the researchers after analysing the beneficiaries of this particular study. These are follows:

1. To those who are planning to construct or to design a first class fire stations to know what to implement and to use, to have a smart space planning or programming and to have a satisfying way of life for their fire fighters and company.

2. To the government, for which this study will serve as a great guidelines in designing and constructing a first class fire station for their country or city, having many facts and ideas in this study.

3. To those concerned citizens who are curious enough to think of a first class fire station implementation for the betterment of our society in the field of fire emergency cases.

4. To future researchers that would make a further study of this kind, it is recommended for them to absorb this study for them to have more knowledge and facts on what will they expand on their chosen research study topic.

Researcher’s Recommendations

1. As what is stated above, it is really advisable to recommend this research study to those who are planning to construct or to design a first class fire stations to know what to implement and to use, to have a smart space planning or programming and to have a satisfying way of life for their fire fighters and company staff. This study would really help them throughout their thinking of what is needed in a first class fire station. This study will give a lot of bright ideas and will totally benefit from their design.

-Ron Adrian P. Cruz

2. This is recommended to those individuals with plans to construct a first class fire station for which this study contains a lot of facts and details on what to use and to put in a first class fire station. This study will make their ideas more broad and flexible, they will know where to start and to put additional details that they unfortunately didn’t saw on this research study.

-Patrica Marie B. Dayao

PART III:
REFERENCES

The researchers would like to thank all of the persons and websites that openly expanded and broadened our research, their help contributes a lot in our case study research.

Websites/Articles:
http://www.google.com.ph/

http://manilastandardtoday.com/2013/07/12/two-fires-hit-makati/

http://www.wbir.com/news/article/286122/2/Andersonville-to-open-3rd-fire-stati
on-

http://megacities-go-services.com/layout/set/print/Manila/Latest-News-Articles

http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/f/fires_and_firefighters/index.html

http://www.fireengineering.com/articles/2013/08/wrightstyle-looks-back-from-curfew-to-modern-us-fire-safety.html

http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/keyword/fire-department

http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Bureau_of_Fire_Protection

http://www.quezoncity.gov.ph/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=69&Itemid=366

http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/reports/2007/R1813part3.pdf

http://www.isomitigation.com/ppc/fire-station.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fire_department

http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=fire&searchmode=none

http://www.finedictionary.com/fire%20station.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Los_Angeles_City_Fire_Department

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tokyo_Fire_Department

http://www.london-fire.gov.uk/

http://www.peoriagov.org/fire-department/

http://www.firestations.org.uk/Station_Details.php?stn=Woodford%20fire%20station&lat=51.609343&lon=0.024014

http://www.hantsfire.gov.uk/stationdetail.htm?stcode=01&stname=basingstoke

http://www.hantsfire.gov.uk/stationdetail.htm?stcode=29&stname=petersfield

http://fireservices.ap.gov.in/

http://www.nelsonmandelabay.gov.za/Content.aspx?objID=218

http://710keel.com/more-details-surface-about-the-scandal-in-the-shreveport-fire-department/

http://www.mfb.vic.gov.au/Contact-Us/MFB-details.html

http://www.mfb.vic.gov.au/About-Us/Stations-and-Districts/Station-No-27.html

Persons/Establishments:

The graduate library of Far Eastern University for allowing them to use their materials and resources such as books and thesis projects

The electronic library of Far Eastern University for allowing them to use their books and computers

Makati City Central Fire station for letting the researchers do an ocular inspection, interviews and provide demonstrations for broader knowledge about this case study research topic

To Supt. Ricardo C. Perdigon for providing wide range of answers to our questions and additional facts for more understanding and knowledge about this case study research topic

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