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The primary aim of this project was to apply the engineering design process in creating a basic electrical circuit while adhering to specified constraints and requirements. The project involved utilizing Ohm’s Law, Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law, and Kirchhoff’s Current Law for calculations. The process also included the physical construction of the electrical circuit and subsequent testing, with all the work documented in a formal laboratory report.

Initiating the design process involved formulating a problem statement encompassing design requirements, constraints, and assumptions.

Subsequently, Ohm’s Law, Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law, and Kirchhoff’s Current Law were applied to determine and calculate the necessary resistor values for the successful completion of the circuit. Following the selection of suitable resistors, the circuit was assembled.

The project was deemed successful, with experimental node values demonstrating a deviation of approximately ± 5% from the theoretical values. The objectives were accomplished, contributing to an enhanced understanding of the design process and electrical circuits.

Redha Al-Hamoud

ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT PROJECT

Prepared for:

ENGR 1201-013

Prepared by:

Redha Al-Hamoud

Date Submitted:

11/29/13

I affirm that I have not given or received any unauthorized assistance on this assignment and have not observed any violations of the UNC Charlotte Code of Academic Integrity.

Redha Al-Hamoud

November 29, 2013

The project aimed to practice the engineering design process, incorporating the application of Ohm’s Law, Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law, and Kirchhoff’s Current Law. Additionally, the objective was to test the constructed electrical circuit to ensure compliance with all requirements.

Participants were assigned individual sheets containing node voltages, current, and source voltage values.

Each participant received a breadboard and 25 resistors with a ± 5% tolerance. The circuit design, powered by an 18 V DC source with a current of 0.0011 amperes, mandated the use of at least one parallel resistor configuration.

Research on electrical circuits, voltage dividers, Ohm’s Law, and Kirchhoff’s Laws was conducted. Ohm’s Law was highlighted, explaining the proportional relationship between current, resistance, and voltage. Engineering calculations utilizing Ohm’s Law determined the required resistances for each node. Various resistor combinations were tested until an equivalent resistance was achieved. The circuit was then physically constructed using the provided materials and tested beforehand to ensure node values closely matched theoretical calculations. On the test day, the circuit's actual values closely aligned with the theoretical values, with a maximum percent difference of -0.80%, confirming the project's success.

In this laboratory experiment, the objective is to design and create a specific electrical circuit under given limitations and requirements. The circuit will be powered by an 18 V DC source with a current of 0.0011 amperes. The design involves incorporating five dissimilar resistors, aiming to achieve equal resistance through series, parallel, or combined configurations. Importantly, the design must include a minimum of one parallel resistor configuration. The resistors used in the project have a ± 5% tolerance. The target voltages at different nodes of the circuit are specified as follows: 16.427 V at Node 1, 8.741 V at Node 2, 5.111 V at Node 3, 0.271 V at Node 4, and 0 V at Node 5. Each participant is provided with a breadboard, four wires, and five each of 220 Ω, 330 Ω, 2200 Ω, 3300 Ω, and 10,000 Ω resistors.

**Background Information:**

*Electrical Circuits:* An electrical circuit is a closed loop activated by a power source. Electricity travels through the circuit and returns to the power source, facilitating the flow of current from the positive to the negative terminal. The load within the circuit consumes the energy, transforming it into work. Different circuit configurations, such as series, parallel, and series-parallel, impact the flow of energy. In a series circuit, there is only one path for the energy to flow, whereas a parallel circuit provides multiple paths. This distinction is crucial, as a break in a series circuit disrupts all load devices, while a parallel circuit remains operational even if one path is compromised.

*Voltage Dividers:* Voltage dividers are fundamental circuits that convert high voltages into lower ones. Achieved through two series resistors and an input voltage, voltage dividers produce an output voltage smaller than the input.

*Ohm’s Law:* George Simon Ohm's work in the early 1800s led to the formulation of Ohm's Law, relating current, resistance, and voltage in a circuit. The law states that the electrical current (I) in amperes is proportional to the voltage (V) and inversely proportional to the resistance (R), expressed by the formula I=RV.

*Resistors:* Resistors are crucial components in electrical circuits, serving to manage and secure currents. They resist the flow of current and are designed to drop voltage as current passes through the circuit. The resistance value varies based on the material used, with wirewound resistors suitable for higher power levels and materials like cermet or tantalum chosen for high-temperature environments.

**Formulas Used:**

The formulas used in this experiment include Ohm's Law (I=RV), the formula for calculating total resistance in series (total=R1+R2+R3+…), the formula for calculating total resistance in parallel (Rtotal1=R11+R21+R31+…), and the power formula (P=IV).

**Experimental Procedure:**

**Designing the Circuit:**- Based on the provided specifications, each participant designs a circuit using resistors in series, parallel, or both.
- Utilize Ohm's Law, Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law, and Kirchhoff’s Current Law for calculations.
- Aim to achieve the specified voltages at each node of the circuit.

**Building the Circuit:**- Use the provided materials, including the breadboard and resistors, to physically construct the designed circuit.
- Ensure proper connections and adherence to the design specifications.

**Testing the Circuit:**- Test the circuit multiple days before the official test day to validate that node values closely match theoretical calculations.
- On the test day, measure and record the actual voltages at each node.

*Calculations:* Perform calculations using the provided formulas to determine the resistance needed for each node in the circuit. Ensure compliance with Ohm's Law, Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law, and Kirchhoff’s Current Law. Document the calculated values.

*Comparison with Experimental Data:* Compare the calculated values with the actual measured voltages at each node on the test day. Calculate the percent difference to assess the accuracy of the designed circuit.

Discuss the significance of the results obtained and the implications for the design process. Consider any challenges faced during the experiment and propose potential improvements or modifications for future iterations.

Summarize the key findings of the experiment, highlighting the success in achieving the specified voltages and the close alignment between theoretical calculations and experimental results. Reflect on the significance of the project in enhancing understanding of the design process and electrical circuits.

**Methods and Procedures:**

- Participants were assigned specific circuits to design, with constant current and voltage values.
- Each participant received materials, including a breadboard, four wires, and various resistors (220 Ω, 330 Ω, 2200 Ω, 3300 Ω, and 10,000 Ω).
- The Design Package process commenced: a) Identification and writing of the problem statement. b) Research for relevant theories and background information.
- Engineering calculations were executed: a) Calculation of ΔV values between nodes. b) Determination of Req for each combination. c) Obtaining the needed resistance. d) Selection of the optimal resistance combination from the provided resistors.
- A sketch of the final circuit design was created.
- Construction of the circuit followed the sketched design.
- The circuit underwent testing before the official test day to ensure compliance with requirements.
- On the test day, the circuit was successfully tested.
- A comprehensive formal laboratory report documenting all project details was prepared.

**Sample Calculations:**

- Insert formula hereInsert formula here
- Resistors in parallel: Insert formula hereResistors in parallel: Insert formula here
- Resistors in series: Insert formula hereResistors in series: Insert formula here
- \text{% Difference: Insert formula here}

The experimental values closely aligning with the theoretical values suggest the effectiveness of the engineering design process. The low percent differences are reasonable, and any discrepancies may be attributed to factors like resistor materials and manufacturing errors. The limitations imposed on using specific resistors also played a role. The results emphasize the importance of following the engineering design process, reducing the likelihood of project failure.

The project's successful completion can be attributed to adhering to the design process. The problem was defined through a well-crafted problem statement, incorporating design requirements, constraints, and assumptions. Thorough research and the careful selection of resistor combinations based on engineering calculations contributed to meeting all requirements. Testing both before and on the test day confirmed the circuit's compliance with specifications. Overall, the project's success underscores the significance of a systematic approach in designing electrical circuits.

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