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Decentralized planning in India

Categories: GovernmentIndiaPolicy


Why decentalisation?Excessively frequently services fail hapless people – in entree, in Quantity and in Quality. Puting hapless people at the Centre of service proviso enables them to supervise and train service suppliers, amplifies their voice in policy devising and strengthens the service suppliers to function the hapless. Such Accountability jobs justify the degeneration of service bringing to elected local authoritiess.

Urban and rural local organic structures such as Municipalities and small town Panchayats had functioned as bureaus of civic operation and rural development strategies and non as instruments of micro-level planning and development.

Hence, there is a vacuity for be aftering below the province degree and a strong executive organic structure at the territory degree is required. The thought of “planning from below” was advocated at the clip of the First Five Year Plan.

Full Emergence of Decentralized Planning occurred when the 73rd Amendment Act was brought into force in April 1993, had added to articles which provide elections to Panchayats.

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They comprise a new portion – portion IX, a new agenda ( Schedule 11 ) , which enumerates the maps to be delegated to the Panchayats. The 74th Amendment Act was passed to set up Municipalities and provides elections to them. It has inserted Part 9-A consisting of 18 Articles. Agenda 12 inserted by the Amendment mentions the maps to be assigned to the Municipalities.

Since the macro degree planning frequently leads to instabilities in regional and rural development such as per capita income, employment form, life criterions, family outgo, extent of economy, and rate of capital formation, growing rates in productive sectors, instruction and societal advancement.

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The grounds for the instability are historical growing based on natural advantages, non-uniform distribution of natural resources, and high concentration of resources. Hence the “planning regions” are chiefly for the intent of interpreting economic and societal planning in footings of physical be aftering – must hold within them the primary demands of bring forthing economic activities ; these are land, natural stuffs for industrial development and power. Efficiency is highest when production is able to run into self-consumption to the maximal extent without disregarding factors that determine production costs.

Chronology of efforts and Committee studies



Ideas and Concepts

First Plan 1951-56

Community Development Blocks

To interrupt up the planning exercising into national, province, territory and local community degrees.

Second Plan


District Development Councils

Pulling up of small town programs and popular engagement in be aftering through the procedure of democratic decentralization.


Balwant Rai Mehta

Village, block, District Panchayat establishments established.


Administrative Reforms Commission

Resources to be given/local fluctuations accomodated, purposeful program for country.


Planing Commission

Formulated guidelines ; detailed the construct of the territory program and methodological analysis of pulling up such a program in the frame work of one-year programs, medium-term programs and position programs.


Prof. M.L. Dantwala

Block – Level planning to organize nexus between small town and district-level planning.


CSS/Reserve Bank of India

Strengthen territory plan/District Credit Plan


Hanumantha Rao


Decentralization of maps, powersand fundss ; Puting up of territory planning organic structures and territory planning cells.


G.V.K. Rao Committee

Administrative agreements for rural development ; District Panchayat to pull off all development programmes.

Obviously the Integrated and coordinated territory planning, as an instrument of micro-level planning, has yet to travel a long manner. As the Housing and Regional Planning Panel of the Planning Commission ( 1955 ) was set up in connexion with the drafting of the Second Five Year Plan, the whole state was delineated to suited parts for development intent. In the Third Five Year Plan, “Balanced Regional Development” and “Housing and Urban and Rural Planning” was introduced. In Fourth Plan, righting of inter-state and intra-state instabilities in development took topographic point. The Fifth Five Year Plan enlarged the range of urban development in little and average towns for modulating the growing of cities. The Sixth Five Year Plan, a balanced development of backward parts, to convey about a progressive decrease in regional inequalities, which triggered the Particular Tribal Component Plans, Hill Area Scheme and specific programme handled by the North Eastern Council were all evolved from these attacks. In Seventh Plan, channelisation of private industrial investing in little and average towns to look into migration of population to metropolitan metropoliss took topographic point. During the Eighth Five Year Plan, accent was on development resources and their optimal use in an incorporate mode for constitutional subsectors. In Ninth Five Plan, acknowledgment and publicity of the National Capital Region ( NCR ) was carried to prolong effectual regional development and developing new Centres of human colonies and economic activities in other parts of the state.

All Plans emphasized the demand for “balanced development of different parts of the state, extension of the benefits of economic advancement to the less developed regions” .

In 1969, Town and Country Planning Organisation ( TCPO ) , Government of India, attempted to demarcate the whole of the state into feasible parts. The state was divided into 13 macro and 36 meso-regions. Limit of parts at micro-level was non done. The macro-regions conceived in development of river basins, the location of industries, power strategy, etc. The meso-regions are sub-divisions of macro parts. The chief aim of defining meso parts is to carve out feasible country units for effectual development, preservation and use of resources. But no effort was made to demarcate their meso-regions into micro-regions.

Tamil Nadu and Punjab provinces have carried regionalisation exercisings at micro-level. In the province of Andhra Pradesh, three widely accepted meso-regions did non continue farther to demarcate at micro-level. The whole of Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra provinces have non been regionalized. In the instance of Maharashtra, regional planning started with the readying of programs for nodal parts and extended subsequently to agro-industrial parts but no effort has been made to demarcate the full province into meso or micro-regions. While regional planning in Gujarat is confined to the planning of metropolis parts ; in Kerala, besides the planning of metropolitan parts, a few territory programs and readying of a spacial development program for the province as a whole.

During the Second and Third Five Year Plans, Important regional development programs prepared at the Central degree are the National Capital Region, South East Resource Region, Dandakaranya Sub-region, Malkangiri Area, Agra-Bharatpur-Monera Sub-region of Chambal Region, Goa Regional Plan, Western Ghats Region but thenceforth this attending shifted to a lower degree of be aftering, such as territory and block-level planning, rural development, little and average towns, metropolitan country, hill country development, agro-climatic zones, mark groups, etc.

Forces of decentralized planning have to be encouraged, smartly pursued and sustained to enable it to strike deep roots in the planning procedure.


  1. “Decentralized Planning in India: Issues and Options” ; Abdul Qaiyum ; ITPI Journal,2004
  2. “Presentation on Decentralized Planning” ; D.Rama Krishna, IAS ( R )

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Decentralized planning in India. (2020, Jun 01). Retrieved from

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