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Categories Data, Data Mining

Essay, Pages 4 (924 words)



Essay, Pages 4 (924 words)

Data Mining Discussion Questions


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Q1: According to Shneiderman and Bederson (2003), information visualization emerged from research in human-computer interaction, computer science, graphics, visual design, psychology, and business.  With this revelation in mind, identify, and discuss the benefits?

There are various benefits of information visualization. First, information visualization is a gateway to information systems. Information specialists can benefit from information visualization since effective visualization systems offer an intuitive way for people to understand the various relationships between information assets which may seem unrelated at first.

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Visualization offers a way of examining the causal factors and contexts which consume a lot of time to be discovered individually. Also, information visualization enables the library visitor or researcher to search the correct source within a short time. This reduces significantly the logical and cognitive overhead which is associated with research, hence making the process more fruitful (Ward, Grinstein, & Keim, 2015).

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Secondly, information visualization can be used as an educational tool in humanities.

Since the current information visualization tools are more interactive, users at each level may use them to engage with materials in different contexts. The values of these tools surpass the traditional archiving, collection, and retrieval as well as other related functions. Information visualization has various benefits to the learner. Visualization and simulation can combine well so that the learners can grow sophisticated skillsets since practice and theory can intersect easily. For instance, the surgeons may use visualization together with the records of the patient to determine the possible approaches to surgical interventions more so the complicated ones (Ward, Grinstein, & Keim, 2015).

Thirdly, information visualization facilitates collaboration. There are cases where team members who are in different parts of the world need to interact and reaching, and research may benefit from this. However, there is a need for new approaches to assist the stakeholders in overcoming communication and cultural barriers. Through information visualization, it becomes easier to transmit information to diverse groups with little vague cultural signifiers. Also, complex information can be interpreted by decision makers through information visualization tools (Ward, Grinstein, & Keim, 2015).

Additionally, some system linking is needed when researching public issues since they require the input of citizens and professionals. Because information visualization enables the users to sort complex datasets in real time, researchers can explore and discern patterns which may not clear in other conditions. For example, information visualization tools may indicate that the sales of larger craft are declining. The team can explore various issues then correlate them to larger craft’s sales, identify the causes, and determine ways of improving the sales. Hence, information visualization will impact future public policy and archival research(Ward, Grinstein, & Keim, 2015).

Q2: Looking further into the chapter, theoretical grounds of policy implementation, Buse et al., (2012) argue that policy implementation is the execution of a formulated policy – turning theory into practice.  When turning theory into practice, the authors stated that it was common for certain observations.  What are those observations?  Briefly identify, and provide a brief discussion for each observation. 

There are four observations about policy implementation, and they include macro and micro-implementation, bottom-up approach, principal-agent theory, and top-down approach. The top-down approach was developed to offer policymakers a better understanding of ways of minimizing the gap between the implemented and formulated policy. In this approach, policy implementation is done in a linear process where the policymakers communicate the policies to the executing entities such as authorities that transform the policy into practice. For the policy to be implemented successfully, the policy goals need to be understood by each actor that is involved, the required resources must be available, and a command and communication chain ought to be created. The approach is not suitable where many actors are involved. Also, the top-down approach cannot cover policy implementation since the process is too complex in reality(Buse et al. 2012).

The bottom-up approach, as opposed to a top-down approach, emphases on policy implementers since they play a crucial part in the policy implementation process as they have a great influence on the policy’s actual implementation and are active participants that provide the policymakers with feedback. However, the policies can be implemented in a manner that the policymakers did not plan since individuals in the highly rule-bound environs can reshape for their ends the public central policy parts(Buse et al. 2012).

The principal-agent theory also plays a role in policy implementation. For every circumstance, there is a relationship between the agents (the policy implementers), and the principals (the ones that define the policy) and this relationship can include agreements or contracts which empower the principal to check what has been implemented against what was specified in the policy. The approach has a shortfall since the principals (the politicians) may not be motivated by the production efficiency but by political efficiency and material benefit. Hence, the policy implementers will have to deal with issues of goal diversity and political efficiency(Buse et al. 2012).

Macro-policy implementation occurs when the government effects policies to influence the local authorities. Micro-implementation occurs when the local authorities transfer the government policiesinto their local policies. Also, macro and micro-implementation are thought to be a two-phase implementation process. Thus, the policymakers and the local authorities should adopt the government policy then convert it into a policy that can be used at the local authority level. The challenge with this approach lies atthe local authority’s capability to adopt and implement these policies(Buse et al. 2012).


Birkland, T. A. (2015). An introduction to the policy process: Theories, concepts, and models of public policy making. Routledge.

Buse, K., Mays, N., & Walt, G. (2012). Making health policy. McGraw-Hill Education (UK).

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DATA MINING. (2019, Nov 27). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/data-mining-example-essay

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