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Core Theoretical Perspectives in Counselling


In this essay I’m going to describe and evaluate the core theoretical perspectives in counselling, behavioural, cognitive behavioural, humanistic and psychodynamic theories, the view of the person in therapy, the blocks to functioning of the person in therapy and the goals and techniques of each theory. I will compare and contrast the approaches looking at the similarities and differences between the counselling perspectives and how the counsellor in each theory differ in their techniques to counselling their clients. This essay will present and contrast the workings of the four major theories of counselling psychology mainly – psychodynamic, cognitive behavioural and person-centred.

First I will describe what counselling entails, introducing each in turn.

My discussion will examine the four theories or approaches for a history of the founder and a rationale for why they were led to introducing a new therapy approach and a sketch of the key concepts. Further, I will look at methods and processes employed by each theory, the respective roles played by the therapist and the client and the various situations to which the theory can be applied.

Finally I will examine the limitations of the theory and how well it integrates with other approaches.

Throughout this paper I will offer my own view of the issues at hand and in so doing attempt a synthesis of the four theories The aim of writing this essay is to widen my knowledge and insight of the four theories, their backgrounds and development, their ideologies and how they influence human behaviour.

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This academic essay is going to form part of the requirements for the award of Diploma in counselling studies at the Kenya Association of Professional counsellors in Kisumu.


The function of counselling is to help people to resolve problem areas in their life. Counselling provides an opportunity for the person to explore the difficult feelings, thoughts and behaviours that have blocked the way to satisfying relationships, personal happiness. The purpose of counselling is to help clients achieve their personal goals, and gain greater insight into their lives. One hopes that by the end of this process one will be more satisfied with his or her life. Counselling is not a process where the counsellor tells the client what he or she should do or decides choices for the client to make. Rather it is an opportunity for the client to come to a greater understanding of the person that he or she is with the help of the counsellor.

Counselling is to assist individuals through a helping relationship to make changes and adjustments in their lives to alleviate stress and reduce unrest. To create and discover choices those are available to counsellor in order to eliminate negative responses from challenging situations. The client relationship with their counsellor is confidential. No information concerning the client will be released without their consent. Counselling does not provide instant answers. The frequency of the person visits will be determined by the client and their counsellor. Living in the modern world, surrounded by confusion and at times apparent chaos, we are all often exposed to difficulties and challenging situation. We all encounter problems such as relationship difficulties, work demands, financial obligations, unemployment, divorce or other pressures we may face on a daily basis. Psychodynamic Theory

Psychodynamic theories relate in some ways to the way we feel and behave as individuals and seek to provide a framework for us to understand these aspects of our personalities often our experiences in childhood and particularly our early relationships. Much of psychodynamic thinking from Freud’s theory of psychosexual development (Freud, 1905) to Winnicott’s work with children there is a recognition that we develop patterns in behaviour early in our lives that will shape the way we relate to the world as such these theories are known as developmental theories (Spurling, 2004, pg. 2). Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

The psychodynamic theory was first postulated by Sigmund Freud as psychoanalysis in essence learned in overcoming his emotional pain, the dynamics of personality development (Corey, 2000) He developed an interest in hypnosis which was an early precursor of psychotherapy. First Born of a Viennese family of three boys and girls, he graduated from medical school and became a psychotherapist Basic Assumptions and Key Concepts

The counselling theories all encompass therapeutic techniques as well as a model of the human personality. Freud’s views of human nature was that the human beings was controlled by irrational forces and instinctual drives established in childhood whereby people are products of their environments and innate unconscious forces. These instincts serve as a meaning of survival for the individual where the goal of life is to enhance pleasure and avoid pain. The reviewed human personality as comprising of three elements The ID

The primitive, it is instinctive, illogical, lacks organization, seeks pleasure. Hereditary factors are represented by the ID.the Id has no judgement value (good vs evil) and has no morality.


Refined by the contact with the outside world the ego is realistic, organized and logical.

Super Ego

Representing the authority figures, the super ego is judgemental, ideal, strives for perfection and informs the person’s moral code. It represents reality of the external world. Freud believed that for psychological health all three had to be in balance (Hough, 2002) the ego’s role was to balance the conflicting demands between the id and the super ego that led to tension in order to protect the ego from negative energy defence mechanisms develop; these include denial, repression, regression and others.

He saw human development through stages denominated by changing awareness and attitudes towards human sexuality organs. Accordingly, he devised the notion of libido which he refers to as the energy of all life instincts. This energy then is the motivation that drives us to the central goal of life which is to enhance pleasure and avoid pain. Later he came up with the death instincts that accounts for human aggression in his view, those unconscious drives determine how people act (Corey, 2000).

Defence Mechanisms

According to psychoanalysis, when an individual faces a conflict among the ID, ego and super ego over the control of psychic (mind) energy, he adopts several defence mechanisms to cope with the challenges. While all defence mechanisms can be unhealthy, they can also be adaptive and allow us to function normally. The greatest problems arise when the defence mechanisms are over used in order to avoid dealing with problems. [Class notes, certificate in counselling studies, 2014]


There are three types of anxiety, one being reality anxiety which is in touch with reality threat, second is neurotic anxiety which is concern those instincts that will get out of hand and thirdly moral anxiety which is fear of own conscience . So when anxiety state is in excess, one goes into ego defence mechanisms to be able to cope. This happens mostly at the unconscious level and the aim is to either deny or distort (class notes, diploma in counselling studies, 2014, pg. 65) Reality examples of defence mechanisms include repression which acts to keep information out of conscious awareness. However these mechanisms don’t just disappear they continue to influence our behaviour. E.g. a person who has repressed memories of abuse as a child, may later have difficulty forming relationship


Taking out our frustrations, feelings and impulses on people or objects that are less threatening egg if a boss has annoyed a person since he/she cannot argue with the boss he/she instead expresses anger towards a person or object that poses no threat such as spouse, pet or children or house maids.


Diverging sexual or aggressive energy to socially acceptable behaviour, for example a person experiencing extreme anger might take up kickboxing as a means of venting frustrations,

Development Stages

Freud linked different kinds of conflicts to specific stages of a child’s development, he classified these in terms of areas of the body, he believed to represent the source of child’s libido on sexual instinct at the time he termed them oral, from birth to 1 year, anal from 1 year to 3years, phallic from 3 to 6 years, latent from 6 to 12 years and genital from 12 to 18years. Freud believed that if a child does not negotiate any of this stages, they get fixated that is they psychologically remain in that stage and do not move effectively to the others. For example you may find a 12 year old still sucking the thumb, a characteristic of the oral stage. The adolescent is in turmoil as she/he discovers the self.


The goal is psychodynamic theory is one to modify individuals character by making the unconscious conscious and two to strengthen the ego so that behaviour is based more on reality than on instinct.


There are many techniques used to facilitate the clients to gain insight into their behaviour and meaning of symptoms and they include, free association whereby clients are made to relax so that they can reflect whatever comes to their mind uncensored even if it is disagreeable or if it seems meaningless and this is to bring forth material from unconscious mind (Jones, 2006) another one is dream analysis where during sleep the defences are lowered and repressed feelings surface.

These may point to some unresolved issues, and in transference analysis, transference manifest itself at the point when a client’s unfinished business causes them to distort the present reality and to react to therapist as they did to the father, mother as significant others. Through Freudian slip or slips of the tongue, unconscious thoughts and feelings can be transferred to conscious minds. Freud believed that slips of tongue provide an insight into the unconscious mind and not accidental and every behaviour including slips of the tongue was significant thus determining behaviour (Corey, 2001)

Limitations and Weaknesses

Some of the ideas (penis envy, Oedipus) are outdated in terms of our contemporary world, and it is questioned by some theorists/practitioners whether these concepts are clinically useful It takes a long time commitment in terms of time and resources to complete the psychoanalytic therapy and process. His fellow proponent Carl Jung maintains that our behaviour is not merely shaped by our past events only but by the present as well as the future.

Erik Eriksson

Freud did not tolerate divergent views from himself and this led his contemporaries and students establishing their own theoretical approaches, these included Alfred Adler (1870-1937) who introduced what he calls (individual psychology) in 1911 another one was Erik Eriksson[ 1963] extended his theory of psychosocial perspective by stressing the psychosocial aspects of development beyond childhood. His theory of human development holds that both psychosexual and psychosocial growth take place together and that each stage in life we face the task of establishing equilibrium between ourselves and our social lives. He describes development in terms of the entire lifespan divided by specific crisis to be resolved. He describe the crisis as turning point in life when we have the potential to move forward or regress. To large extend our life is as a result of the choices we make at each of these stages.

Behavioural Theory

Behaviour therapy, lie its name implies is the psychotherapy that focuses on the change or improvement of behaviour rather than the healing of the heart or the mind as Jan Ehrenwald called it ‘psychotherapy without psyche’ (Ehrenwald, 1976) although its main focus is on the behaviour only, however, in its clinical approach, behavioural therapy has been used to treat variety of disorders such as anxiety disorders, eating disorders and sexual disorders etc. besides the clinical approach behaviour therapy has been used in the area of business, schools and rehabilitation centres.

Furthermore behaviour modifications, though slightly different approach but based upon similar techniques and assumptions are also used to correct undesirable behaviour and promote adaptive behaviours in our daily life. As an overall theory the distinctive emphasis is on overwhelming role of environmental contingencies in influencing the acquisition and maintenance of behaviour (Jones, 2006)

Pavlov’s classical conditioning

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936) research on the digestive system of dogs led to his discovery of the classical conditioning process which demonstrated that the learning process could be used to make an association between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus the underlying belief in classical conditioning is that behaviour can be controlled and that human beings can be made to do things without being aware of them just as Pavlov was able to condition a dog to salivate at the sound of a bell.

This experiment shows that the environment can be manipulated to produce the desired behaviour or response, for example in counselling the client can be conditioned to produce the desired result for example to undo a negative practice such as fear. Pavlov’s researches into conditioned reflex were essential to the founding of behaviour therapy (Jones, 2006).

Skinners Operant Behaviourism

B.F Skinner (1904-1990) was born in Susquehanna Pennsylvania. He came up with the concept of operant conditioning which demonstrated the effect of punishment and reinforcement on behaviour. According to him, reward and punishment make people behave in certain ways, positive reinforcement aims to increase the frequency of a response by filling it with a favourable event (rewards) while negative reinforcement makes use of punishment, withdrawal of the rewards. The term ‘operant’ emphasizes the fact that behaviour operates on the environment to generate consequences.

Thus the consequences define the properties with respect to which responses are viewed as similar He acknowledged that Pavlov called all events that strengthened behaviour in his dog ‘reinforcement’ and the resulting changes their voluntary behaviour ‘conditioning’. However, the critical difference is that in Pavlov’s work, the reinforced is paired with stimulus, whereas in operant behaviour it is contingent upon a response. Classical and operant conditioning are the only two possible kinds of conditioning. (Jones, 2006)

Albert Bandura‘s Social learning

Bandura(1925) was born and raised in Mundare in Northern Alberta, Canada he graduated from the university of British Colombia with a psychology major and later received a doctorate in clinical psychology from university of IOWA and it was there that he came under the influence of behaviourist tradition and learning theory. He propagated social learning theory. It postulates that people are capable of learning vicariously by observing behaviourism of others as well as its consequences and imitating that behaviour. The key learning aspects include observation, retention, and motivational imitation. (Jones, 2006)


Main goal is to create new condition for learning. The behavioural approach helps produce effective ways of managing conditions of the client through behaviour modifications techniques and the principles of reward and punishments. It is assumed that such learning experiences can restructure behaviour.


The main assumption of behavioural approach is that behaviours learnt can be unlearnt for example the unacceptable behaviour such as smoking can be stopped. Techniques Behavioural approaches use a variety of methods and techniques which include; relaxation training, systematic desensitization, token economies just to mention a few. These training methods are often utilized to help people learn new ways and overcome maladaptive behaviours. Relaxation training method aims at achieving muscles and mental relaxation, it is a useful experience in releasing physical and mental fatigue. While systematic desensitization is based on the principle of classical conditioning and is used to address anxiety based on maladaptive behaviour or avoidance reaction (Corey, 2001)

Limitations and Weaknesses

Behaviour Change is based on the idea of learning and that behaviour can be learnt and unlearnt and re-learnt contrary opinions show that some behaviours are hereditary (genetic) also behavioural approach deals with a client’s current problems and the factors that influence them rather than the reasons leading to the problem or historical determinants. The counsellor assumes that the client’s problems are influenced by present conditions for example at time it ignores the important relational and historical factors of present behaviour. Cognitive

Behavioural Therapy

In its simplest form, cognitive behavioural therapy (or CBT as it is referred) refers to the approach of changing dysfunctional behaviours and thoughts to realistic and healthy ones. CBT encompasses several types of therapy focusing on the impact of an individual’s thinking as it relates to expressed behaviours. Such models include rational emotive therapy(RET),rational emotive behavioural therapy(REBT), behavioural therapy (BT), Rational Behaviour Therapy (RBT), schema focused therapy and Cognitive therapy (CT).Most recently a few other variations have been linked to CBT such as an acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), dialectic behavioural therapy (DBT) and mindfulness based cognitive therapy ( MBCT) (Harrington and Pickles,2009). The main aspect that all these branches of therapy share is that our thought relate to our external behaviours.

External events and individuals do not cause the negative thoughts or feelings. But instead the perception of events and situations is the root cause (National Association of Cognitive Behavioural therapists 2010)

Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT)

Albert Ellis (1913) was born in Pittsburgh he combined humanistic, philosophical and behavioural therapy to form rational emotive therapy, (now known as rational emotive behaviour therapy or REBT) Ellis can be referred to as the grandfather of cognitive therapy. Ellis became dissatisfied with practicing psychoanalysis and psychotherapy and began to focus more on philosophical beliefs including those that clients could change self-defeating behaviours by changing their points of View (P.333, Sharf, 2012) Ellis was the first to connect the impact of thoughts as they relate to behaviour when he published in 1962, Reason and Emotion psychotherapy (Walsh, 2010) Ellis work asserted that an individual’s underlying thinking about him/herself directly affected his/her behaviours and as a therapist his goal was to help the clients become more reasonable in thoughts and ultimately followed behaviours.


The basic assumptions of REBT is that people contribute to their own psychological problem as well as to specific symptom by the way they interpret events and situations. The approach views human problem as stemming from disturbances in the thought or cognitive process which people are disturbed not by events themselves but by their view of events. Emotions are derived from our beliefs, evaluation, interpretation and reactions to life situations and that changing these will lead to a change in how we feel about things and consequently how we behave or the actions we take (Corey 2005) The approaches teaches individuals to become rational in thoughts in order to eliminate irresponsible behaviour Ellis created the A-B-C theory based model to create changes which simply states that emotional and behavioural consequences (C) are the results activating events.

(A) And irrational beliefs (B) of those events. Later D and E are bought into play with (D) representing the detecting and disputing element and (E) becomes the new effect or behaviour. Other techniques used in REBT that are major component of CBT are visualizations, skill training, homework and role playing many believe that Elli’s REBT and Beck’s cognitive are very similar, however, Ellis disputes this and argues that there are significant differences, as do some therapists who take the side of Beck and favour cognitive therapy (Padesky and Beck, 2003,2007)

Cognitive Theory

Aaron T. Beck (6 1921) was born in Providence, Rhode Island. His childhood was characterized by adversity. Aaron Becks is widely renowned for his contribution to CBT. In the 1960s Becks, who initially was interested in depression, found the depressed individuals carried many biases in their cognitive processing leading him to create Cognitive Theory (C.T) (Burns, 1999.) Beck noticed that individuals exhibit an “internal communication system within themselves, from which they formed their beliefs” or what Beck called schema (Shard, p371). An individual’s schema represents their distorted thinking patterns and determines how they view or perceive events. For those that are depressed, the schema often consists of negative thoughts along with self-criticism and self-blame. More specifically, this cognitive schema presented “three basic themes of personal ineffectiveness, personal degradation, and the world is essentially an unpleasant place (Walsh, 2010).”

This type of thinking commonly resulted in individuals prophesying failure and disaster for themselves. He also noticed during therapy that his depressed clients consistently dismissed positive thoughts in order to focus on the negative thoughts. Many of such thoughts seemed to be automatic and spontaneous, leading him to coin the phrase ANTs better known as automatic negative thoughts. Such thoughts, ideas and beliefs resulted in clients believing that they were unlovable, worthless, and despicable. In 1976, Beck published Cognitive Therapies and the Emotional Disorders leading others to take notice of this concept. He also contributed to the field greatly with some of the most well-known and utilized assessments such as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), and Beck scale for suicidal ideation (BSS), Beck anxiety scales (BAI), and the Beck youth inventories of social impairment (BYI).


Cognitive therapy teaches clients how to think about their thinking so that they can correct faulty cognitive processing and develop assumptions that allow them to cope. It also aims to impact behavioural skills relevant to client’s problems for example listening and communication skills for distressed couples and assertion skills for shy people (Jones, 2006)


Cognitive Behavioural Therapy is directive and persuasive and even confrontive, though it can also be reflective and structured in its approach (Corsini and Wedding 1995) the therapists takes on the role of a teacher pointing out distorted thinking helping the clients identify and process emotions and practicing new skills by way of role play. In cognitive therapy, There is a heavy reliance on homework assignments and it is very much skill based method.


CBT does not suit everyone and it is not helpful for all conditions. You need to be committed and persistent in tackling and improving your health problem with the help of the therapist. It can be hard work. The homework may be difficult and challenging. You may be taken ‘out of your comfort zone’ when tackling situations which cause anxiety or distress. However, many people have greatly benefited from a course of CBT. In order to benefit from cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) you need to ensure that you give a considerable level of commitment and involvement. Due to the structured nature of CBT, it may not be suitable for people who have more complex mental health needs, or learning difficulties.

Cognitive Behaviour modification

Donald Meichenbaum was another major alternative to rational emotive behaviour (CBM) which focuses on changing clients self-verbalization, according to Meichenbaum (1977), self-statements affect a person’s behaviours in much the same way as statements made by another person the therapeutic process consists of training clients to modify the instructions they give to themselves so that they can cope more effectively with the problems they encounter. Emphasis on acquiring practical coping skills for problematic situations such as impulsive and aggressive behaviour, fear of taking tests, fear of public speaking. On how behaviour changes, he describes three phases one being self-observant, here clients observe their behaviours by listening to themselves then phase two is for starting a new internal dialogue, here clients learn to notice the maladaptive behaviours and begin to see opportunities for adaptive behavioural alternatives. Phase three for learning new skills. Then modification process consists of teaching client more effective skills.


Meichenbaum operates on the assumption that there are multiple realities and one of the therapeutic tasks is to help clients appreciate how they construct their realities and how they author their stories (Corey 2001).

Humanistic Theory

Humanistic theory focuses on the positive attributes to what they considered it is to be human. To better understand some of the attributes and notions of humanistic theory the following paper analysis’s two humanistic theories in turn; specifically Maslow’s conception of self-actualization and Rogers phenomenological based personality theory. This is followed by discussing some strengths and limitations to humanistic theories in understanding relationships, others and the self.

Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs

According to Abraham Maslow our actions are motivated in order to achieve certain needs using a pyramid model to display the hierarchy of human needs he suggests that people are motivated to fulfil the basic needs before moving on to other more advanced needs. Needs at the bottom of the hierarchy are basic physical requirements including need of water, sleep, air and warmth. Once this lower level needs have been met. People can move to the next level of needs which are safety and people progress up the pyramid, needs become increasingly psychological and social. So once the need for love, friendship and intimacy become important. Further up the pyramid the need for personal esteem and feelings of accomplishment take priority, Maslow emphasized the importance of self-actualization which is a process of growing and developing as a person in order to achieve individual potential. This Hierarchy of needs was presented in the formation of a triangle


American psychologist Carl Rogers (1902-1987) is often considered to be founder of this school of thought. Carl Rogers was born January 8, 1902 in Oak Park, Illinois. Carl was the fourth of six children. He maintained there were three conditions which constitute the climate to promote the personal growth Genuineness: this is the realness and congruence. According to Rogers the more a counsellor is real and true in the relationship and is not putting up personal façade and professional face the more the client will change positively. Unconditional Positive Regard: This is the simple act of accepting all traits and behaviours in the client as long as it does not entail causing significant harm to others.

Positive regard is not withdrawn if the client does wrong or makes a mistake Empathy: Rogers believed that the counsellor should experience an accurate understanding of the client’s awareness of his own experience and show this understanding to the client. Carl Rogers believed that the client by establishing a productive relationship with an understanding counsellor can resolve difficulties and gain the insight necessary to restructure their life.


The main assumption is one that human beings are good and moving towards good provided the environment is supportive and two ,people have the capacity to solve their own problems through the self-actualizing tendency and thirdly human beings are unique, singular and individual.


Humanistic counselling is aimed at helping the counselling client make different choices. This type of counselling gives the client as much freedom to be himself in the counselling setting as possible. The counsellor’s role is to accept the client as she is and direct her to view her choices objectively, but not to impose choices on her or direct her behaviour in any particular manner. Humanistic counselling includes active listening, gestalt techniques and no confrontational questioning. Active Listening Active listening helps the client identify his own thoughts and feelings by summarizing for him the content or subtext of what he says.

For example, if the client says he feels uncreative lately, the counsellor might comment, “You’re really having a dry spell,” or “It must be frustrating not to have any ideas when you want to work.” This gives the client a sense of visibility–the counsellor sees, understands and accepts who he really is–as well as putting a specific name to what he is experiencing. In some cases, this gives the client new abilities to identify his own feelings outside of the therapy room. When using active listening, counsellors should be careful to reword emotional content rather than repeating it verbatim, as the latter technique can come off as glib or “not really listening.”

Gestalt Techniques

Gestalt techniques are a subset of humanistic counselling aimed at helping the client integrate her thoughts, feelings and experiences so her behaviour is consistent with her values and emotions, according to Psychology Today Treatment Centre. Common gestalt techniques include free association and psychodrama. In free association, the client is asked to say the first word or phrase that pops into her head in response to a word, phrase or incomplete sentence. Psychodrama involves dialoguing with aspects of the self, such as the inner child. Clients may be asked to switch from one seat to another in order to speak from the point of view of each such aspect or to write out dialogues between these aspects.

Open-Ended Questions

Asking open-ended questions helps the client delve deeper into his own thoughts about an issue. These questions provide a starting point for deeper thought without expressing the counsellor’s point of view, which could unduly influence the client. The questions require the client to say something more than “yes” or “no” and avoid language that might lead him to a particular answer.

Strengths and Weaknesses of Humanistic Theories

As with every theory designed for application in the understanding of mankind, Humanistic theories have both strengths and many weaknesses. Thus the following section will address the major strengths and weaknesses of Humanistic theory in turn. One of the major strengths attributed to Humanistic theory is the idea that the subject is fully accountable and in control of their actions. This is in stark contrast to the notions behind psychoanalysis. Leading from this assumption is the notion that humanistic theories promote the idea of being human, self-fulfilment and realistic and observable goals that can be obtained. A final strength to Humanistic theory is the idea that from a clinical perspective it offers an open space in which a patent can express any feeling of thought without being led down a path to revisit traumatic events which they may not feel comfortable discussing.

One of the major weaknesses with Humanistic theories is lack of empirical evidence to support its claims. Academics such as Maslow have been widely criticized in this respect in terms of an absence of scientific empirical evidence. A further and related criticism of Humanistic theories is their inability and unsuitability to be used within a metaphysical arena. While Freud and contemporary Freudians managed to move towards ethics and morality through the same criticism of lack of empirical evidence, Humanistic theories have yet to encroach on the metaphysical subject area. A final criticism of Humanistic theories is that many professionals view this discipline as motivated by the cold realities of psychoanalysis and is a discipline which is based on the resistance of the unconscious; furthermore the discipline has seemed to be in decline in recent history.


I have come to the conclusion that all the four techniques are complementary and one can draw from each, and that the four approaches of psychoanalysis, cognitive behavioural, behaviourism, and humanistic psychology, represent the fundamental ways of viewing human beings and their behavioural problems. It is therefore important to get an understanding of all the techniques so as to know how to help clients with varied problems solve them. I therefore prefer Eclecticism as it acknowledges the human being is a complex being and a single approach cannot be sufficient enough to cater for this complexity.

I recommend that a therapist/counsellor gets proper knowledge and training of all the theories in order to be able to counsel a client effectively. Cognitive behavioural approaches deals mainly with what is conscience and evident to the client in my view more research needs to be done and the emphasis should be more on exploring past emotional painful feelings experienced during development period. Which I believe will help the client experience them afresh, address and work on them and in so doing resolve the issues by changing their defective thinking and behaviours.


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