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Plastic waste from various forms is one such resource, a major component of solid waste which is abundantly available on the earth and disposed of without proper treatment. Several studies have proven that health hazard caused by improper disposal of plastic waste. There has been an exponential growth in municipal waste disposal due to the drastic population growth in the country and their various daily activities, especially in urban areas due to more concentration of IT Company, results in migration of people from various corner of the country, leads to development of more waste.
In order to effectively utilize this waste resource as useful resource, we need to incorporate this in various fields like construction, manufacturing etc. process.
As one such is use in construction of road by partial replacement of bitumen with plastic. Due to industrial revolution and large scale production of plastic seemed to be a cheaper and effective raw material. Today, every vital sector of the economy starting from micro construction like watches, electronic chips to the macro constructions like automobile, building construction has been revolutionized by the use of plastic.
Plastic is non-biodegradable material and researchers found that it can sustain on earth for about 4500years without degradation. Plastic is a versatile material, which is friend to common man and become a problem to the environment after its use.
By looking scenario of present lifestyle a complete ban on the use of waste plastic cannot be put, although the waste plastic taking the face of devil for the present and future generation.
Recycled polyethylene carry bags were shredded into small sizes and it is coated on aggregates of the mix at a specified temperature. It was found that plastic is a effective binder for bitumen mixes used in flexible pavements and coating of plastic waste on aggregate of the bituminous mix found to improve its performance characteristics and improving the abrasion and slip resistance of flexible pavement than the ordinary bituminous mix.
Bituminous mixes were prepared with 60/70 bitumen and plastic coated aggregate/ordinary aggregates with cement as a filler material. Here the use of plastic will help in improving the abrasion and slip resistance of flexible pavement along with it helps in obtain the values of split tensile strength satisfied the specified limits while plastic content is beyond 30% by weight of mix. If the consistent mixing time and mixing temperature are not provided for bitumen-modifier mix, modified bitumen cannot exhibit good performance in-situ, thus premature failures will occur. Therefore, there are certain recommended mixing guidelines while mixing and laying of roads is to be done using plastic waste. The plastic road would be boon for India.
It is suitable for hot and extremely humid climate durable and eco-friendly plastic roads are of the great advantage to the country and this will also help in relieving the earth from all types of plastic waste. Some of the sophisticated techniques used in the process of bituminous mix preparation are such as In plastic: plastic was segregated from various wastes, cleaned and it was dried to the environment condition. Later on it was shredded (cut into small pieces) & the plastic waste which retained on 2.36mm IS sieve was collected. In aggregate: the test which has to be satisfied by the aggregate for the suitability of road construction was carried with plastic and without plastic, such as aggregate impact value( gives the impact strength of aggregate).
Los Angeles abrasion test( hardness of aggregate, resisting to the abrasion action of tyre caused during skidding and sudden traction), water absorption test, specific gravity test and stripping value test. In bitumen: penetration value test (resistance to penetration), ductility (elongation or ductile property of bitumen), flash & fire point test (at what temperature bitumen flashes and catches fire) and softening point test (temperature up to which bitumen has to be heated depending on various applications). Finally six Marshall Stability samples were prepared out of which three were with plastic waste of varying percentage (5%, 10% & 15%) and three samples without plastic waste.
The plastic that should be used should have high melting point, if the plastic waste lot contains low melting point plastic and if such lot is accepted due to improper supervision of the workers, it leads to reduction in strength and durability and increases the economy of road. So proper guidelines should be provided in order to reduce the wastage of economy. From the above graph it was found that with increase in plastic percentage and bitumen content, Marshall Stability value increases. On the above reference if the percentage of plastic waste is further increased it may have better marshal stability value and the maximum percentage of waste resource can be utilized it leads to eco-friendly and economical structure. As the time passes and due to variation of temperature in regions like Delhi where the temperature during summer may rise up to 50 degree Celsius and during winter it can fall up to degree.
Celsius, the reaction of plastic with bitumen and various other material in the mix should be found out, so that it does not interfere with stability and strength of the road.In the partially submerged regions, due to the alternate wetting and drying of pavement, plastic may not have effective bond over the other material due to the influence of water. So durability of the prototype should be modelled and stability of the pavement should be found out in the long run. When all the above parameters are encountered and also bitumen is partially replaced by plastic waste, it reduces the economy and strength of the pavement then the ordinary pavement, hence it is more feasible to accommodate.
One of the major problems in developing cities like metropolitan cities is sewage disposal, by proper management of recyclable and reusable products, it will save lots of economy to the government, so that it can be used for various purpose.
One such solid waste is plastic, due to the burning of plastic waste in open dump yard, it will leads to air pollution and health issue in nearby areas surrounding dump yard. Hence by reusing the part of plastic waste in the construction of bituminous pavement it will reduce the percentage of solid waste in the environment and hazardous effect to the living organisms. From this i can appreciate the above thesis for selection of the waste which is creating a big problem in the exponentially developing country like India and converting them into useable material which is less expensive.
In the present era of road construction, two materials bitumen and asphalt are booming rapidly. Due to the good adhesive and waterproofing property of bitumen it is widely used in road construction and roofing material. Bitumen is obtained as a by-product of fractional distillation of crude oil. To enhance the engineering properties of the asphalt various modifiers are used such as polyethylene based polymer, styrene based polymer, various oils have been used in asphalt. Plastic usage has been increased in our daily life, because of all these there is an increased usage of plastic, the disposal of plastic become difficult. Some studies show that out of 100% plastic waste, 20% of plastic wastes are recyclable. Thou the plastic are non-bio degradable, it has to be disposed of or else it will cause hazardous to the environment.
One of the best way to dispose of the plastic is by burning, by this plastic is heated up to melting point and used along with bitumen for the preparation of bituminous mix. Hence by this way use of plastic waste in bituminous road construction will result in reduction of plastic waste in the environment. The test was conducted based on the guidelines of IRC37 for the test on aggregate like crushing test, impact value test, abrasion test, flakiness and elongation index test and specific gravity of coarse and fine aggregate.
When it comes to the test on bitumen penetration test, softening point test, ductility, flash and fire point and specific gravity. Plastic were separated, cleaned and shredded into small piece and finally mix design was prepared based on the Marshall Stability method. It was found that bituminous mix with plastic waste shows more marshal stability number when compared to the bituminous mix without plastic, due to effective performance of plastic on increasing the property of bituminous mix and good bond with bitumen and other materials in the mix review of two papers with own analysis/comments.
The two papers which I have selected is from international journal of innovative research in science, engineering and technology ISSN:2319-8753 department of structural engineering 1st year Mtech east west institute of technology, Bangalore, Karnataka, India and international journal of advance research and development( volume-2, issue-5) by Azmat sheikh, nabeel khan, faisal shah, Devendra Shukla, Gaurav kale student, department of civil engineering, Dr. D. Y. Patil school of civil engineering and technology, Maharashtra, India.
From the reference of international journal of innovative research in science, engineering, The experiment was conducted on bitumen grade 80/100. In this experiment the waste water bottles were shredded into small pieces and sieved using IS sieve which is passing through 4.75mm and retained on 2.36mm sieve. Test was conducted by varying the bitumen content from 3.5% to 6.5% by increment of 0.5% for every trial and percentage of plastic was varied from 0% to 10%. In the first trail approximately 1200gm of aggregates and filler is heated to temperature of 1750-1900C. Bitumen is heated to a temperature of 1210-1250C with the first trial of 3.5% by weight of mineral aggregate. Heated aggregate and bitumen are thoroughly mixed at a temperature of 1540-1600C.
Mix is placed in a preheated mold and compacted by a rammer with 50blows on either side at temperature of 1380-1490C. The test sample was prepared and kept for 24hrs in mold than it was de moulded. From the Marshall Stability test, the optimum percentage of bitumen was 5% and plastic was 8% was proven to have highest Marshall stability number based on relation between stability & bitumen content, relation between bulk density & bitumen content, relation between void filled with bitumen(VFD) & bitumen content, relation between void ratio(Vv) & bitumen content, relation between flow & bitumen content and finally comparison of stability values of 80/100 when compared to the bituminous mix which is prepared without plastic.
From the above test, the stability was 1963kg at 8% waste plastic by the weight of bitumen. From the aggregate test result it was found that the entire test were satisfied by the guidelines laid down by the MORTH (IV revision) specifications. Abrasion value was found to be more by 2%, thou it may be due to bad lot or bad sample, if it was proven to be wrong lot than the performance of pavement will be much less than it would have been. From the analysis the optimum percentage of plastic was found to be 8%. Soaked specimen is found to have less marshal stability when compared to un soaked specimen, by this we can conclude that this type of mix which is having a optimum percentage of plastic of 8% and bitumen content of 5% should be used in cold and extreme humid condition but not in the water submerged or waterlogged areas.
From the reference of the international journal of advance research and development (volume-2, issue-5), The experiment was conducted on bitumen grade 60/70. In this experiment plastic obtained from the various are used in the experiment but not particularly on waste water bottles as per the above-mentioned paper from of international journal of innovative research in science, engineering. The objective in this experiment is not only finding various properties of the bituminous mix but also to reduce the disposal problem of plastics. From this study it was found that modified mix possess improved Marshall Characteristics. It is observed that the stability value increases with increase in plastic content and Marshall Flow value decreases upon addition of polythene i.e. the resistance to the deformation under heavy wheel load increases.
The test results obtained without plastic was found to have less performance characteristics when compared to the bituminous mix with plastic. Almost the stripping value of bituminous mix was reduced to 0% when plastic was added to the bituminous mix whereas without plastic mix was having a stripping value of 1%.
From all the experiments we can conclude that the addition of plastic waste enhances the various properties of an ordinary bituminous road. By this we can conclude that we can obtain the best possible and stable mix for the pavement by polymer modifications. Hence by this waste non bio degradable product can be utilized in effective by reducing the waste management and also provides us an improved pavement with better strength and longer life period. By incorporating this test results more percentage of plastic waste can be reduced in the environment so that it is utilized in eco-friendly manner and also reduces hazardous effect on environment.
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