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Baroque art falls into the period of Counter-Reformation led by the Catholic church against the Protestants. Much of the Baroque art, especially in Italy, reflects reaction to Mannerism, but also the social turmoil of the time. According to the Council of Trent and the Catholic church artworks should be a clear, intelligible subject realistically interpreted in order to stimulate piety.
This was part of the reason that the artwork turned towards naturalism, becoming emotionally engaging and intense. STYLE strong perspective effects ramatic color dramatic light and dark (chiaroscuro and tenebrism) movement of figures (especially upwards) broken and agitated draperies loose brushstrokes heavy impasto dense and detailed compositions (for emotional impact on viewer) Wofflin’s 5 points of the differences between Baroque and Renaissance recessional compositions (not planar) Baroque art has continuous overlapping of figures and elements where the Renaissance and clear defined planes that recede in depth.
Baroque art often has a sweeping diagonal element that crosses many planes. painterly instead of linear
The figures in Baroque art are merged better through chiaroscuro that blends the edges of each form.
This creates a mystical union of all the figures/elements. Renaissance art treats each figure in isolation and they appear as discrete objects. Color contrasts, outlines, contours or hard edges contribute to this linearity. open form (not closed form) The figures in Baroque art seem projected out into the viewer’s space (so that the viewer becomes involved in the picture). unity rather than muliplicity Baroque art uses light (and other compositional elements) to create meaning instead of for its purely naturalistic effects or to reveal form.
The light sources often are not natural or there are multiple sources. The meaning often emphasizes what will happen in the moment after that depicted. tendency towards unclearness subject matter includes or shows grandiose visions ecstasies and conversions (religious) martydom and death (religious) ephemeral moments and the passage of time intense light powerful psychological renderings (outward emotions, intense contemplation) OVERALL: EXAMPLES: (Italian) Caravaggio, Bernini, (Spanish) El Greco, Velazquez, (Low Countries) Peter Paul Rubens, Rembrandt ARTISTS and IMAGES Italian Baroque
Spanish Baroque Baroque in the Low Countries French Baroque Italian Baroque Caravaggio The Conversion of St Paul Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome 1601 Caravaggio The Crucifixion of Saint Peter companion piece of The Conversion of Saint Paul Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome 1601 Caravaggio Calling of Saint MattewSan Luigi dei Francesi, Rome 1600 Caravaggio Death of the Virgin Louvre, Paris 1606 Artemisia Gentileschi Judith and Maidservant Institute of the Arts, Detroit 1625 Francesco Borromini San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane Rome 1665-1676 Gianlorenzo Bernini David Galleria Borghese, Rome 1623 Gianlorenzo Bernini
The Ecstasy of Saint Theresa Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome 1645-1652 Gianlorenzo Bernini Piazza and Colonnade Sculpture and architecture at saint Peter’s, Rome 89. Gianlorenzo Bernini Baldacchino at the crossing of the church over the tomb of Saint Peter Saint Peter’s, Rome Gianlorenzo Bernini Cathedra Petri The throne of Saint Peter Saint Peter’s, Rome Spanish Baroque El Greco The Burial of Count Orgaz Santo Tome, Toledo 1586 El Greco Portrait of Fray Hortensio Felix Paravicino Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 1609 Jose (Jusepe) de Ribera The Martyrdom of Saint Bartholomew Prado, Madrid 1639.
Diego Velazquez Los Borrachos (“The Drinkers”) Prado, Madrid 1628 Diego Velazquez Portrait of Juan Pareja Metropolitan Museum, New York 1650 Diego Velazquez Las Meninas (“The Maids in Waiting”) Prado, Madrid 1656 Baroque in the Low Countries Peter Paul Rubens The Elevation of the Cross Antwerp Cathedral 1610 Peter Paul Rubens The Abduction of the Daughters of Leucippus Alte Pinakothek, Munich 1617 Peter Paul Rubens The Arrival of Marie de’ Medici at Marseilles Louvre, Paris 1622-1625 Gerrit van Honthorst Supper Party Uffizi, Florence 1620 Jacob van Ruisdael View of Haarlem Royal Picture Gallery,
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