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In the 21st century there has been increasing use of the mobile applications to gather and retrieve data. The shift to digital libraries has greatly impacted the way people use physical libraries (Appelgate, 2008).
Catalogue is important thing in a library whenever its collection is growing too large. Its function is to remember the items available in a library. Its collection can be accessed through author, title, ISBN, call number and category.
With current status of Negros Oriental State University library catalogue system, catalogues are collected manually which has been time consuming, prone to human errors and data duplication, and acquires more paper works which would result to a need of a wider space to keep data.
This study focused on mobile catalogue application that applies the theory and definition to the practice of librarianship, specifically addressing how technology functionalities such as comments posting, and cataloging might intimate changes in how libraries provide access to their collections using catalogue.
Thus the researchers try to design, develop, test, and implement an Android Barcode Scanner for Library that would make the library more transparent through its functions and physical design.
In a world where digital media has quickly become leader in information systems, even old-fashioned libraries full of books and periodicals are quickly making the migration from library shelves across the world to database of collected catalogues. Theories on information system and cataloguing were utilized in realizing the integration of the present manual
cataloguing of the university library in to a mobile catalogue system.
Barcode is a series of parallel alternation black and white patterns that represents a sequence of numbers or characters. A barcode font is specially designed font that allows you to specify and generate barcodes on normal text characters and its extremely easy to use (Bhatia, 2012).
According to Bhatia (2012), through barcode based library management, manual circulation of resources completely eliminated. Each and every book is pasted with barcode labels and members are issued barcode enabled membership cards or ID.
These member cards have logo of the institute, Photo of the user, institute address, name and contact details of the user on the member’s library card. The librarian can take the print out of any of the above anytime during the session and any number of times.
The present study is anchored on modern descriptive cataloguing theory (Kumar, 1998) developed as a means of organizing information for retrieval in libraries. Library catalogues typically consist of a collection of bibliographic records that describe published materials, usually in the form of printed books but also including cartographic materials and manuscripts. The theory undertakes comparative study of two cataloguing codes: The Anglo American cataloguing rules (1967 and 1978) and Raganathan’s classified Catalogue code (1964). An attempt has been made to find out the basic differences and simulations in the approaches of the codes and to discover a synthesis between them. The other special feature of this study is the simplicity and the style of writing.
According to Helmer (1987), to pursue a general theory on cataloguing one must first define what is meant by “catalog” in the context of the library and information science. A catalog is a tool design to answer holdings questions about a library. It is a tool because it is a device constructed
to accomplish a task. That task is to answer the questions about the documents held in a diary.
Information Systems Theory In the realization of the present study, the researchers also defined the information Systems Theory (Bryce, 2009). According to Bryce (2009), Systems theory exists in different versions and is related to some other fields. We can mention General Systems Theory (GST), the Systems Approach, Cybernetics and Operational Analysis.
The model is consisting of six interrelated dimensions of Information System success: information, system and service quality; (intension to) use; user satisfaction; and benefits. Looking at its constructs and interrelations, the model can be interpreted as follows: a system can be evaluated in terms of information, system, and service quality; these characteristics affect subsequent use or intension to use and user satisfaction. Certain benefits will be achieved by using the system. The benefits will (positively or negatively) influence user satisfaction and the further use of the IS (Dwivedi, et. Al.2011)
The book authored by Dwivedy,et al (2011), provides a comprehensive understanding and coverage of the various theories and models used in IS research. Specifically, it aims to focus on the following key objectives: to describe the various theories and models applicable to studying IS/IT management issues. To outline and describe, for each of the various theories and models, independent and dependent constructs, reference discipline/originating area originating authors, seminal articles, level of analysis and links with other theories it also provides a critical review or meta-analysis of IS/IT management articles that have used a particular theory or model. It discusses how a theory can be used to better understanding how information systems can be effectively deployed in today’s digital world. The book contribute to our understanding of a number of theories and models. The theoretical contribution of the book is that it aanalyzes an synthesizes the relevant literature in order to enhance knowledge of IS theories an models from various perspectives.
Fortunately, there are only four easy, yet important, concepts to grasps. Regardless of the type of system, be it an irrigation system, a communications relay system, an information system, or whatever, all systems have three basic properties. A system has a purpose; system is a grouping of two or more components which are held together through some common and cohesive bond; and a system operates routinely and, as such, it is predictable in terms of how it works and what it will produce.sys all Systems embrace these simple properties. Without anyone of them, it is, by definition, not a system. Information is not synonymous with data. Data is the raw material needed to produce information. Data by itself is meaningless. It is simply a single element use to identify, describe or quantify an object use in a business, such as a product, an order, an employee, a purchase, a shipment, etc. systems are logical in nature and can be physically implemented in many different ways and a system is a product that can be engineered and manufactured like any other product.
Technology Acceptance Model Davis et al.(1989) state that ”practitioners and researchers require a better understanding or why people resist using computers in order to devise practical methods for evaluating systems, predicting how users will respond to them, and improving user acceptance by altering the nature of the systems and processes by which they are implemented”. Practitioners who design and implement systems and academics who study these systems will benefit from a better understanding of the mechanisms of user acceptance. Systems professionals can utilize this knowledge to design systems and implementation methodologies that users are more likely to accept.
Davis et al. (1989) developed the technology acceptance model (TAM) based on expectancy-value theory of reasoned action. Both these theories are found in psychology literature. The TAM uses two variables, perceived ease of use (PEOU), as determinants of user acceptance. A key element of the TAM is behavioral intent (BI) which leads to the desired action, use of system.
Cataloguing Theory (Kumar, 1998) and Information Systems Theory (Bryce, 2009), theorized the study of the Android NORSU Barcode Scanner for Library introduced through Technology Acceptance Model (Davis, 1989) defined as a theory that models how users come to accept and use a technology. The model suggests that when users are presented with a new technology, a number of factors influence their decision about how and when will they use it.
The development of NORSU Barcode Scanner for Library applies the theory on cataloguing by Kumar(1998) where collection of bibliographic records that describes published materials are arranged and stored in a database. The researchers collected bibliographic records found at the NORSU library. It is arranged through its classes which are determined by its categories. It is made accessible with the application of Information Systems theory a theory defined to determine the usability or efficiency of the system developed. The researchers determined the system usability or efficiency in terms of the goal of the study to lessen the time on searching for a catalogue of a book. With development of NORSU library catalogue students or library patron can search for catalogues anytime, anywhere at their convenient time through the presence of internet. The system is the reassessment of the traditional cataloguing system where there is no need of scanning for catalogues inside the catalogue shelves of the library.
The Development of NORSU library catalogue is introduced through the technology Acceptance Model of Davis et al. (1989). Through the model it is explained to the user how beneficial is the acceptance of the developed cataloguing system for the NORSU library. Users usually are influence by number of factors on the decision of the acceptance of the newer technology. The researchers come to define number of beneficial aspects that the developed system will offer. This includes faster and easier way of retrieving book or bibliographic information of a book through the search fields of the designed system.
Review of Related Literature
The review of the related literature and studies serves as a guide for the
researchers to pursue the proposed project. Found in this chapter, are the information gathered and the related system from the different sources that bears the significance of the study the related literature and studies are used in the development of the proposed Android Barcode Scanner for Library where the literatures are utilized for conceptualizing the usability of the system development.
Library catalogue is register of all bibliographic items found in a library or group of libraries, such as a network of libraries at several locations. A bibliographic item can be any information entity that is considered library material, or group of library materials, or linked from the catalog as far as it is relevant to the catalog and to the users or patrons of the library.
Library catalogs originated as manuscript lists, arranged by format or in a rough alphabetical arrangement by author. Printed catalogs, sometimes called dictionary catalogs, began to be published in the early modern period and enabled scholarsoutside a library to gain an idea of its contents (Radcliffe, 1955).
The card catalogue was familiar sight to library users for generations, but it has been effectively replaced by online public access catalog (OPAC). Some still refer to the online catalog as a “card catalog”. Some libraries with OPAC access still have card catalogs on site, but these are now strictly a secondary resource and are seldom updated. Many of the libraries that have their physical card catalog post a sign advising the last year that the card catalog was updated. Some libraries have eliminated their card catalog in favor of the OPAC for the purpose of saving space for other use, such as additional shelving.
A Library assigns a DDC an acronym for Dewey Decimal Classification number that unambiguously locates a particular volume within a short length of shelving which makes it easy to find any particular book and return it to its proper place on the library shelves (2011). The system is used in
200,000 libraries in at least 135 countries (2009).
The DDC, or Dewey Decimal System, is a proprietary library classification system created by Melvin Dewey in 1876. It has been revised and expanded through 23 major editions, the latest issued in 2011. Dewey was responsible all revisions until his death in1931. A designation number, such as Dewey 16 for the 16th edition, is given for each revision.
Cataloging, through such systems as the Dynix software(Dunsire & Pundir, 1991) developed in 1983 and used widely through the late 1990s, has geatly enhanced the usability of catalogs, thanks to the rise of MARC standards (Machine Readable Cataloging) in the 1960s(Coyle, 2011).
Rules Governing the creation of the MARC catalog records include not only formal cataloging rules such as AACR2(Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, Second Edition) but also rules specific to MARC, available from both the U.S. Library of Congress and OCLC, the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative which builds and maintains WorldCat. MARC was originally used to automate the creation of physical catalog cards, but its use evolved into direct access to the MARC computer files during the search process.
OPACs have enhanced usability over traditional card formats because: the online catalog does not need to be sorted statically; the user can choose author, title keyword. Or systematic order dynamically. Most online catalogs allow user links between several variants of an author’s name. The elimination of paper cards has made the information more accessible to many people with diabilities, such as the visually impared, wheelchair users, and those who suffer from mold allergies or other paper-or building-related problems.
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