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With the turn of the century, the American young republic entered upon an era of (1) expansion and development which can be described only as marvelous. The rapid progress in the settlement of the West, the influx of foreign immigration, the growth of the larger cities, extension of (2) transportation systems by construction of canals and government roads, application of the new inventions employing the power of steam in river navigation and on railroads, — these features (3) of American progress during the first fifty years in our first completed century of national existence can be here but thus briefly summarized.
It is unnecessary to attempt (4) a full historical outline of that period growth and change except to note that coincidentally with this expansive period of material prosperity and growth, our national literature entered upon what we may not inaptly term (5) its golden age – the age of its best essayists, novelists and poets, (6) our real American men of letters There were (7) evidences of literary activity in Boston, in Philadelphia, and in New York.
Little groups of literati, as they liked to call themselves, mightily interested in the development of a national literature, gave an atmosphere that was helpful to literary effort; and they themselves accomplished what could be accomplished by interest, (8) patriotism and industry when joined with talent, modest if not of only average standard. They are the (9) Knickerbockers writers, so called (10) in respect to the old Dutch traditions of Manhattan, the spirit of which was directly inherited by most of them, and the influence of which appeared to some extent in their work. a. evidences of b. in respect to the old Dutch traditions c.
Knickerbockers d. expansion and development e. a full historical outline of that period growth f. patriotism and industry g. transportation systems by construction of canals h. our real American men of letters i. of American progress during the first fifty years j. its golden age Question 2: Write down the literary periods of the American Literature in the answer box on the answer sheet. (2. 0 ms) PART B: STORY ANALYSIS (6. 0 pts) 1. From Franklin’s “Entrance into Philadelphia”, point out the facts that illustrate the kind of man he was.
2. Why was he a famous writer in the time? What kind of contributions – literature or politics or sociology – did he make to the young nation? Do you like his writing? Please explain why or why not? The End STUDENTS ARE ALLOWED TO USE ONLY PAPER DICTIONARY. TEST B Question 1: Complete the text with words or phrases provided (2. 0 pts) CHARACTERISTICS OF AMERICAN LITERATURE The United States has such a large and (1) varied literature. that we can make no true generalizations about it. But three characteristics seem (2) to stand out and give it a flavor all its own.
First, American literature reflects (3) beliefs and traditions that come from the nation’s frontier days. The pioneer ideals (4) of self-reliance and independence appear again and again in American writings. American authors have great respects for (5) the value and importance of individual They tend to reject authority and (6) to emphasize democracy and equality of men. Second, American writers have always had a strong tendency to (7) break with literary traditions and strike out in their own directions. Many writers have (8) rejected the old in order to create something new.
Third, a (9) lively streak of humor runs through American literature from the earliest times to the present. In many cases a dash of salty humor saves a serious theme from becoming too sentimental. American humor tends to be exaggerated rather than subtle.
It reflects the people’s ability (10) to laugh at themselves during the most difficult times. a. rejected the old b. the value and importance of individual c. to laugh at themselves d. to emphasize e. of self-reliance and independence f. break with literary traditions g. lively streak of humor h. to stand out and give it i. beliefs and traditions j. varied literature Question 2: Match the authors and their works or philosophy (2. 0 pts) AUTHORS 11. Benjamin Franklin/e.
12. Ralph Waldo Emerson/c. 13. Earnest Hemingway/b. 14. Washington Irving/ a. 15. Mark Twain/d. WORKS a. The Legend of Sleepy Hollow b. The Old Man and the Sea c. Transcendentalism d. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer e. The Autobiography PART B: LITERARY ANALYSIS (6. 0 pts) Read the poem “How Happy Is the Little Stone” by Emily Dickinson” below. Then answer the questions by writing a short composition How happy is the little stone That rambles in the road alone And doesn’t care about careers And exigencies never fears Whose coat of elemental brown A passing universe put on;
And independent as the sun, Associates or glows alone Fulfilling absolute decree In casual simplicity NOTE: exigencies: an urgent need or demand that you must deal with decree: rule or law casual: not formal Question 1: Analyze the poem to tell the author’s ideas embedded in it. Question 2: Have you ever wished to have such a happy life like the “little stone”? Why or why not? STUDENTS ARE ALLOWED TO USE ONLY PAPPER DICTIONARY.