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Aristotle calls political science the “Master Science” because he believes political science is above all other sciences. Political science lays down the law and manages it, while other sciences follow political science and, therefore, Aristotle continues and says the end of Political science is the end of all others. Dahl defines power as: “A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would not otherwise do”. Scope, number of respondents, and change in probability are three variables that help him break down and measure power.
Shively gives France as an example of the first “modern state” because of Napoleon, more specifically Napoleon’s civil code. Napoleon’s civil codes gave France it’s first set of laws making it a more centralized “territory” during the 18th century.
A life full of disagreement because in Thomas Hobbes’ theory of the state of nature man is very disagreeable and everyone is at war with one another.
No one is safe or happy and he then argues that man is happier to submit himself to a ruler regardless of the rules. Social contract is the idea that subjects of a state and the rulers enter into an agreement where the subjects give up some of their freedom in exchange for their safety and security. James Scott’s idea of “legibility” The distinction between sex and gender is that the term sex is used more in the sense of biology, were you born male or female.
While gender is constructed and identified as cultural attributes how and where you were raised and things learned along the way. Sex seemingly has one identity, while gender can be multiple identities learned and inherited as time goes on.
What is power? While it is believed that the definition of power is exact, in today’s society political scientists don’t believe it’s that simple. Power is a Thing that cannot be measured nor can it be defined, however, Dahl’s efforts in developing a formal definition of power- in which “A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would not otherwise do”- can be a practical way of looking at it. In Dahl’s “The Concept of Power” he explains not only the significance of him developing the formal definition and why it is useful for the study of political science, but how power can be measured and how it operates in the real world. Dahl’s definition of power is useful to the study of politics in the fact that it is a statement that includes all theories of power this far and if there is something to deduct from the reading it is that there is not just a single theory, but also a variety of theories within a limited scope. It is also useful in the fact that it allows us to make relations to further simplify what power is and how it can be measured.
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