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In the early 16th century the Protestant Reformation had happened and made the popularity of Catholicism to decline. In response to the Protestant Reformation the Catholic Reformation was issued to reestablish the power and popularity of Catholicism and the Roman Catholic church. The Catholic Reformation created new societies, while fixing problems of the Roman Catholic church. Through the Catholic Reformation
The main reasons for the Catholic Reformation was a response to Protestantism and a response to reform the Catholic Church. The Catholic Church was riddled with corruption and scandals such as simony(sale of church offices), absenteeism(priests not showing up to services), and the sale of indulgences(paying the church to absolve sins).
Many priests were illiterate and some abused their powers for absolution of sins To reform the structure of Catholic church Pope Paul III had established the Council of Trent which consisted of Catholic cardinals who were responsible for handling the reforms of the Catholic Church.
The Council of Trent is considered to be one of the Catholic Church’s most important councils.
The Council had 25 sessions from 1545-1563 that would address the issues of the Catholic church. The result of these 25 sessions were the validation of all 7 sacraments and the reaffirmation of Monasticism, celibacy of clergy Transubstantiation, and purgatory. Basically The Council of Trent fixed problems of Catholicism.
Another result from the Catholic Reformation is the religious order of the Jesuits (Society of Jesus). Founded in 1540 by St. Ignatious Loyala the Jesuits had 3 goals reform the church through education, spread the Gospel to the Pagans, and to fight Protestantism .
Jesuit schools were highly regarded as the finest schools for education in Europe. The Jesuits were organized in a military fashion following rules from Loyola’s guidebook Spiritual Exercises. The book would inform Jesuits how to have less attachment of physical items and informed Jesuits on how “to master the soul to manipulate the body”.
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