Ethical theories are used every day to make decisions and solve practical solutions. They determine what is right and what is wrong, and what is just and what is unjust (VÄYRYNEN, 2006). There are various theories and each of them emphasize different points which will require an induvial to take a different approach according to the theory that one believes in. To understand ethical decision making one must recognize that individuals have different. Thy are certain goals that decision-makers seek to achieve when deciding.
These goals include beneficence, justice, and respect for autonomy (Grčić, 1989). Deontological approach, ethics, and consequentialism are ethical theories that individuals put into action while deciding. It is what they believe is ethical and they are viewpoints that individuals use as guidance while deciding. In this essay, deontological approach, Ethics, and consequentialism will be discussed and explained.
Firstly, Deontological approach will be discussed and explained. Furthermore, ethics will be discussed and explained. Thirdly, Consequentialism will be discussed and explained. Lastly, the essay will be concluded by summarizing the main points of the essay.
The deontological approach is the set of ethics that individuals define what is morally right or wrong based on the actions performed themselves. Deontology is the science of duty. Deontology is characterized by a strong adherence to independent moral rules and duties (Piller,2009). When making just moral choices, one must have the knowledge of what those moral duties are and what regulations exist to control those duties. To be have morally as a deontologist, one must follow one’s duty.
Failure to follow one’s duty will be regarded as unjust and immoral. In deontology there is a code of ethics that determines duties, obligations, and rules. Ones morality will be defined by complying with the code of ethics, usually coming from a formal system (Howarth, 1995). Deontological moral systems focus on the reason why some actions are completed. Following the correct moral rules is not sufficient, one must have the right motivation performing those acts. A deontologist is not immoral if they have broken a moral code if the intention is complying to some correct moral duty. A correct motivation is not justifiable for actions in a deontological moral system. It will not be used as a basis for describing an act as moral. The duties must be objective and not subjectively determined. Bias decisions are eliminated in deontology. Moral principles in deontology are separated from the consequences of the principles. Deontology includes moral theories that highlight an individual’s rights and duties. Some examples of the Deontological act; A group of terrorists threaten to kill two hostages and he will only refrain if you kill a third person. In this situation, a deontologist will not kill the third person because killing is morally wrong (Liszka, 1999).
Ethics is the study or the difference between a good act and a bad act. It examines and further answers the question of what one should do. It is the study of human conduct in the light of moral principles. The moral principles may be self-created or obligations and duties that are expected from an individual by a certain society (Roth, 2005). It deals with the issues of decision making and the standards to which human action can be judged to be right or wrong. Ethics is required for life. It is our way of deciding a particular action. Without ethics our decisions will be arbitrary. Ethics is also defined as following one’s feelings. Ethics is not following ones feeling because ones feeling may equate to being wrong and immoral. Furthermore, ethics should not be identified with religion. Even though religion has a high ethical code, if ethics were limited to religion then only religious people would be ethical (Geulincx et al., 2006). Ethics applies proportionally to the atheist as much as it is applied to the religious person. Being ethical is also not following the law. The law consists of ethical standards that most people comply with. But the law can deviate to what is ethical. Laws that deviate from what is ethical such as the Apartheid laws and the Slavery laws justifies that laws can be unethical and manipulative. Ethics refers to the standards of right and wrong that suggest human action, regarding obligations, rights, fairness, benefits to society and virtues. It includes the standards that enforce the obligations to abstain from rape, murder, robbery, fraud, and slander.it includes the practice of virtues of honesty, loyalty, and compassion (Benn and Benn, 2012). Ethical standards consist of relating to rights, such as the right to freedom from injury, the right to privacy, and the right to life. Furthermore, it is the development of one’s ethical standards. One must examine their ethical standards to make sure they are logical and reasonable.
A consequentialism is an approach to ethics that argues that an action is moral due to the outcome of the consequences of the action. Therefore, an action is morally right if the consequence maximizes the good or one that produces a good outcome. The results of an action will be judged to be morally right or wrong according to the consequences (Suzumura and Xu, 2006). It emphasizes that what is right is will make the world better in the future. Consequentialism gives individuals guidance on how to live which is to make decisions that will maximize the greater good of everyone. Consequentialism has a plethora of controversies. Partiality: Consequentialism states that one must put the happiness of a stranger to your own happiness, A family member or a close friend. for example, Consequentialism may say it is morally right to abandon one’s children to improve millions of people.