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Tintoretto is a Venetian painter who was born Jacopo Robusti in Venice, Italy, 1518. His career as a painter lasted from the 1530s until his death in 1594, passing at the age of 75. Tintoretto was well known for his work during the Italian Baroque, Mannerism, and lastly Venetian school periods. Tintoretto’s career first began with commissions from authors, and churches before later moving to higher ranked patrons. Tintoretto was primarily a figure painter and was motivated in showing his figures in daring, expansive poses.
For example, in pieces like The last Supper or Miracle of the slave, Tintoretto delivers a different technique, whose style is similar to artists like Titian, or even Michelangelo. Tintoretto was born in the Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom, which back then was of the Republic of Venice. Tintoretto was the eldest of 21. At a tender age, Tintoretto had an intense passion for art and painting. His father Giovanni Battista Robusti, who was a Dyer, believed highly of his son’s artistic capabilities.
Because Tintoretto’s father was a dyer, many knew Tintoretto as a little dyer or dyer’s boy. As Tintoretto grew older, Giovanni, noticed more and more of Tintoretto’s passion for painting. Painting on walls, loose sheets, and old canvas, Giovanni decided to send him to Titan studio where he did an apprenticeship. Titan was a masterful artist. Crafting all kinds of pieces that were being commissioned all over Italy. Tintoretto decided to work even harder. He was always striving to become better than what he thought he was.
Even costing him his education with Titian, because the two fell out into a disagreement.Although getting kicked out of the top art school of that time, nothing stopped the little dyer. He began to strive for greatness. Experimenting, Tintoretto would often use his father’s materials from his dyer business to add color and life to his paintings. Educating himself, his days consist of devoting entirely to mastering difficult techniques such as foreshortening, perspective, correct anatomy, relative values, light, shadow, and relief. In his own workshop, his mistakes became his instructor. Eventually, his hard works encourage him to rule his own style and his own techniques. That alone was impressive because typically that was where most painters would stop.Tintoretto continued with his advancements as a painter and worked independently. By 1539, he was working professionally. The majority of Tintoretto’s work was oil painted. Tintoretto usually did large-scale paintings which landed him commissions with the church for altarpieces, paintings for civic buildings, and portraits of Venetian noblemen and statesmen. Tintoretto gently uses loose brushwork against opulent, glowing colors in his painting. His figures were always shown in motion. Tintoretto uses his compositions to make sense of opposing forces within the space of the frame or composition. He used a lot of different techniques to get the effect that he wants in framing. The technique Tintoretto used to prepared his work were small model stages, which he would set up with small wax or clay figures in order to arrange and observe the effects of light and shadow that would be in the painting. He then adds exaggerated poses and postures, associated with the style of Mannerism. Yet this style he took up really distinguishes him from other artists. Tintoretto use to sign JACOBUS on his artwork as the phrase “the drawing of Michelangelo and the color of Titian” was written on his wall in his workshop.He began to study color. Going in-depth, Tintoretto explored fashion. Focusing more on how the colors flow rather than the elite drawings themselves. This is one of the few influences of art and actually help motivate the expansion of Baroque art and its creative boundaries. This was what selective artists were found doing. Although Tintoretto didn’t start it, he did try to catch up to these selective artists like Titan, Vasari, and even Michelangelo, who were becoming native to the movement. As Tintoretto’s work started to get noticed more, he began to get even more commissions. Miracle of the Slave (1548) was his first completed work that was widely recognized. He became an “overnight sensation”. In this Oil on canvas, Tintoretto illustrates Jacobus da Varagine’s Golden legend, which was a collection of hagiographies or biography of a saint or ecclesiastical leader. Tintoretto utilizes arrested motion, delineating a Christian slave, who has been damned by his master to have both legs broken and his eyes pulled out for worshipping the remembrance of Saint Mark. As the slave’s owner is being held back onto the balcony, Saint Mark descends down from heaven to save the slave in the center. Tintoretto brings the main focus to the slave on the floor, as if we were in the middle of the painting and are experiencing exactly what the slave owners’ servants and works are experiencing. Tintoretto uses vivid colors, especially on the saints that come down to save the slave. Tintoretto painted Apollo and Marsyas which was finished in 1545 for Italian author Pietro Aretino, who noted the quickness of its execution and recommended the artist to the world. Writing about it to the wealthy and talking so highly of Tintoretto’s pieces. Although people noticed the replication of some of Titan’s styles and textures, Tintoretto’s color usage really separates the two as artists. Using bright, softer tones, Tintoretto displays his work with more meaning. Intensifying its excellence and attaching comfort with satisfaction. Between the years 1565 – 1587, Tintoretto began to paint a series of Fifty canvases, commissioned by the Scuola Grande di San Rocco, which was a confraternity that helped fight off the plague. In 1564, Tintoretto painted St. Roch in Glory, on oil on canvas. The painting displays Saint Rocco arriving in heaven. The painting has a bit of a reference to Michelangelo’s Creation of adam. God being carried in by his angels arriving in Rocco, the same way he id in the creation of adam. In addition, Tintoretto adds a golden look like the frame borders Saint Rocco. Reminding us of the Italian renaissance. Adding space for mobility, and animation to the detail of each character. Although this does hold some characteristics of gothic art, this painting has a mannerism type of style. Given the time period. The following year, Tintoretto painted The Crucifixion (1565). The painting is found beautifully hanged in the Sala dell’Albergo in the Scuola Grande di San Rocco in Venice. The painting was known for being one of the greatest pieces depicting passion. The entire canvas took up the whole wall, granting the viewer a chance to appreciate the detail in the canvas. The Crucifixion has a lot going on. Tintoretto adds detail from all angles. It wasn’t just Christ on the cross, it was also the two thieves that died with him. At Jesus’s feet, women are viewed laying out mournfully. A ladder leads us up to Jesus, where his head is centered and in front of the moon or sun. And although so much is wrong, Christ is still glorified. It’s like Tintoretto is giving us the idea that although this is a bad thing, it’s the ultimate sacrifice for our sins. Which kind of related back to the time period of which this painting was painted. Tintoretto painted this many years after the outbreak of the second plague. And although it did die down during this time, the plague was still a thing that people got sick from. Furthermore, when someone is sick (pending on religion), we usually seek a church for prayer and blessings. Which really made the location of this piece really important also. This piece is amazing. The audience even interacts with the piece. Christ’s head isn’t facing down in exhaustion, but looking down around him. Another thing that was quite interesting was how the thieves were depicted. They were being nailed down with Gimlet. A type of tool that is usually used by carpenters. It has a handle and you turn it to screw things in. And the fact that Tintoretto adds that to the piece, really shows how connected Tintoretto is to the outside world. Overall, the piece stands at 18.5 ft and is 13ft wide. Tintoretto’s Crucifixion (1565) is a very important piece in Venetian history. This Oil on canvas is a piece of the Venetian art movement. Complementing Proportions by Michelangelo yet defines Tintoretto for his soul dark style. As we continue more into the last of Tintoretto’s life, his final piece that was considered important is his 74 ft. by 30 painting. Rumored to be the largest painting ever done with oil on canvas, the painting is called Paradise. The painting is wondrous in scale. It’s alluring how Tintoretto composes a piece so colossal. The painting itself boasts the drift of its dynamism. Noted to ignore ordinary standards of conception, granting the painting to be flawless. The work on this painting publicizes his magical hand and his ability to work with shapes and colors. What makes Tintoretto influential during the Italian Renaissance was his style. Not only was his style compelling in his younger days, but only got better as he matured. Tintoretto is notorious for the coalesce of stylistic features. The artist uses lengthen forms that correspond to perspectives, displays zestful articulation to reveal energy visually, and lastly translated rough sketches while being able to make arrangements in his work using small wax figures. These methods of creating a painting are all characteristic of a lot of his early paintings like the Last Supper, Christ Washing the Feet of His Disciples, and especially the painting Miracle of St Mark Rescuing a Slave.Another commodity that made Tintoretto stand out as an artist was his ability to display his imagination. Tintoretto takes advantage of his skill by making it possible for viewers to sense the spiritual content. Being that was art and how most arts were being presented during this time and the high renaissance. Tintoretto’s work seemed to flow more or make more sense in the interest of his color usage and the creative techniques he also uses to motivate his art. Overall, Tintoretto’s goal was to rather create paintings that were not depictions of this world. Pulling the audience to the more spiritual or even the social aspect of stories of history, myths, and historical characters. Because there is no way of visualizing such a supernatural world, the painter relies a lot on his own imagination. For example, in the painting Saint George and the Dragon, Saint George is shown defeating the dragon, by the edge of the sea as the princess runs away in fear. We initially detect the figure of the princess as most dominant. In the center lies a corpse assuming the dragon was about to eat it, Saint George rushing to defeat the dragon, and finally the figure of God appearing in the sky. Just like the rest of Tintoretto’s painting, it has this dark, solely mystical omen. Yet, its complexity makes the painting more aesthetically pleasing. Using his imagination, Tintoretto depicts not only the saints and a dragon so well, but also adds in god. The choice of color puts further emphasis on the painting’s original scheme. The blue and rose colors are picked up in the draperies of the corpse and Saint George, and in pink and blue tints the cloudscape at the top, letting our eyes flow around the piece.Tintoretto, like other artists of this time, would stage a lot of their stories like theatre directors. Employing stage-like lighting with dramatic effects. Tintoretto became a master at perspectives and daring foreshortenings. Tintoretto’s goal at this was to distance his own representations from real life. Transforming religious scenes into enthralling scenarios. Although Tintoretto was great during his time period, influencing and motivating art to his assistance like his two sons Domenico and Marco Tintoretto. Today, Tintoretto is known as a modern artist for his motivation to break laws and encouraging art to be more controversial by its self-structured methods and stylish techniques. He is a reminder to young artists that they should also break the rules. Tintoretto has been breaking the rules so well, that most of his paintings could have been done today, stating he was ahead of his time.Tintoretto was a painter with a constantly evolving imagination. Because of Tintoretto’s countless yet influential art pieces, Tintoretto became one of the great faces of Venice. He was not only an exponent or contribution to the growth of Venice but also became one of the most notable artists of this time period to inaugurate his complex pictorial contributions to Venetian art. Tintoretto’s art was much discussed and highly appreciated in Venice centuries after his death. Artists like the late Roger de Piles, who was one of the great art critics of the Venetian painting 17th-century greatly appreciated Tintoretto’s work. Who glorified Tintoretto’s use of luministic idiom. Time transitions are even greater. And even though Tintoretto’s work was motivating and high praised during the 17-18 centuries, critics from the 19th century believed that Tintoretto’s art appeared excessive and too remote from its own sensibility. John Ruskin, a leading English art critic of the Victorian era Romantic enthusiasm inaugurated a new attitude toward the art of Tintoretto. Tintoretto was a huge influence on the Mannerist as well as the Baroque art period. Today, Tintoretto’s work can be seen all over the best art museums across the globe. Tintoretto, the industrious artist of a wild and fanatical art style has been dominating the following decades. Finally, Tintoretto died in Venice on May 31, 1594, still being one of the most influential artists Venice, and of all time.
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