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To define Total Quality Management (TQM) requirement, it is necessary to assess needs and define objectives. For these purposes, history and development again become crucial. Several researchers have tried to define the different dimensions that shape TQM to include analysis of commonalties, such as top management support, customer and supplier relationships and employee involvement (Jarrer, 2004). TQM implies an increase in quality with a decrease in costs and its impact on organizational profitability is clear.
The cost of losing clients as a consequence of non-conforming quality is just one of the factors in the cost equation.
A need exists for TQM models which can only be done by considering the history and development of a business (Adam, 2004). The models such as the business excellence model (BEM) and the other three major evaluative TQM award models, which are each based on a perceived definition and model of total quality management are applied by using self-assessment based evaluative frameworks which all focus on previous performance as their basis (Bauer, 2001).
These flows are defined as the dynamics of an organization. New studies have widened the idea of systems dynamics in organizations by simply referring to dynamic models of organizations which are characterized by having a time dimension and as being applicable to structures, processes or change initiatives within the organization and its environs. Thus, it is essential time dimension is missing from these models, giving a static or historic view of TQM in an organization (Besanko, 2005).
If an operational stance is taken and TQM is not used strategically, then emergent dynamic strategies are not discovered and cannot be speedily used to advantage.
Rather, strategies are reacted to in a passive stance (Harwick, 2006). Similarly many researchers point out that the BEM is the dominant quality model in the United Kingdom. This dominance leads to an unquestioning acceptance of these models as being wholly representative of TQM. Therefore, there is a danger that the strategic dynamics effects of TQM will be under represented, leading to simplified TQM efforts with reduced organizational effectiveness (Griffin, 2003).
Conclusion Companies will have to learn well from these experiences to be able to fair better. The value of the study is based on the need to understand the unique opportunities for business today via the liberalization or markets and industries. In the development of the essential strategies for competing effectively in today’s globalized retail markets, it can be concluded that several factors are essential to succeed, all of which rely on being able to properly asses history and development of the business, markets and industries.
Among them are extensive and relevant market research, responsive and sensitive marketing strategies, focus and creativity to execute plans and strategies, attentiveness changes in society and the social and political environment, flexibility to cope with critical situation effectively and efficiently. For example, in developing the system for communication, information or operations, the designers must first be able to identify the information needed and how it should be formed, presented or evaluated.
This is done by considering historical data and previous trends in performance to be able to define usage, needs and efficiency levels of previous systems. If the information that is being archived or database is not the information that is needed, then the system will not be to generate any relevant information. Information also needs to pass quality controls to ensure their fidelity or authenticity (Cisco, 2006). Similarly, for a company to be able to implement TQM principles for the new system there is a need to determine performance indicators and efficiency levels.
Otherwise, the business will not be able to judge cost-effectiveness of measure or be able to asses if there has been an impact on the organization in terms of an increase in revenue or output. In addition to historical and development data to peg operations, they also provide insights to the probable reaction of the market, industry and society to management actions. Chang (2003), points out that as much as business must be able to focus on the changing perspectives of businesses today, there should be equally valuation on the lessons that can be derived from experience.
Though some of these perspectives may not be as directly applicable in today’s business landscape, at the very least, it can provide a business insights regarding on what it has at its disposal in terms of competency or experience.
Adam, E. E. Jr. (2004) An International Study of Quality Improvement Approach and Firm Performance. International Journal of Operations & Production Management: 17(9), p842 Bauer, A. (2001) Organisational and Quality Systems Development. Journal of Total Quality Management: 11(4), p410 Besanko, D.(2005) The Multi-product Firm, Quality Choice and Regulation: Journal of Industrial Economics: 36(4), p41 Chang, H. (2003) Foreign Investment Regulation in Historical Perspective: Lessons for the Proposed WTO Investment Agreement. Retrieved on March 27, 2007 from: http://www. globalpolicy. org/socecon/ffd/2003/03historical. htm Cisco (2006). QoS Tool Chest: Understanding the Mechanisms Selecting MPLS VPN Services. Cisco Press. pp. 139-185. Griffin, A. (2003) The Voice of the Customer: Marketing Science: 12(1), p27 Harwick, B. T.(2006)
A Working Model to Help Institutionalise Quality Management in British Super Markets: International Journal of Business Administration: 19(10), p189 Jarrer, Y. (2004) TQM – Is it Enough? Journal of Total Quality Management: 10(4), p584 Leaning, Marcus (2005). The modal nature of ICT: Challenging historical interpretation of the social understanding and appropriation of ICT The Journal of Community Informatics Vol. 2 Issue 1. pp. 35-42 National Science and Engineering Research Center of Canada (2005). Audit of Common Information Management System CIMS) Development Project Management (Action Plans) Responses. Ontario: NSERC
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