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In the older marketing days, internal marketing entailed that the workforce of any organization will take a leading role in marketing the strength and opportunities of their organization from within. (Sasser & Arbeit, 1976). Lately, this concept understanding has been strengthened to mean that organizations staff who may or may not be necessarily be in the sales department taking an active step to market their organizations products and services. Similarly, as workforce delivery good services as is perceived by the public, they are engaging in internal marketing.
(De Bussy et al. , 2003) Whereas the best definition of the concept of internal marketing will vary from one ideologist to the next, it is the concept and philosophy that matters to the organizations in terms of tangible and intangible values that they stand to gain. The internal marketing concept will deliver this gain based on how it coordinates the human resources; markets the organizations; give expected customer satisfaction; and gives the organization a leading edge from a crowded market.
(Sincic, D. , & Vokic, N. P. , 2007, p. 4-13)
How the concept of internal marketing fits into holistic marketing approach There are various definitions of internal marketing. The definitions cover but are not limited to how internal marketing provides customer satisfaction to workforce and customers (MacStravic (1985 in Dunne & Barnes, 2000); how in motivates the employees on their realization of the job potentials (Gronroos ,1990 in Varey, 2001) ; how it enhances training in organizations so that employees are competent to meet market challenges( Varey, 2001, p. 217); how it sets stage by training for external marketing (Kotler , 2003, p.
23); and how it will stimulate organizational changes better positioning in the external competition. (Ballantyne et al. 1995 in Ballantyne, 2000) The role of internal marketing in the holistic marketing approach can also be reviewed from the roles and objectives it has in any forward looking organization. Internal marketing are undoubtedly the best foundation for any organization to launch and integrated marketing communication process. This view is supported by observation of how internal processed are efficiently handled and competently executed whenever workforce morale is boosted by any means.
(Arndt, 1979 in Varey & Lewis, 1999). Internal marketing has a modern role and objective of linking the staff and client efforts towards a marketing mix strategy. This process lays foundation for customer satisfaction as on one end the human resource is motivated while on the other end the customers are getting value for their money. (MacStravic, 1985 in Dunne & Barnes, 2000). Internal marketing philosophy helps to motivate the new customers to sample products on offer as an organization tries to penetrate a new market. (Ewing & Caruana, 1999, p. 18) Internal marketing has leading role in the workforce education and development so that they are able to project their activities at a corporate platform, to give the organization maximum returns. The process of workforce education and development will enable the organization to minimize internal conflicts that normally derail the productivity efforts and give negative image of the organization to the customers. (Varey, 2001, p. 212-221. ) The most recent benefits of internal marketing are abundant in aiding overall organization marketing process.
The clearest role of internal marketing is relationship building across the entire marketing stakeholder. This view is supported by Thompson and Hecker (2000) who observed that customer will normally look around for positive signs of organizational cohesion in order to gain motivation for purchasing the products or services on offer. Therefore recent studies have credited the philosophy of internal marketing for its strengths in advancing interdependency from the customer, organizations and workforce. (Gummesson, 2001; Sincic, 2005).
Internal marketing is the leverage for smooth value chain process that makes the shop floor workforces also claims their stake and role in customer satisfaction. Thus workforces get maximum gratification from the workforce and avoid the ‘part time’ or ‘seasonal’ attitude of under productivity that often impact on work quality and quantity. (Gummesson, 2001). Therefore, the latest concept of internal marketing calls for collaboration of functionalities so that the holistic marketing ideas and deployment approached are well coordinated with proper human resources strategy and by using an integrated communication mix.
(Varey, 2001, p. 222). Conclusion From the review of the marketing philosophy of internal marketing, certain aspects stand out in terms of its strengths and opportunities in marketing organizations. First, it lays foundations for how the organization will launch and external marketing strategy. Second, internal marketing is a direct function of the customer satisfaction process. Third, internal marketing propels internal staff training which will improve internal interpersonal communication that markets the organization effectively.
Fourth, internal marketing give workforce the confidence to make value adding decisions to the customers that also benefit the organization. Fifth, Internal marketing streamlines the management and workforce relations and make the organization be able to adopt latest marketing strategies with least resistance and maximum participations. Sixth, internals marketing give any organization an early competitive advantage before they start marketing externally. (Sincic, & Vokic, , 2007, pp. 1-13).
References Ballantyne, D.(2000), The strengths and weaknesses of internal marketing, in: Varey, R. J. , Lewis, B. R. (ed. ), Internal Marketing: Directions for Management, Routledge, London. De Bussy, N. M. , Ewing, M. T. , Pitt, L. F. (2003), Stakeholder theory and internal marketing communications: a framework for analyzing the influence of new media, Journal of marketing communications, 9(3): 147-161 Dunne, P. A. , Barnes, J. G. (2000), Internal Marketing – A relationships and value- creation view, in: Varey, R. J. , Lewis, B. R. (ed. ), Internal Marketing: Directions for Management, Routledge, London
Ewing, M. T. , Caruana, A. (1999), An internal marketing approach to public sector management, The International Journal of Public Sector Management, 12(1): 17-26. Gummesson, E. (2001), Total Relationship Marketing, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford Thomson, K. , Hecker, L. (2000), Value-adding communication: Innovation in employee communication and internal marketing, Journal of Communication Management, 5(1): 48-58 Kotler, P. (2003), Marketing Management, 11th ed. , Pearson education, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey p. 23 Sasser, W. E. , Arbeit, S.
P. (1976), Selling Jobs in the Service Sector, Business Horizons, 19(3): 61-65. Sincic, D. (2005), Proaktivni marketing na poslovnim trzistima (Proactive business- to-business marketing), doctoral dissertation, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Economics and Business, Zagreb Sincic, D. , & Vokic, N. P. , (2007). Integrating Internal Communication, Human Resource Management and Marketing Concepts into the new Internal Marketing Philosophy. Working Paper Series Paper No. 07-12. Faculty of Economics and Business University of Zagreb, Croatia. Pp. 1
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