“The environment is already alarmed: a number of hazardous substances are changing their composition, with possible catastrophic consequences.” This is according to an article composed by Dieter Schwab (2004 ). And this is likewise the reason global warming or more-correctly climate modification is a hot subject nowadays. Needles to state, the primary offender supposedly for the acceleration of this worldwide climate situation is the unstoppable growth of CO2 (Co2) emissions into the atmosphere.
Carbon dioxide which is primarily emitted by the existing polluting modes of public transportation is estimated to cause 60 percent of this warming phenomenon.
Each time a person utilizes a gas in his automobile, Carbon dioxide is launched. Whenever a person ends up being a traveler even just in tricycle transportation CO2 is created. (Tacio, H., Sun Star Davao, June 20, 2005). And it has actually been kept in mind that carbon dioxide emission is expected to triple in the next 20 years coming mainly from the transportation sector.
That’s why sustainable transport and clean energy usage are thought about key procedures that can assist reduce global warming as well as construct more environment resilient communities.
In New Delhi, India, a statement from the India’s popular engineer who pioneered India’s very first electric vehicle: “With the growing climate modification awareness, our world is at the tipping point for electric automobiles. Electric cars and trucks, as hired some other countries are the most recent innovation in innovation that is considered as the very best solution to the many concerns that the transportation makers are facing now-a-days.
(www. mb. com. ph). Aside from carbon emission that making highly industrialized and considerably developed countries like China and United States as the World’s most significant carbon emitter, transportation machines likewise deal with the problems of expensive usage of fuels and high cost of upkeep. (France-Presse, A., Sunday Times, 2009) In the Philippines, with the jeepneys as their popular mode of regional transportation plus the increasing variety of tricycles spreading in every corner of the streets, it is no doubt that they too are dealing with the very same problem when it comes to environmental problems.
That is why, with the launching of the electronic-powered jeepney in one of its city, every citizen were one of mind in encouraging the complete development and use of the said machine. (Yap, D. ,www. ewsinfo. inquire. net. ,2007) In addition, with the skyrocketing of the fuel’s prices, Makati Mayor Jojo Binay, as posted by the DJ Yap on the same site, believes that this electronic jeepney will help increase the income of transportation drivers by removing their expenditures for diesel. And with no more need of clutch and oil changes, maintenance and spare parts will be very minimal, thus giving drives the chance to increase their income.
Meanwhile, in Davao City, though it is far less polluted than other cities in the archipelago, still, air pollution from the increasing numbers of public and private transportations and as well as from the rapid growth of numbers of tricycles within the area, is still visible. With 234,379 carbon-emitting vehicles (www. lto. gov. ph) running on its highways and a lot more in its every streets, it is no wonder that Councilor Pilar Braga, Chairman of Energy and Transportation and Communication, as reported by Grace L. Plata, proposes the demonstration and public-test and use of e-jeepney in the city.
She cited that e-jeepney is a very viable solution and addition to cut carbon emission as well as help in lightening the load of our fellowmen by decreasing their expanses in gasoline and maintenance. On the other hand, with the advent of this new technology, it is of no surprise that there are still a lot of people of who are afraid to change the old ways of things. They may seem to be excited to try the news trends but they are still hesitant to completely adopt it, thus causing them to look for its flaws and weaknesses.
It is in this light that the researchers are prompted to conduct the study to assess the comparative advantage of using electric-powered tricycle to the traditional motorized –tricycle as public vehicle. In that way, people would be able to know which machine would likely be of great help in mitigating global climate issues as well as, aid in uplifting the standards of living of many of our countrymen whom, transportation driving is their main source of income. Statement of the Problem This study is purposely designed to study the comparative advantage of using e-tricycle to motorized-tricycle as a public vehicle..
1.) Specifically, it aims to determine the following: 1. 1. ) Maintenance cost of using E-tricycle and motorized tricycle. 1. 2. ) Determine the income of e-tricycle drivers as well as motorized tricycle drivers, and 1. 3 Determine the efficiency between e-tricycle and motorized-tricycle. Hypothesis (Null Hypothesis) There is no significant difference in the efficiency of an e-tricycle and a motorized tricycle tested and evaluated at 0. 05 level of significance. Review of Related Literature This section contains varied courses that were reviewed relevant to the research problem.
The literatures reviewed were books, magazines, journals, newspapers, in the internet sources on the electric-powered-jeepney and diesel-powered jeepney and its various outcomes when used. This part is a discussion about electric-powered jeepney and diesel-powered jeepney followed by different subject matters associated with the area of the study. The literatures are presented in order to present a workable background of study. Eelectric-cars “Electric cars produce zero localized emissions since they’re propelled by electric motors that run on batteries charged at home, or special electric vehicle charging stations.
Car manufacturers are actively developing a new generation of electric cars using technologies and lessons learned from electric vehicles developed in the 1990s. Electric cars are extremely efficient and run for pennies per mile, much cheaper than any other alternative fuel. ” (www. greencar. com) According to Al-Hallaj, head of renewable energy programs at the Illinois Institute of Technology that the only sustainable solutions for the auto industry are electric-based vehicles. (R. Popely, “Battery-powered car race is on”, www.archives. chicagotribune. com, 2008).
Most consumers at the present time preferred to use tools or equipments that are environmentally friendly due to the unmistakable effects of using traditional cars that causes global warming. “With growing climate change awareness, I think we’re at the tipping point for electric cars,” said the engineer who pioneered India’s first electric car and the man behind Reva Electric Car Company, Chetan Mini during the interview by an AFP to the Manila Bulletin in New Delhi, India.
He added; “Driving across the continent on the sun’s energy made me think how we could use alternative energy to power cars in the Indian context. When I saw how our cities were getting polluted, I realized employing clean, alternative energy could make a lot of sense — we needed to develop this kind of “The real trigger that started serious development of electric cars by the major automotive manufacturers was the sales mandate issued in 1990 by the California Air Resources Board (CARB).
This required that by 1998, 2 per cent of light duty vehicle sales of each automotive company selling more than 35,000 vehicles per year in California, must be zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs). (Michael H. Westbrook,“Electric Car: Development and future battery, hybrid and fuel-cell cars”,www. books. google. com. ph, 2009). “The electric-powered “Trikebayan” does not emit any noise or carbon monoxide, providing a breather from the incessant whine of gasoline-powered motorcycle engines and the poisonous gases that come out of their exhaust pipe, enveloping the air in an unhealthy haze. ” (Andrade, J. , “Finally, a tricycle we could all love”. www. newsinfo. inquirer. net,2008).
“With only eight hours of charging, the e-tricycle can run up to 120 kilometers costing only P38. ” said Sean Gerard Villoria, chief executive officer and president of Electric Vehicle Solutions on a report to Daily Inquirer . (Morelos, M. , “Taguig shifts to electric jeeps”,www. newsinfo. inquirer. net. ,2008). Motorized-car “Diesel fuel is principally a blend of petroleum-derived compounds called middle distillates (heavier than gasoline but lighter than lube oil) and may or may not contain additional additives. Other middle distillates include kerosene and No. 2 Heating Oil.
Diesel fuel is designed to operate in a diesel engine where it is injected into the compressed, high-temperature air in the combustion chamber and ignites spontaneously. This differs from gasoline, which is ignited in a gasoline engine by the spark plugs. (www. exxon. com, 2009). Maintenance Cost “There’s no maintenance involved when using the e-car. No change oil, for instance. The batteries have an average life span of two to three years. Changing batteries would around P50, 000. ” A statement from Karl Magsuci, a business planning and development manager for EVonnovations, Inc.
(R. Camongol, 2007, www. inquirer. net) Though e-car and e-jeepney hold opposing views with their physical features but still both are using batteries and therefore, they are similar when it comes to ways of maintaining its engines. “Lead acid batteries have what is referred to as memory. This is very inconvenient phenomenon whereby if you re-charge the batteries before they are fully discharged, over time, the batteries will remember that the point and this will actually reduce the amount of electricity that can be stored in the battery.
If you charge your batteries for only a few hours, the batteries will be greatly effected by the memory issue and will rapidly decline in overall output. ”(Didik, F,”Questions and answers regarding electric vehicles”,www. electriccarsociety. com, 2005). “This type of car seems to be any environment concerned driver’s dream. Using one or two motors for propulsion, therefore converting fuel into electricity, they are the less polluting type of vehicles at the moment. That’s not all.
If you’re a speed addicted, you will surely appreciate its second major advantage: it can launch from standstill with maximum force, where do you add that, from a mechanically point of view, is much easier to get it repaired. ”(“Diesel vs Electric vs Hybrid Cars”,www. articlesbase. com. ,2009). “From a financial point of view, a diesel car, running on something like filtered, used vegetable oil, such as the discarded oil from restaurants, might be a better solution, however, the effort in doing the conversion and in acquiring the used oil might not be worth the effort.
” (Didik, F,”Questions and answers regarding electric vehicles”,www. electriccarsociety. com, 2005). Energy Efficiency “An electric motor has what is known as continuous torque and therefore has almost the same horsepower at any speed, though an electric motor is more efficient at high rotational speeds. For this reason, an electric car normally has better acceleration from standstill of then the acceleration of a gasoline powered car. ” A statement taken from the site of Frank Didik, a car designer from Electric Car Society. (www. electriccarsociety. com).
“Diesel fuel is inherently unstable, solids begin to form and the accumulating tank sludge will eventually clog your diesel fuel filters, ruin your injectors and cause diesel engines to smoke. The solids that form as the result of the inherent instability of the diesel fuel and the debris formed in the natural process of fuel degradation will accumulate in the bottom of your fuel tank. The sludge will form a coating or bio-film on the walls and baffles of the fuel tank, plug your fuel filters, adversely impact combustion efficiency, produce dark smoke from the exhaust, and impact performance.
Eventually fouled diesel fuel will clog fuel lines and ruin your equipment. ”(“Most Diesel Engine Failures Originate In The Fuel Tank”,www. diesel-fuel. com. ,2007). “The range of most electric cars is about 100 miles, or about one-third that of gasoline cars, and it requires three to ten hours to recharge them. Some car batteries, like nickel-metal hydride batteries, can give cars range of 300 miles on a single charge-even farther than many gasoline-driven cars-but they don’t provide rapid acceleration. (Michael H. Westbrook,“Electric Car: Development and future battery, hybrid and fuel-cell cars”,www. books.google. com. ph, 2009).
Theoretical/Conceptual Framework The environmental idea is anchored from the book of Anderson, J. and Anderson, C. (2005) entitled “Electric and Hybrid cars: a history” (books. google. com. ph) which affirms that the technology that is being created today points to solutions that will allow automobile manufacturers to produce an environmentally friendly electric vehicle that is better than the conventional technology currently used in the internal combustion engine, and at a competitive price. On this framework, the researchers consider three inputs and two outputs as the basis of the study.
The inputs are the electricity, gasoline and the maintenance cost, and the outputs are the income of the drivers and the kilometers per hour driven. Figure 1. Conceptual Framework of the Study Significance of the Study Though e-tricycles face great deal of uncertainties from the traditional motorized tricycle, they may still be the solution for the global warming in the field of transportation in the community. Tricycles today dominate in a small barrios in the city, especially in rural areas and in some universities in the country.
This is an environmental apprehension and calls for the adaptation of the technological revolution in the city. Also, this green technology that will be developed will ensure clean and environmentally friendly effects than to existing motorized tricycle. The study is specifically significant to the following: The findings of the study will be beneficial to the following: Department of Science and Technology. The result of this study could help the agency to determine the degree of consciousness of the community about the new technology.
Department of Environment and Natural Resources. The study will help the agency by giving them collective figures about the number of motorized-tricycle users who used different non-renewable source of energy to support the United Nations’ “Clean Development Mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol. ” Community. The outcome of this study will give information regarding the effect of using motorized-tricycle as well as e-tricycle. Definition of Terms Protocol . This term refers to a memorandum on record of an agreement, especially one reached in international negotiations. Kyoto Protocol.
This term linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate (UNFCCC) strengthens the international response to climate change. It was negotiated in 1997 and binds a group of 37 industrialized countries to greenhouse gas emissions reduction of 5% by 2012 (compared to 1990 levels). Diesel Fuel. This term refers to a blend of petroleum-derived compounds called middle distillates (heavier than gasoline but lighter than lube oil) and may or not contain additional additives.