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It is a strategic planning technique to help person to or organization to identify strength , weakness, opportunities ,threats related to business competition or project planning.
Used as a tool for evaluation of strategic position pf organization
You need only one or two hours to make SWOT analysis
The overall aim is to avoid seeking goals that are unrealistic, unprofitable, or unachievable.
An enterprise SWOT analysis usually begins with these questions: • What are our strengths, and how can we use them to achieve our business goals? • What are our weaknesses, and how can we reduce or eliminate them? • What are our opportunities, and how do we plan to take advantage of them? • What are our threats, and how can we assess, manage, and respond to the possible risks?
Strengths :are things that your organization does it well and distinguishes you from other organizations .
think about the advantages your organization has over other organizations
Weakness: are negative factors, these are things that you might need to improve and your competitors do better than you
Example: resource limitations
Things that are going outside your company
Opportunities: are chances for something positive to happen .
require an eye to what might happen in the future .think about good opportunities you can spot immediately
Example: prices of material
Threats: include anything that can negatively effect on your business from the outside ,you may want to consider putting in place contingency plans for avoid them if they occur .
The following is an example of SWOT analysis conducted by a business trying to decide if they should introduce a new product to their range
During system analysis phase ,interview is an important fact-finding tool. Interview is a meeting which analyst ask and bring information from other person . The skills needed to plan, conduct, document, and evaluate interviews successfully must be understood. Some interviews is unsuccessful because of some reasons such as misunderstanding or one person may be afraid that this will have negative effect on his position. In this case supervisor will ask another one to make interview or choose another way to bring the needed information.
-To make successful interview After identifying information needed , there is a seven steps called interviewing process:
Analyst must select right persons to interview and ask them right questions . during the systems analysis phase, people from all levels of the organization should be interviewed.in some cases interviewer should make an interview with stack-holders that are not members from the organization, their opinions are important. Interview candidates should be selected from formal and informal structures from the organization , because in an informal structure people have more influence . group interviews have advantages such as saving time and disadvantages such as one person answer questions are addressed specifically to others.
At first interviews usually are general. As the factfinding process continues, however, the interviews focus more on certain topics.
Interview should bs short as possible though long interview is needed in some situations because time is important to employees and managers.
To know objectives of the session:
First: analyst determine the general areas that will be discussed.
Second: make a list of facts to be gathered.
The objectives of the interview depend on the role of interviewee.
EXAMPLE: manager help analyst to understand the system whole-people who actually work with the system on a daily basis help analyst to understand Specific details about operations .
By setting specific objectives, the analyst decide what questions to ask and how to phrase them.
the interviewer make a list of questions to avoid unnecessary tangents . if there are people perform the same job ,this list allow interviewer to compare their answers .in some situations interviewer decide to depart from question list ,because some answers lead to another questions that may lead to revised set of questions. If some questions proves its important, interviewer might return to interviewee to answer him on his topic.
The interview should consist of several different kinds of questions:
Open-ended questions: these questions answered by spontaneous answers.to know about larger process or bring more suggestions and opinions .
EXAMPLE: Why do you perform the task that way?
Closed-ended questions: these are limited questions .interviewer used it when more specific information was needed.
EXAMPLE: How many hours of training does a clerk receive?
Range-of-response questions: these are closed-ended questions answered by specific answers or numerical answers to evaluate specific something.
EXAMPLE: How would you rate the severity of the problem: low, medium, or high?
After knowing the objectives and preparing the questions ,interviewer should prepare for the interview. Careful preparing is important . interviewer should suggest a day and time for the interview , if interviewee is busy due to business force ,interviewer should schedule another appointment . The interviewee should know how long is the meeting ( and the meeting should be short as possible ) because time is important. Interviewer remind the interviewee the day before the meeting by e-mail. Department managers have to know about appointments with their staff , so interviewer should send a message to department managers to let them know. Interviewer should send the list of questions to interviewee by some days before the meeting to prepare the answers.
First: describe interviewee about objectives of the meeting as an introduction.
Second: ask questions they are prepared before, and give interviewee suitable time to answer maximum is usually three to five seconds then one person begin talking ,analyst’s responsibility is to listen to all answers carefully . in some cases some answers lead to another questions. other person will give more complete answer if he feels comfortable . to be successful analyst should practice skills in many interview situations.,
Third: after finishing questions , analyst ask interviewee that he want any additional topics?.
Fourth: analyst begin to understand session and summarize main points.
In the interview, interviewer should write notes to remember main points , but he should not write all what interviewee had said. interviewer also should set a time after meeting to record information quickly so it will not be forgotten so interviewer should not set a back-to-back meetings. Interviewer can use portable recorder during the meeting if he had permission from interviewee to use it after describing its use to him and tell him that after recorded information after meeting ,this record will be deleted. If interviewee want to answer question and not be recorded , interviewer should stop recording. Interviewer also can use information management software that can record meeting and save the result and make searchable file for essay access. If meeting does not recorded , in second visit interviewer may ask interviewee the questions that have missed. Every interview need twice of time , because interviewer listen and documented interview after the meeting . after the interview the record should be sent to the interviewee. And interviewer should thank interviewee for his time.
you should identify biases. Interviewee may do not give complete answer for some reasons. or some people with no enough experience to give accurate information answer questions in order to be helpful .
Physical model for new information system that follows from the logical model and does operational tasks and techniques. is created in system design phase in SDLC . physical model help for seeing how system needs are made. Structured analysis tools used to put physical model and logical model for information system.
It helps in understanding the current system and making a clear picture about it.
Analysts make this process. This process means that analysts will develop four models which is physical model for current system, physical model for new system, logical model for current system, logical model for the new system.
All functions are made early without aby improvements and that is good thing because mistakes are made earlier in system development and that has negative effect on SDLC later such that might have more cost. Without efforts made by analysts in making extra steps , they do not avoid mistakes and not be well. In other hand, the new system requirements is like current system requirements when suggestion is released to new computer technology rather than using large number of new system requirements which mean that the process of similarity of current logical model and new logical model , is a direct process.
The bad point in four-model approach is that many projects has time table which does not let them to put current system(physical and logical models) at all because that should need more time and cost. The analyst should be sure that managers and users careful to write down the current system in development process , because that may be lead to problems later and let managers and users to make good development in new system.
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