Research Related To Type 2 Diabetes


According to The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), almost 100 million Americans are living with diabetes and more commonly pre-diabetes. The disease has been linked as the seventh leading cause of death in the United States (American Diabetes Association, 2017). Further, the American Diabetes Association exhibits that type two diabetes remains a poignant issue globally and, more particularly, in the US. It is worth noting that type 2 diabetes is the most common type prevalent, and approximately 90% of the populations suffering from diabetes have this disorder (Clement, Harvey, Rabi, Roscoe, & Sherifali, 2013).

Diabetes diagnosis suggests that the disease occurs mainly when the blood glucose is too high due to the failure of the body to manufacture enough insulin for glucose control. Reports from the CDC indicate that the majority of the populations susceptible to this type of diabetes are middle age and older adults ranging from 45 to older (Clement et al., 2013).

Egginton et al. (2012) indicate that adults aged between 40-59 years exhibit the world’s most considerable diabetes rates.

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However, current reports suggest that even kids at the age of 19 are developing the disorder commonly due to risk factors like obesity and uncontrolled lifestyles (American Diabetes Association, 2017). At the same time, CDC reports show that the disease is more common in various diverse American populations and has been linked to occur mostly in men than women due to differences in energy capacities (Egginton et al., 2012). These facts illuminate that compared to the non-Hispanic white adults in the US, Asian Americans have a 9% risk of diabetes, Non-Hispanic Blacks have 13.

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2 %, and the Hispanics have a 12.8% risk to acquire the disease (American Diabetes Association, 2017). The same reports also indicate that American Indian adults register the highest rate of type 2 diabetes disorder. Research suggests that symptoms for this illness may develop and stay unnoticed for a long time since most of the time, the signs are hard to spot (American Diabetes Association, 2017). The side effects of the disease include heart disease, stroke, mental health complications, and kidney diseases.

Case Management Programs for Type 2 Diabetes

Drincic, Pfeffer, Luo, & Goldner (2017) indicate that medical systems have proven to be insufficient in meeting the needs of people living with type 2 diabetes. More so, claims have raised due to a lack of proper education strategies to aid these individuals in managing their diabetic situations (Drincic et al., 2017). An apparent explanation of this situation lies indicates that too many of these victims are exposed to acute care, which is usually not suitable to address the complexity of the needs of the same people. Clement et al. (2013) note that these implications do not underscore the role of the primary care systems. Rather, they mention that chronic diseases such as type 2 require a hell lot of comorbid conditions that often tend to strain these systems. In light of this, studies have unleashed the probability of prevailing efficiency of case management programs that many have attested to their effectiveness (Clement et al., 2013). Case management plans come in handy with several advantages that even the CDC has approved their efficacy in assisting the people with diabetes in coping up. For instance, patients involved in these programs have shown better glycemic control improvements, while many of them are more involved in screening procedures for the disease (Egginton et al., 2012). The programs also rely on scientific evidence, which renders these services ample for active recovery for patients.

Potential Benefits Arising from Case Management Programs

According to the National Diabetes Statistics Report, the overall costs of treating diabetes in 2017 amounted to $327 billion, which was a 26% acceleration from the past years. This is a clear depiction that primary care treatments are costly; therefore, a need to incorporate other financial-efficient procedures as the case management plans prevail (American Diabetes Association, 2017). Over the years, the CDC has approved the effectiveness of case management programs and, more importantly, in terms of economic significance (Versnel, Welschen, Baan, Nijpels & Schellevis, 2011). Care management programs assist patients in accessing better care, which reduces the risk of comorbid episodes attributable to heavy financial burdens. A recent study confirms the hefty charges associated with medical costs for type 2 diabetes, where estimates indicate that men spend $106000 and women $110000 for treatment (Versnel et al., 2011).

Additionally, Egginton et al. (2012) note that care management plans have availed patients with quality care where they can effectively manage their diabetic lives. According to the CDC, care management involves better-structured care, which is generally founded on scientific knowledge and evidence (Egginton et al., 2012). Further, it has been revealed that this type of care is adjusted to the patients’ priorities and needs; improved quality care is prevalent (Drincic et al., 2017). For instance, studies indicate that participating in these plans have shown more agility in responding to skin monitoring lesions as well as improved glycemic controls. More so, these patients respond well to screening programs for diabetic retinopathy, which has been associated with blindness (American Diabetes Association, 2017). At the same time, care managed programs have assisted patients in overcoming rampant cases of social disruptions on behavioral, emotional factors, and psychological aspects that affect them (Versnel et al., 2011). The application of evidence-based guidelines and patient-centered mental care from these programs provides respectful and responsive attention to diabetic patients.

Why Nurses Should Coordinate the Care Plan

Powell, Engberg & Siminerio (2018) illuminate evidence of chances that nurse practitioners are associated with improved patient outcomes, especially on type 2 diabetes in most primary care services. Evidence shows that their ability to initiate change and adjust medications without acquiring directives from physicians demonstrate and the epitome of willingness to better patient care (Powell, Engberg & Siminerio, 2018). Studies have also indicated their capacity to embrace alternative methods for patient care, which has been attributed to accelerating the quality of care available for people with diabetes (PWD) and decreasing the associated costs. Richardson, Derouin, Vorderstrasse, Hipkens & Thompson, (2014) have also explored that nurse-guided patient care affects depression and improves self-efficacy in diabetic patients thereby, illuminating the need for caregivers to coordinate such care programs. More so, according to the Institute of Medicine report of 2010 on the future of nursing, nurses should take part in redesigning the healthcare system for better and quality care (Richardson et al., 2014). Also, nurse-led case management plans have been linked to providing insights on clinical strategy for poorly controlled diabetes cases. In light of this, involvement in the best projects that integrate resources for improved care is essential as it is their priority.

Other Team Members Who should be Included

McGill et al. (2017) note that according to a report on the global perspective on effective management of diabetes disorders, inter-professional collaboration is a recommendation commonly referred to as an interdisciplinary team (IDT). Among the professionals included in care management plans include, dieticians who help people with diabetes manage their dietaries to ensure blood sugar is normally regulated (McGill et al., 2017). Additionally, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Kidney Diseases, nephrologists in the team are paramount since kidney infection is among the risks associated with type 2 diabetes (American Diabetes Association, 2017). Often, doctors assist in such a treatment in the early stages of the disorder; however, long-term patients require more expertise care from nephrologists. At the same time, physical trainers and exercise physiologists are essential in assisting patients to maintain healthy and flexible bodies by maintaining a healthy weight. More so, the integration of resources from eye doctors helps in the screening of eyes to detect diabetic retinopathy that may result in blindness (McGill et al., 2017). More importantly, the inclusion of mental health professionals with a particular interest in diabetes will assist patients with psychological and emotional problems, which may result in depressions (American Diabetes Association, 2017). At the same time, diabetic physicians are essential to provide a diagnosis of medications alongside pharmacists who avail such medicines to the patients. Interdisciplinary collaboration among these professionals improves the efficacy of the case management strategies and ensures improved and affordable quality care.


Type 2 diabetes is a disorder that claims almost 1-.5 million people globally every year. The disease is the most common type of diabetes whose symptoms are invisible until the late stages of the illness. While affecting the ethnic populations majorly in America and, more specifically, males, the disease has been attributed to several risk factors such as cardiovascular complications, mental illnesses, kidney disease, and blindness. Primary care attempts to assist patients in dealing with this type of trauma have proved to be costly to both patients and the government. Therefore, more appropriate alternatives have been considered, such as case management plans. The program has proved to be efficient in terms of financial costs, improved quality care, and less social disruptions through its reliance on scientific evidence-based practice. In this light, the inclusion of caregivers and interdisciplinary collaboration in these care programs is necessary for better patient outcomes. Team cooperation ensures the integrated resources are tailored towards the achievement of a common goal, usually improved quality and affordable care for type 2 diabetics.


American Diabetes Association. (2017). 4. Lifestyle management. Diabetes Care, 40(Supplement 1), S33-S43.
Clement, M., Harvey, B., Rabi, D. M., Roscoe, R. S., & Sherifali, D. (2013). Organization of diabetes care. Canadian Journal of diabetes, 37, S20-S25.
Drincic, A., Pfeffer, E., Luo, J., & Goldner, W. S. (2017). The effect of diabetes case management and Diabetes Resource Nurse program on readmissions of patients with diabetes mellitus. Journal of clinical & translational endocrinology, 8, 29-34.
Egginton, J. S., Ridgeway, J. L., Shah, N. D., Balasubramaniam, S., Emmanuel, J. R., Prokop, L. J., … & Murad, M. H. (2012). Care management for Type 2 diabetes in the United States: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC health services research, 12(1), 72.
McGill, M., Blonde, L., Chan, J. C., Khunti, K., Lavalle, F. J., & Bailey, C. J. (2017). The interdisciplinary team in type 2 diabetes management: Challenges and best practice solutions from real-world scenarios. Journal of clinical & translational endocrinology, 7, 21-27.
Powell, E. L., Engberg, S., & Siminerio, L. (2018). Nurse practitioner implementation of a glycemic management protocol. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 14(4), e81-e84.
Richardson, G. C., Derouin, A. L., Vorderstrasse, A. A., Hipkens, J., & Thompson, J. A. (2014). Nurse practitioner management of type 2 diabetes. The Permanente Journal, 18(2), e134.
Versnel, N., Welschen, L. M., Baan, C. A., Nijpels, G., & Schellevis, F. G. (2011). The effectiveness of case management for comorbid diabetes type 2 patients; the CasCo study. Design of a randomized controlled trial. BMC family practice, 12(1), 68.

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Research Related To Type 2 Diabetes. (2022, Apr 29). Retrieved from

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