What are the impacts of hosting an Olympic games In recent years, the Olympic games have developed as a one biggest and influential social ceremony in the whole world. Every four years, the increasingly rise number of cities Join the competition for host the Olympic, and both countries and cities spend much more funds to investment in Olympic bids indicate. Leads from different countries realize that hosting a worldwide event like Olympic games can bring great deal of benefits for economic and social aspects of a city or region.
ICE, 2004) As a Chinese, I witness the successful 2008 Beijing Olympic games and those incredible itty building for this huge event. When Beijing win the bid of hosting 2008 Olympic, citizens in the entire country got excited because they think that host the Olympic is Olympic impact local economic By Kristin-Axing clean and better. However, dose Olympic really has such magic power that can always bring positive impact to the hosing city, and how much impacts can it contribute to? In this research essay, I am going to analyze the impact, which brought by Olympic, for both benefits and weakness in two parts, economic and society.
According to doctors Mammals, Theodore and Hooligan (2004), a significant reason for city and country to decide whether worthy to host an Olympic event is the potentially positive economic impact for the region. Even though some people think that most incomes are from ticket sales, television right and donation from International Olympic Committee, it actually is very slight contribution for local economic.
Research shows that the biggest incomes from this huge event are tourism and potential investment in the region. (Essex & Chalky, 1998). Firstly, Olympic is such a precious opportunity for both, corporations and countries.
Companies spend million dollars for commercial and sponsorships on Olympic cause they know it benefit for their brands’ popularity. Companies got so many benefits from an Olympic including: “comprise exclusive marketing rights, the right to use official Olympic imagery on their products, preferential access to Olympic broadcast advertising, ambush marketing advertising protection, on site monopolies and ‘hospitality opportunities’ at Olympic events. ” (Phillips, 2000, up. L). More commercial feedback can companies got, more money can they investigate, and more money can the hosting country has.
For example, during the 2000 Sydney Olympic Ames, Mark Faille, Australia’s Minister for Trade, told the media that the Games had produced a “gold rush” for Australia that would attract $1 billion in new investment. (Phillips, 2000, up. 2) Furthermore, beside of investment, tourism has become the most enormous income source. With the international publicity, the world gradually knows the image of the hosing country, and more and more visitor see the hosting city as tourism destination no matter during the event or after the Olympic.
Visitors spend money for hotel, shopping, ticket, transportation, and so on. It not only helps aorist industry, but also brings local economic development and consumption increasingly. For example, according to Jill Haynes’ (2005) report, “during 1997 to 2004 an extra 1. 6 million international visitors are expected to come to Australia because of the 2000 Sydney Olympic, and it bought an additional $6. 1 billion in tourism earnings. “(up. 5) Similarly, in 1996, two million people had visited Atlanta and 3. Billion people watched the city on TV during 17 days, and as consequence, the entire country’s tourist industry raised dramatically. (Stevens & Bean, 1999) On the contrary, hosing an Olympic not always brings benefits for local economies, many Olympic didn’t bring any extra income, and even can put countries into economic crisis. The first problem is over-indebtedness. Building new international level Olympic stadiums and improving city’s equipment are the basic requirements for hosting place. So the country which want to host an impressive and successful Olympic must spend too much debt.
What if countries have the problems about unexpected investment, wrong budget plans and slow tickets sale? Obviously, the local government would never stop the project because of lack of money, so the only ever and over again. According to Essex and Chalklike (1998) research, 1998 winter Olympic games’ hosting city, Angina, faced several financial consequences for hosting such a big event and taxpayers suffered debts of up $20000 per household to balance the city’s books. Even more, as we know Greece is suffering financial crisis, and the one of biggest debt was from 2004 Olympic games. Verne&Bosco&Lobo, 2009) The impact of Olympic is much more than Just in economic, and besides it also can change the society and political in a certain extent. There are two majority benefits, which are unemployment issue and urban development that contain physical environment and sports cultural development. Firstly, focusing on the issue of Job creation, there is no doubt that a huge event like Olympic always creates large number of Jobs, not only those directly related with the instructions of the ceremony, such as stadiums’ worker, city builders, service in Olympic village and all stadiums.
It also created Job opportunities in the tourism and retail industry because of the increasingly rise number of visitors, and in the construction industry. More investment the Olympic bring, more workers the hosting country need. As examples, in 1996, the host city Atlanta brought $2 billion investment from Olympic-related project, and it resulted over 580000 new Jobs were created in the region. (Steven & Bean, 1999). The general rate of unemployment fell from 18. 4% to 9. 6% in Barcelona Olympic. (Brunet, 1995) Secondly, hosting an Olympic benefit for urban development, especially for developing countries.
The impact of the games on the physical environment includes the building of new sport facilities, accommodation, changes to the look of the city, and transportation system. Mammals, Theodore and Hooligan 2004) illustrates that “building of new sporting facilities or the restructuring of existing ones in order for the organizers to be able to satisfy the requirements of staging multiple sports in a short period of time are usually involved”(up. 214-21 5). Moreover, the government had duty to make sure that all the public services were effectively working during the period of Olympic.
What’s more, infrastructural development that is not directly related to the event often takes place, such as leisure facilities, commercial centers and open spaces, which aim to improve the physical appearance of the host city. Mammals, Theodore & Hooligan, 2004) The other factor can help urban development is sport cultural for citizens. Sporting events like Olympic can help local resident to pay attention and participation in sporting activities, and it can make a significant contribution for the quality of life for both the individual and communities.
Hooper (2001) mentions in his report that rise sport participation provides a sense of happiness because of healthy physical conditions, and meanwhile contribute to self-confident and encourage those who may feel socially excluded social interaction. For example, during the period of Barcelona Olympic preparation, increasingly number of citizen participated in city’s sport activities no matter women or men. After Olympic, people still carried the enthusiasms about sports.
Activates, such as athletic competitions, popular marathon and bicycle festival can promote the sport cultural level and citizen’s healthy condition. (Mammals, Theodore & Hooligan, 2004) negative sides that are cannot be ignored. First, even though Olympic can indeed create huge numbers of Job, Hillier proposed a standpoint that the majority of the jobs would have been low-pay, and those were not for a long time offered. (2000) Moreover, Mammals, Theodore and Hooligan illustrated that the Barcelona Olympics generated only a limited number of new permanent Jobs since most of the Olympic related Jobs were temporary. As cited in Miguel & Squarer, 1995) For long-term consideration, the unemployment issue still exists. The second problem is that hosting Olympic may actually make citizens who were under the middle level become more difficult to live. When government increasingly spent their budget to build new facilities, public transportation and ceremony’s preparation, sometimes they may have no money for support poor people. Meanwhile with house market and land aloes raised, poor people couldn’t afford to rent or buy houses. Consequently, it would cause serious social problems.
Here is an example: “Street sweeps” were made shortly after Atlanta won the bid when attempts were made to criminality poverty at the state level via several bills, such as that which made it unlawful to remove any item from a public trash container! The task force for the Homeless reported that the cost to the taxpayer for using the city Jail as a shelter for the homeless people arrested under these measures was $57 per day. (Mammals, Theodore & Hooligan, 2004, 213) Finally, with facilities’ were built, some environmental problems were posed by. The natural resources and areas’ environment may be damaged.
In Athens 2004, the decision of developing the lake for the Olympic marathon rowing center construction was criticized for the lack of adequate environmental analysis. Experts reported that this project would destroy the water land and nature environment, and it resulted damaged in this area. (Member, 2001) Moreover, it cost too much materials’ waste for building temporary structures. “At the Atlanta games, for instance, four sports were hosted in temporary facilities hat had to be demolished after the games because of their limited usefulness to the local community. (As cited in Lenders, 2004, pappy) In conclusion, as a citizen, people proud of their cities and countries for host a huge event like Olympic games because it represents that the countries’ economic already reach the international level, and countries can use this opportunity to expand the international influences. In fact, it actually helps hosting regions’ development no matter in economic or the entire society innovation in a certain extent. But, sometimes there are a lot of potential and long-term risks for countries.
As recommends, after deciding to host a mega-event like Olympic, countries should have a correct understanding of their own financial and social conditions to depend on whether they can afford to host an Olympic. Otherwise, countries may have ” heavy blow’ as Greek, if they think hosing Olympic defiantly can bring only benefits. 1 . Brunet. T. (1995). An economic analysis of the Barcelona 92 Olympic games: resources, financing and impact. The keys to success. Centre desuetude’s Olympics De elector’s, University Autonomy De Barcelona, Barcelona. 2. Beauty. A. (1999). The homeless Olympics? In homeless: the unfinished agenda.
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