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Honey has been used as an oldest traditional medicine and is still used in folk medicine.
The therapeutic features of honey have been extensively studied. It is recognized as an efficacious antimicrobial agent in the treatment of wounds and burns (Abdellah et al., 2012; Brudzynski, 2006; Al-waili, 2011)
Studies show also that honey is gaining acceptance as an antibacterial agent for the treatment of ulcers and bad sores (Abdellah et al., 2012). Honey has also been reported in the treatment of respiratory infection (Paul et al.
, 2007). Honey has been found to be effective in the treatment of infantile gastro-enteritis (Eteraf-Oskouei, 2013) and against microorganisms isolated from the urinary tract infection (Ibrahim, 1981).
Honey has been reported to have an inhibitory effect to around 60 species of bacteria including aerobes and anaerobes, gram-positives and gram-negatives (Liu et al., 2013).
Currently, many researchers have been done in attempt to identify the antimicrobial compounds in honey. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the antimicrobial activity of honey as the hydrogen peroxide H2O2 (Molan and Russel, 1988; Adock, 1912), inhibin (Nour, 1988), defensin-1 as well as the presence of phytochemical factors (Montenegro and Mejias, 2013; Moniruzzaman et al.
, 2013) the low pH and osmotic effect of honey (Molan, 1992; Cooper et al., 2002).
The composition of honey and hence its antimicrobial activity varies widely depending up on the origin and method of honey processing (Molan, 1992), Concentration of honey used and the nature of the bacterial isolate (WHO, 2017), geographical location and flower from which the final product is derived. Variation in activity is also seen within the same floral species due to prevailing environmental conditions that affect the physiology of the plant (Al zahrani et al.
, 2012; Price and Morgan, 2006; Molan and Russel, 1988) and flower from which the final product is derived. Variation in activity is also seen within the same floral species due to prevailing environmental conditions that affect the physiology of the plant (Al zahrani et al., 2012; Price and Morgan, 2006; Molan and Russel, 1988).
Most human pathogenic bacteria causing wound infections such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and streptococcus pyogenes were found to be sensitive to honey (Visavadia et al., 2006).
Excessive and indiscriminate use of antibiotics throughout the world has led to the emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial strains, a very serious threat to public health (Who, 2017; Nichio et al., 2016).Therefore, alternative antimicrobial strategies such as plants and plant-based products, including honey have currently got more attention (Basualdo et al., 2007).
Morroco is a real paradise for bees; it is home to diverse and unique floral resources, and according to the American magazine Weatherwise which published in one of its articles that Morocco’s northwest coast benefits from the 3rd best climate in the world.
Therefore, the principal aim of this study was to contribute more to the knowledge of the Moroccan Thyme honey (Thymus saturoides) that has never been studied before, by analyzing his antibacterial activity.
Fresh five thymus honey samples were provided by local beekeepers from the region of Ijoukak. These honeys are vended as “monofloral” meaning that the honey must derive from at least 55% of pollen from a single floral source according to Louveaux et al. (1978). All honey samples were stored in dark in containers at 4°C until being used. Under aseptic condition to different dilutions were prepared for each type of honey using sterile distilled water.
Among the diversity of Mediterranean regions, there is Thyme species, which possesses numerous biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antispasmodic and antibacterial effects (Meister et al., 1999; Elhabazi et al., 2006). In Morocco, The Thymus type is represented by about twenty one thyme species, which twelve are endemic (Benabid, 2000).
Among the most known and studied species of thyme, there is thymus saturejoides Coss, known as “za-itra”,which is widespread in the arid and semi-arid parts of the Moroccan mountains, at altitudes ranging from 600 to 2100m (Tahiri, 1996).
Honey samples were collected at flowering sate in July 2017 in Ijoukak region, (Geographic coordinates: Latitude: 30, 9973 Longitude: -8, 1625; 30° 59? 35? North, 8° 09? 10? East) which is a small town and rural commune in AlHaouz Province of the Marrakesh-Tensift-ElHaouz region of Morocco.
several bacterial species known to be pathogenic to human such as Escherichia coli (ATCC25922), Salmonella enteric (CIP8039), Staphylococcus aureus(ATCC25923), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27853), bacillus subtilis (CIP5262) were used
The bacterial suspension was prepared and adjusted by comparison against 0,5 Mc-Farland turbidity standard (5?107 cells mL-1)tubes. It was further diluted to obtain a final of 5?106cells mL-1.These bacterial strains were enriched on nutrient broth as well as on selective broth for bacterial propagation
The antibacterial activity of various concentrations of honey samples was evaluated using well diffusion method. The bacterial strains were grown on Trypticase Soy Broth (TSB) at 37°C for 24h. 100 ?L of this culture was added to 9MI of natural saline water (8,5g/L) and 100 ?L from this suspension was transferred to sterile petri dishes. 15mL of Muller Hinton Agar was poured aseptically and the plates were kept for 15-20 minutes at room temperature to allow agar to solidify.
The following honey concentrations (w/v) were prepared in sterile saline solution: 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%. Small circular holes were prepared using sterilized glass rod on agar plates and filled with the different concentrations of honey of each sample (100?L/well). The plates containing bacteria were incubated at 37°C for 24h. After incubation, the antibacterial activity was assessed by measuring (with a caliper) the diameter of the inhibition surrounding the wells. Two replicate plates were used per each concentration of honey and the experiment was repeated twice.
Data analysis results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation of four replicates for each experiment. A probability value P
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