In this chapter, it will be explaining the history of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria also known as ISIS and Daesh. This Chapter will be touching topics such as introducing the origin or beginning of ISIS, the U.S invasions of Iraq, ISIS vs. Al-Qaeda, ISIS Recruiting, and ISIS view on foreign intervention. ISIS is known as one of the most powerful terrorist groups who have been able to seize and control a large portion of the middle east, but before explaining ISIS there must be a determination of when it was originally formed and then backtrack into where it came from, and why it was formed, because necessarily ISIS cannot be truly understood without explaining the Islamic State of Iraq and Al-Qaeda.
Though before explaining Al-Qaeda there must also be a brief explanation for the divide of Sunni and Shia.Before Al-Qaeda and ISIS, there was the Sunni and Shia, these groups have had a continues religious conflict due to the disagreement of the future successor of the prophet Muhammad, as well as a disagreement of education and Shira Law that have continued with each other for several years.
The religious conflict then lead to the Syrian civil war which threatened to change the Middle East. The Sunni are part of Saudi Arabia, as for the Shia are part of Iran, as previously mentioned these two groups have religious differences and have also competed for the leadership of Islam. Between 1980 to 1988 a war was ignited between the Shia and Sunni when Saudi Arabia backed Iraq, Iran, and Pakistan to suppress Shia movement.
ISIS’s ideology is said to be based on the Jihadi-Salafism and Wahhabi. Jihadi-Salafism is based on two ideologies mixed in with religious concepts combined into one, Jihadism is based on the holy war but it also means the struggle with one’s own sins and the struggle against the enemies of Islam, as for Salafism is based on returning to Sunni Islam. The ideology also describes that Islam is in constant decline which effects multiple factors such as religion, politics, the military, economy, and culture. Wahhabi ideology is the concept of returning to traditions and Salaf, but it is also considered an extreme form of Sunni Islam. Wahhabi and Salafism are slightly similar to each other but also completely different. ISIS practice is the same philosophy as Al-Qaeda which enforces no involvement with westerns, as that it is necessary for ISIS members to rise up an avenge injustices caused by the West. Al-Qaeda’s Ideology or belief is that the Muslim World should be completely removed from anything involving foreign influence and as well any involvement with the Christian or Jewish alliance would lead to the destruction of Islam. Al-Qaeda’s goal during the 1990s was to remove all possible western influences and forces must be defeated or remove to accomplish an uncorrupt Arab regime, which would allow the establishment of a new Caliphate. Al-Qaeda is also known as a Sunni Islamist organization ISIS first came to be or formed between 1999 and 2004 by Abu Musab al-Zarqawi and Abdullah Yusuf Azzam who was originally affiliated with Al-Qaeda under Osama Bin Laden, Al-Zarqawi was known to use extreme violence to inflict fear onto his enemies, he was also said to be blamed for the war that tore Iraq apart, and which lead to thousands of deaths. Abdullah Yusuf Azzam was known as the father of the Global Jihad, he was also known as Osama bin Laden’s teacher and encouraged Bin Laden to assist in the war in Afghanistan. Before Al-Qaeda and ISIS, Iraq was in a war in 2003 which involved the Shiite, Sunni, Al-Qaeda and foreign intervention, though, before the Iraq War, there was The Soviet War in Afghanistan between 1979 and 1989 and then continued until 1999 which then sparked the formation of ISIS, which again originated from Al-Qaeda. Al-Qaeda was formed in 1988 by Osama Bin Laden and other founders. Originally al-Qaeda was formed as a logistical networking system that assisted the anticommunist Islamic guerrillas against the Afghan communist government that was being aided by the Soviet Union during the Afghanistan War. The networking system was also used for the development of financial resources. Osama Bin Laden viewed the Soviet Unions involvement as an invasion and an act of aggression towards Islam. The Soviet Union viewed the the potential war as a possible cold war and became involved. The Soviet War in Afghanistan began in 1979 due to internal conflict and an ongoing coup which then became worse once Soviet troops and the USSR entered Afganistan, with the assistance from the Soviet Union the Afghan communist government was able to overthrow Afghan president Hafizullah Amin and replaced him with Babrak Karmal, after a while the Afghan war was settled as a stalemate with the Soviet Union controlling most of the large cities and the major garrisons. To gain more of urban Afghanistan the Soviet Union attempt to push the anticommunist Islamic guerrillas out Afghanistan and into rural Pakistan and Iran, as well as eliminating the anticommunist Islamic guerrilla’s civilian support by bombing the rural areas of Afghanistan. The tactics used by the Soviet Union caused a massive migration of civilians toward the countrysides of Iran and Pakistan. The Soviet Union then withdrew from Afghanistan between 1988 and 1989, al-Qaeda began to disperse throughout the middle east to recruit, the organization as well began to go against or remove leaders that they considered to be corrupt towards Islamic regime or that were considered to be working with other foreign countries. As al-Qaeda grew as an organization it began to merge with other groups such as the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, and the Taliban militia. After the withdrawal of the Soviet Union, Osama Bin Laden returned to Saudi Arabia as a hero and offered Saudi Arabia protection against Saddam Hussein’s potential invasion, but Saudi government officials rejected his protection due to his radical tactics and a potential threat in the eye to the government due to his ideology. In 1990, U.S. troops arrived in Saudi Arabia to prepare for the Persian Gulf War. The United States were requested by Saudi Arabian royals to assist with the defense of Kuwait against Iraq, which resulted in angering Osama Bin Laden, due to his previous offer of defending Saudi Arabia with his mujahideen or guerilla fighters to defend the kingdom of Saudi Arabia from Saddam Hussein. Instead, Saudi Arabia reached out to the United States for protection, which then resulted in Osama Bin Laden leaving Saudi Arabia in 1991, with the threat of returning to attack the royal family. After Osama Bin Laden left he arrived in Sudan. Though before Osama Bin Laden removed himself from Saudi Arabia he began to plot multiple attacks against the United States for example 1993’s World Trade Center bombing. In 1996 Osama Bin Laden returned to Afghanistan which then resulted in a new relationship with the Taliban government and Al-Qaeda. In 1999, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi and Abdullah Yusuf Azzam formed ISIS, then built a training camp to train Al-Qaeda, Taliban and future ISIS soldiers.