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1. What is K-12 curriculum? What is the rationale of K-12 curriculum? K- 12 is a designation for the sum of primary and secondary education. It is used in the United States, Canada, Philippines and Australia. It means kindergarten and the twelve years of elementary and secondary education. The kindergarten refers to the 5-year old unit that takes a standardized kinder curriculum. The elementary education refers to primary schooling that involves six or seven years of education and the secondary education refers to high school.
The main purpose of K-12 Program is to provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education, middle-level skills development, employment, and entrepreneurship.
The outcome goals of the K-12 Basic Education Program is to make Philippine education standards to be at balance with international standards, to create more emotionally mature graduates equipped with technical and vocational skills who are better prepared for work, middle level skills development and higher education, to make the educational inputs significantly addressed shortages or gaps, to make the improvement of basic education outcomes broadened and strengthened the stakeholder support, to improve internal efficiency, system of governance in the department and quality of teachers.
2. Essentialists’ point of view of curriculum development?
The curriculum is a crucial component of any educational process. It addresses questions such as what students should learn and be able to do, why, how, and how well. In the past, the curriculum was designed merely from the perspective of its cultural transmission functions with its structure consequently reflecting discrete areas of knowledge.
According to Kern it is possible to use a six-step approach to curriculum development for Medical Education: 1. Problem identification and general needs assessment
The most important step is the first one, the general needs assessment (GNA). The goal of step 1 is to focus the curriculum, by defining the deficits in knowledge, attitude, or skills that currently exist in practitioners and the ideal approach to teaching and learning these objectives. When completed, the GNA makes a strong argument for the need for the curriculum and identifies potential educational research questions.
2. Needs assessment of targeted learners
The general needs assessment is applied to targeted learners. What kind of doctor do we want to educate it depends mostly on social needs but it can reflect job opportunities, financial rewards and attitudes acquired during process of studding. Sometimes it is very difficult to make balance between these several needs. Needs can be obtained on different ways. It can be done through study of errors in practice. It is very difficult to design curriculum which will fully meet the needs of society and students
3. Goals and objectives
Institution should define overall goals and aims for the curriculum. Specific measurable knowledge, skill/ performance, attitude, and process objectives should be stated for the curriculum.
4. Educational strategies
It is necessary to make a plan how to maximize the impact of the curriculum, which content should be included, how content should be organized and with which educational methods, how elements of curriculum should communicate, what kind of educational environment and climate should be developed. Content which is included must provide to student critical thinking. It must be selected and organized on the way to initiate critical approach to facts and development skill of information retrieval.
A plan for implementation, including timelines and resources required, should be created. A plan for faculty development is made to assure consistent implementation. 6. Evaluation and feedback Evaluation of curriculum presents the final stage inside cyclic process of improvement and development of curriculum. 3. Why develop a curriculum? Ever since the term curriculum was added to educators’ vocabularies, it has seemed to convey many things to many people. To some, curriculum has denoted a specific course, while to others it has meant the entire educational environment. Whereas perceptions of the term may vary, it must be recognized that curriculum encompasses more than a simple definition.
Curriculum is a key element in the educational process; its scope is extremely broad, and it touches virtually everyone who is involved with teaching and learning. In no other area has greater emphasis been placed upon the development of curricula that are relevant in terms of student and community needs and substantive outcomes. The career and technical and technical curriculum focuses not only on the educational process but also on the tangible results of that process. This is only one of many reasons why the career and technical and technical curriculum is distinctive in relation to other curricular areas and why career and technical education curriculum planners must have a sound understanding of the curriculum development process. 4. What to consider in curriculum development?
In planning and developing a curriculum, you should consider the following:
1. Convening a Curriculum Development Committee
Such a committee, consisting primarily of teachers who represent the various schools and grade levels in a district, administrators, members of the public and perhaps students, becomes the driving force for curriculum change and the long-term process of implementing the curriculum. It is critical that an effective, knowledgeable and respected chairperson lead such a committee and it includes knowledgeable and committed members who gradually become the district’s de facto “experts” during the development phases of the process as well as the implementation phases.
2. Identifying Key Issues and Trends in the Specific Content Area The first step in any curriculum development process involves research that reviews recent issues and trends of the discipline, both within the district and across the nation. This research allows a curriculum committee to identify key issues and trends that will support the needs assessment that should be conducted and the philosophy that should be developed.
3. Assessing Needs and Issues
Curriculum development should be viewed as a process by which meeting student needs leads to improvement of student learning. Regardless of the theory or model followed, curriculum developers should gather as much information as possible. This information should include the desired outcomes or expectations of a high quality program, the role of assessment, the current status of student achievement and actual program content. The information should also consider the concerns and attitudes of teachers, administrators, parents and students. The data should include samples of assessments, lessons from teachers, assignments, scores on state standardized tests, textbooks currently used, student perception and feedback from parents.
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