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Enzyme catalysis was observed in order to analyze how changes in temperature, pH, enzyme concentration, and substrate concentration affected an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. This experiment analyzed the rate of enzyme-catalyzed reactions and observed the correlation between catalase activity and products formed. It was found out that the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction starts off rapidly, decreases, and levels off or completely stops, and can be further affected by environmental factors, which play a crucial role in regulating enzymes and metabolic processes.
Based on this experiment and the data collected one is able to conclude that the optimal environment in which this specific catalase is able to function is around 40°C and in a pH around 7.
This type of environment allows the enzyme to function at its fullest potential and produce the maximum amount of product allotted by the implemented amount of substrate present without the hindrance of environmental factors.
Background: Enzymes, most of which are proteins, have two interrelated roles. One is to act as catalysts and accelerate spontaneous biochemical reactions so they occur with sufficient rates at moderate temperatures.
The other is to determine which spontaneous biochemical reactions will be accelerated out of many more possibilities present in the cell. Balance between all the reactions in metabolism is achieved in several ways, by fluctuations in substrate concentrations, by local differences in pH, by changes in enzyme concentration, and by changes in enzyme activation
Purpose: Enzyme activity is influenced by many factors; both temperature and pH at which enzymes functions are extremely important.
Most organisms have a preferred temperature and pH range in which they survive, and their enzymes usually function best within very narrow temperature and pH ranges. If the environment of the enzyme is too acidic, basic, or hot, the activity of the enzyme may be altered due to a change in the three-dimensional shape of the
enzyme. Denaturation, the unraveling or structural changes of an enzyme, may be temporary or permanent depending on the degree of the environmental change. In either case, a denatured enzyme no longer has the shape necessary to interact with the substrate effectively to lower the activation energy.
1. The hypothesis is as the temperature increases, above 40° C, the activity of the enzyme catalyst will increase. 2. The hypothesis for the enzyme activity with the effect of the pH is if the pH is not at the optimum pH value there will be a complete loss of enzyme activity. 3. The hypothesis is as the change in enzyme concentration increases the activity rate of the enzyme will increase if there is a proportional amount of enzyme concentration and substrate. 4. The hypothesis is as the substrate concentration has an increase so will the reaction of velocity if the amount of enzyme is kept constant.
Materials can be found on page 65 in the Bio 110 lab manual. Procedures are found on pages 65 to 68 in the Bio 110 lab manual.
A. In table 5.1, the data that was collected was calibrating the colorimeter. The results should have been 0.000 or 0.001 no matter how long the machine was ran for.
B. In table and graph 5.2, the data collected was in a time frame of 0-5minuites and was recorded every 30 seconds. In the cuvette was distilled water and substrate mix. The data collected showed that the longer the experiment ran for the higher the absorbency rate.
C. In table and graph 5.4, the data that was collected was for three different amounts of enzymes: ½x enzyme, 1x enzyme, and 2x enzyme. The hypothesis for this experiment was the more enzyme the faster the absorbance. With the results from the test the hypothesis is true. The 1/2x enzyme was absorbed less and a lot slower then the 2x enzyme.
D. In table and graph 5.6, the data collected was the effect of the amount of substrate effects on the absorbency. The data was collected every 6 seconds for 60 seconds. With ½x substrate the absorbance was the slowest. At 1x substrate the absorbance was the fast, and at 2x substrate the absorbance was in the middle.
E. In table and graph 5.8, the data collected was to see how the effects of temperature played an effect on the absorbency. Ice water (4°c) the absorbance rate was very slow. Room temperature (22°c) was the normal rate of absorbance. Body temperature (37°c) had the highest absorbance rate, and boiling water (100°c) the protein was denatured giving no results.
F. In table and graph 5.10, the data collected was to see how the effect of pH affects the absorbance. With the pH2 no reaction happened because pH2 is not a good match, pH7 had the highest absorbance. Ph10 was denatured, pH5 was absorbed but slowly and, pH8 was also absorbed but was absorbed the slowest.
G. In table and graph 5.12 we added an inhibitor to see what the effects would be. With the inhibitor added the absorbance rate slow but did increase.
“Vital Health, Inc. Introduces a Digestive Enzyme for Children, MyZymes.” SFGate. N.p., 23 Oct. 2012. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <http://www.sfgate.com/business/prweb/article/Vital-Health-Inc-Introduces-a-Digestive-Enzyme-3973438.php>.
Kilbourne, Jennifer, and Laurie Montgomery. Laboratory Investigations for Bio 1110. Second ed. Dubuque: Kendall Hunt, 2011. Print.
Digestive Enzyme for Children
Vital Health Inc. has introduced a new vitamin called MyZymes, a chewable digestive enzyme for children. This helps the body gain nutrients from food and plays an essential role in facilitating absorption. They are a highly effective digestive enzyme product because it contains a higher activity level of protease, amylase, lipase, cellulose and also includes six other enzymes. The higher activity levels assists in digesting more proteins, fats, carbohydrates and fiber. Enzymes are one of the most essential elements in our body. Enzymes are energized protein molecules found in all living cells. They catalyze and regulate all biochemical reactions that occur within our body. Enzymes also play a part in digestion.
They break down proteins, fats, carbohydrates and fiber making it possible to utilize the nutrients found in those foods while removing the toxins. Digestive enzyme supplements help you digest your meals more efficiently and deliver the nutrients from your food to your body. The supplemental digestive enzymes will break down food, thus saving the body from having to release as many of its own enzymes. This allows the body to devote its attention to supplying more metabolic enzymes so the organs and tissues can carry on their daily work. Enzyme supplements are clinically proven to reduce the effects of bloating, gas, occasional heartburn and occasional acid reflux.
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