Effects iof iMindfulness ion iSymptoms iof iDepression

Effects iof iMindfulness ion iSymptoms iof iDepression iand iAnxiety

And

Mindfulness-Based iStress iReduction iProgram

Priyanka iDahiwal

Matriculation iNumber i411669

Introduction ito iPsychology

Summer i2019

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Abstract

Being iconscious iof iour ifeelings, isentiments, iperceptions iin ithe ibody, iand iour ienvironment iin ieach imoment iis icalled ias imindfulness. iThis ipaper iinforms ius iabout ihow imindfulness ican ihelp ius ito iminimize iour ianxiety, istress, iand iin iemotion imanagement.

This itopic iis iinteresting ito ime ibecause ithis iinformation iregarding imindfulness iis inew ito ime, iand iif iI iuse iit iin imy ilife, ithen iI ican ilead ia ihealthier ilife.

Precisely ithe iconnection iof imindfulness iand isigns iof idepression iand ianxiety iis istudied iand ian iexperiment iis iconducted ialong iin iwhich ibasic iroles iof iawareness, iacceptance, iimpulse icontrol, iand iemotion iregulation iare iobserved. iThis iexperiment iwas iperformed ion i333 iChinese ipopulation ibetween i16 ito i28 iyears iof iage, iincluding iboth igenders. iIn ithis iexperiment, imindfulness iis idescribed ias ibeing iconscious iand iaccepting inegative iemotions. iThe iassociation ibetween iconsciousness iand iacceptance iof inegative iemotions iand imindfulness iis iobserved iin ithis iexperiment.

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Mindfulness-Based iStress iReduction i(MBSR) iis ian i8-week imeditation iprogram iknown ito idiminish ianxiety, idepression, iand iprogress ipsychological iwell-being. iTo iknow ifurther ihow imindfulness ican ihelp iminimize ianxiety, iobservational istudy iabout imindfulness-based istress ireduction iprogram iwas iconducted. iThis istudy ishows ithat ipeople iundertaking ithis iprogram iundoubtedly iget iprofited iwith istress iminimization.

The istudies imentioned iabove iwere iconducted iin ia icontrolled ienvironment ithrough ia iquestionnaire iwith ia istable istate iof imind iof iparticipants. iIf ithe iidentical iexamination iwas iconducted iin ia idistressing iatmosphere iwith ia istate iof imind iis idisturbed ipurposefully, ithen iresults iobtained iwould ibe isimilar?

Introduction

In ithis ichaotic iworld, ipeople iare icontinually idoing itheir iroutines isince imorning ithey iget iup ito ithe iminute; ithey ifall iasleep.

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iThe iage, igender, ior iprofession idoes inot iaffect ithese iroutines. iThese itasks iwere iperformed iwithout ibeing iaware iof ithem. iBeing iaware iof iour icurrent isituation, iwhether iit iis ia iprocess, ithought, ior isituation iis itermed imindfulness. iMindfulness iis itaken ifrom iZen, iVipassana, iand iTibetan imeditation itechniques. iThe iterm imindfulness iis ibuilt ion ithe iword i”Sati” iin iPali ilanguage iand ithe iword i”Smriti” iin ithe iSanskrit ilanguage, iwhich imeans i”remembrance.” iRemembering iour ithoughts iwhile idoing iday ito iday itasks iis iso-called imindfulness. iThis iis idone iat iany iinstant iin ia iday. iFor iexample, iwhile idrinking ia iglass iof iwater ireminding iour iconsciousness ithat, i”I iam idrinking ithis iglass iof iwater iand ithis iwill ihelp ime ito iquench imy ithirst,” ithis isimple ithought iof ibeing iaware iof idrinking iwater ican iinduce ia idrastic ichange iin iour ibody ias iwell ias iin imind. iSimilarly, ithis ican ibe iapplied ito ievery iarea iof iour ilife, iand iif iwe ido iit, iit iwill ichange iour ilife idramatically. i

Unfortunately, ipeople iare iunable ito ido ithese isimple itasks. iTheir imind iis iperforming itasks iwhich iare idifferent ifrom itheir iphysical iworld. iMind iand ibody iare icontinually ifighting ito iperform ion isingle ijob. iThe imind iwill ieither iwander iin ifuture ifantasies ior ihistorical iexperiences. iThis iwill ilead ito istress iin ian iindividual ias ihe ior ishe iis iperforming ia ijob iwith ithe ionly ibrain iwithout iemotion iin iit. iIf ia iperson iis icompleting itasks iwithout ibeing iaware iof iwhat ihe ior ishe iis idoing, ithen ithat itasks ibecame ia imechanical ithing, iand iit idegrades iin iits iquality. iIf iwe istart iour iday iwith isuch ia icollection iof iquality-less itasks iand iend iwith isame, ithen iwe ifind iourselves iin ia ichaotic ienvironment iwhere iwe icannot ifind iany isatisfaction ior ipeace. iThis iwill iagain ilead idistress iin ian iperson.

Depression iis ia icommon imental isickness. iMindfulness ican ibe ian ieffective iweapon iversus idepression iand ianxiety. iA istudy icarried iout iwhich ispotlight ithat ithere iis ia ilongitudinal iassociation iwithin imindfulness iand idepressive isigns ithrough imediating iprocesses ilike iconsciousness, iacceptance, iimpulse icontrol, iand iemotion imanagement. iA isimilar iassociation iis ifound iout imidst imindfulness iand ianxiety iindications. iThe istudy iurges ithe iemploy iof imindfulness iactions iin ipsychological ihealthiness ias iwell; iit ienlarges ithe imindfulness iliterature i(Cheung i& iNg, i2018). i

Mindfulness-Based iStress iReduction iprogram iis ia imeditation iprogram iwhich ihelps ito ideal iwith istress-related isigns. iIt isupports ito iimprovement iin idepression, ianxiety, iand isleep iquality. iThis iobservational istudy icarried iout iby iJeferry im. iGreeson iabout iMBSR iaffirms ithat imindfulness iis ienlarged iamong ipeople iwho ifollowed ithis iprogram, iwhich ileads ito idecrease isleep idisturbance iand idecreased istress-related iindications i(Greeson iet ial., i2018). i

Recently iI icame iacross ia ibook i10-Minute iMindfulness: i71 iHabits ifor iLiving iin ithe iPresent iMoment iby iS. iJ. iScott iand iBarrie iDavenport. iThis ibook iillustrates iseveral iapproaches ifor imindfulness, iwhich iare isimple iand ieasy ito ido iin i10 iminutes itime ispan i(Scott i& iDavenport, i2017). iWhile ireading ithis ibook, iI idevelop imy iinterest iin imindfulness, iand ithen iI istarted ito istudy ithis iconcept iin idetail. i

Mindfulness iand iSymptoms iof iDepression iand iAnxiety i(Cheung i& iNg, i2018)

Mindfulness iis igetting ialert iof ithe isituation, iaccepting iit, iand iresponding iaccording ito iit. iDepression iindicators iconsist iof iloss iof iinterest iin iideas, ionce ipleasurable, idifficulty iin iadmitting iundesirable icircumstances, irestlessness, iand iirritability. iIf iwe iperceive iintensely, ithen iindications iof idepression icomplement imindfulness. iThe istudy iconducted iwhich ishows ithis iassociation iusing imediating iprocesses ilike iacceptance, iconsciousness, iimpulse icontrol, iand iemotion iregulation. iThe istudy iis itook iplace iin ithe ifollowing ifashion i(Cheung i& iNg, i2018).

Method: i- iA itotal iof i333 iChinese iresidents iparticipated iin ithis istudy iin iHong iKong. iThese ipeople iare iin ithe iage irange iof i18 ito i26. iThis iincludes i95 imen iand i238 iwomen. iThe istudy iis icompleted ithrough ia iquestionnaire iin iconsecutive itwo iyears, ifour itimes iin isix imonths igap. iMultigroup iPath iAnalysis ialso iBootstrapping imethods iwere iapplied ito irealize ithe iresults iof ithe istudy.

Measures: i-Succeeding iattributes iwere iquantified imidst ithe icontributor iof ithis istudy.

1. Mindfulness

2. Awareness iof inegative iemotions

3. Acceptance iof inegative iemotions

4. Impulse iControl idifficulties

6. Limited iAccess ito iEmotion iRegulation iStrategies

7. Depressive isymptoms

8. Anxiety isymptoms

Data iAnalysis: i-All iabove istudy ivariables iare ipreliminarily ievaluated ifor izero-order icorrelations, imeans, iand istandard ideviations. iThe ifundamental ihypothesis iof ithis istudy iis ithen itested iby imultigroup ipath ianalysis. iMPLUS, iVersion i7 iis ian ianalytical isoftware iwhich iis iused ito ido iexploratory ifactor ianalysis, istructural iequation imodeling, iitem iresponse itheory ianalysis, isurvival ianalysis, igrowth imodeling, icomplex isurvey idata ianalysis i(WWW3). iThis isoftware iexercised ito iobserve ithe ipath imodel iof imediation iprocesses ilike iconsciousness, iattention, iimpulse icontrol iproblems, iand ilittle iapproach ito iemotion iregulation istrategies iamong imindfulness iand ialteration iresults, iincluding idepressive iand ianxiety iindications. i

Result: i- iThe iresults iobtained ion ithe iconnection ibased ion i- imindfulness iand ilittle iadmittance ito isentiment iguideline, imindfulness, iand idepressive isigns, imindfulness, iand ianxiety isigns. iThe ibootstrapping imethod iwas imodified ito itest idata iof ithe imediating ifunctions iof iconsciousness, iacceptance, iand iimpulse icontrol idifficulties iamongst imindfulness iand ilimited iadmittance ito iemotion iguideline iapproaches. iOne ithousand ibootstrap isamples iwere itested iwith isubstitutes. iThe iincidental ieffects iof imindfulness iand ipartial iadmittance ito iemotion iguideline ipolicies iwere isignificant ibefore ibootstrapping. iThen iafter ibootstrapping ithe iindirect ioutcomes iof imindfulness ion ipartial iaccess ito iemotion iguideline iapproaches iwere iexamined. iThe ioutcomes iacclaim ithat imindfulness iis ilinked iwith iawareness, ireception iof inegative iemotions iwith ilesser idifficulties iin iimpulse icontrol, iand ilarger iadmittance ito iemotion iregulation istratagems.

Correspondingly, ithe iunintended ioutcomes iof imindfulness iand idepressive isigns iare irecognized iwith ithe ibootstrapping iprocess. iThe ianswers isuggest ithat igreater iconsciousness iand iacceptance iof iemotions, iwhich iin iturn iassociated iwith ilower iimpulse icontrol idifficulties iwere ifurther iassociated iwith igreater iaccess ito iemotion iregulation istrategies iand ifewer idepressive isigns. iHowever, ithe iresults ishow ithat ithe iindirect ieffects iof imindfulness iand ianxiety isigns iare inot isignificant. iHence ithe iprocess iused ihere idoes inot ifind iit iuseful ito iobtain iresults. i

As ithe iabove istudy idemonstrations ius ithat ithere iis ia icorrelation ibetween imindfulness iand idepression iand ianxiety isigns, iadditional istudy iusing iMBSR iprogram iis icarried iout ito iunderstand iwhether iincreased imindfulness iwill idecrease idepression iindicators ior inot. i

Mindful iBased iStress iReduction iProgram i(Greeson iet ial., i2018)

“Mindfulness iis iabout ibeing ifully iawake iin iour ilives. iIt iis iabout iperceiving ithe iexquisite ivividness iof ieach imoment.” i i i i- iJon iKabat-Zinn i(WWW1.)

Professor iJon iKabat iZinn istarted ithis iprogram iin ithe i1970s. iThis iis ia imeditation iprogram iwhich ihelps iindividuals ito iminimize istress, ianxiety, idepression, iand ipain. iIt iis ieight iweeks ilong iprogram iwhich icomprises iof i150 iminutes idaily ipractice iof imindfulness, imeditation, iand iyoga iwith ione icomplete iday isession ibetween isixth iand iseventh iweek. iIt ialso iembraces i45 iminutes iof ieveryday ihomework ipractices.

J.M. iGreeson iconducted ian iobservational istudy iabout imindfulness iand ieffects iof imindfulness ion itwo imeasures ii.e., isleep iquality ias iwell ias idepression iindications. iAuthor ihypotheses ithat isleep iaspect, idepression iwarning isign, iand imindfulness iare ilinked. iThrough ithe iMBSR iprogram, ithe isuggestion iof ithis istudy iwas iscrutinized, iand iparticipants iwho iundergone ithrough ithe iMBSR iprogram ishowed iincrease imindfulness ibesides idecrease isleep idisturbance ithen idepressive iindications. iThis istudy iwas iconducted iin ithe ifollowing ifashion.

Method: i- i322 iindividuals iwho ienrolled iin ithe iMBSR iprogram iparticipated iin ithis istudy. iThey icompleted ia iself-report iquestion ibefore iand iafter iappearing ithe iMBSR iprogram ithrough ithe iinternet. iThe iparticipants iof ithis istudy iwere imainly iwomen iwho iwere iwell ieducated iand iworking. iOut iof ithese iparticipants, imore ithan i50 ipercent iof iparticipants iinhibit ithe isigns iof idepression iand ipoor isleep iquality. iThe isurvey iis iconducted ione iweek ibefore ithe ifirst iMBSR isession iand ione iweek iafter ithe ilast iMBSR isession. iThe isurvey iresult iwas iobserved iby iViewFlash isoftware. iThe istudy iis ifollowed iby iMBSR iprogram iconducted iby itrained iprofessionals iwho ihave isignificant iexperience iin imeditation ifield. i

Measures: i- iThe imeasures iwhich iwere irecorded iduring ithe istudy, iare ilisted ibelow.

1. Cognitive iand iAffective iScale-Revised

2. Cohen-Hoberman iInventory iof iPhysical iSymptoms i(CHIPS)

3. Pittsburgh iSleep iQuality iIndex i(PSQI) i

4. Ruminative iResponses iScale i(RRS)

5. White ibear isuppression iinventory

6. Acceptance iand iaction iquestionnaire

7. Emotion iregulation iquestionnaire

Data ianalysis: i- iSPSS isoftware iversion. i24 iis iused ifor idata ianalysis ifor ithis istudy. iThe istatistical isignificance iof ipre-post iMBSR ichanges iin imindfulness, istress iindicators, iand iemotion iregulation iare iexamined ithrough ipaired itests. iThe idirect iassociation ibetween ithese ivariables iare iexamined ivia iBivariate icorrelations. iPartial icorrelations iare ialso iused ito itest iwhether ihypothesized iassociations ibetween ichanges iin imindfulness iand ichanges iin istress iindications iand isleep iquality, irespectively, iremained isignificant iwhen icontrolling ifor ichanges iin ieach itransdiagnostic ioutcome imeasure. iIn ithe iend, iseven icovariates iwere iadded ito ithe ipartial icorrelation ianalyses ito itest iwhether iobserved iassociations iwere iindependent iof idemographic icharacteristics isuch ias iage, igender, ieducation, ihousehold iincome, iand iemployment istatus, ias iwell ias iprior imeditation iexperience iand iexpectation ito ibenefit ifrom ithe iMBSR. i

Results: i- iDirect iassociation iis iestablished ibetween iincreased imindfulness iand idecreased istress-related iindicators iand ian iincrease iin isleep iquality.

Conclusion

iMindfulness imeditation iis istarted iin ithe i1970s. iThrough ia icouple iof idecades, ithis itechnique isignificantly iemerged. iIt iis iconsidered ias ione iof ithe imind-body iintervention imethods. iThis itechnique icultivates ipositive ipsychology iin ian iindividual. iAccording ito ia iblog ipost iin iPositive iPsychology iProgram, imindfulness inot ionly ipromotes iwell-being ibut ialso iimproves iworking imemory. iIt ican ibe ia iself-care itool ifor ian iindividual ior iwellness ibusters ifor ia igroup iof iemployees i(WWW2). iFrom ithe istudy, iit iis iseen ithat imindfulness ican idecrease isigns iof idepression i(Cheung i& iNg, i2018). iAnother istudy iwhich ialso iindicates ithat ithe iMBSR iprogram iincreases iyour imindfulness, iwhich iin iturn idecreases idepression iindications iand iimproves isleep iquality. i(Greeson iet ial., i2018) i

Above iresearches ior istudies iwere iperformed ikeeping ipositive ieffects iof imindfulness, iand iaccording ito ithat, ihypotheses iwere iproposed iand iverified. iThough, iare ithere iany iadverse ieffects iof imindfulness? iHas ianybody itill idate iobserved ithem, iand iif iso, ithey iare ithere iexperiments ior istudies iwere iconducted ito iexamine ithem? i i

These iunanswered iqueries ineed ito ibe ianswered iso ithat iwe ican iuse imindfulness iwith iits ifull ipotential iwhile ikeeping iits ipositive ieffects iand imindfully idiscarding iits iadverse ior iside ieffects.

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References

1. Cheung, iR. iY. iet ial., i(2019). iMindfulness iand isymptoms iof idepression iand ianxiety: iThe iunderlying iroles iof iawareness, iacceptance, iimpulse icontrol, iand iemotion iregulation. iMindfulness, i10(6), i1124-1135.

2. Greeson, iJ. iM. iet ial., i(2018). iMindfulness imeditation itargets itransdiagnostic isymptoms iimplicated iin istress-related idisorders: iUnderstanding irelationships ibetween ichanges iin imindfulness, isleep iquality, iand iphysical isymptoms. iEvidence-Based iComplementary iand iAlternative iMedicine, i2018. iVolume i2018, iArticle iID i4505191, i10 ipages.

3. WWW1. iOnline iMindfulness-Based iStress iReduction i(MBSR) i i

4. WWW2. i7 iGreat iBenefits iof iMindfulness iin iPositive iPsychology i iAccessed iApr i9, i2019. i

5. WWW3. iMplus iat ia iGlance. i< i i i

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Effects iof iMindfulness ion iSymptoms iof iDepression. (2019, Dec 14). Retrieved from http://studymoose.com/effects-iof-imindfulness-ion-isymptoms-iof-idepression-example-essay

Effects iof iMindfulness ion iSymptoms iof iDepression

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