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Intermediary analysis, competitor analysis, demand analysis, opportunities +threats, SLEPT factors, resource analysis Demand analysis Examines current and projected customer use of each digital channel and different services within diff. target markets it can be determined by asking for each market: What % of cust. Bus.
Have acces to the int. – what % of members of the buying unit in this bus. Have acces to the int. – what % of cust. Are prepared to purch. Ur product online. Customer demand analysis 2 parts: org. arket (internet access , visit site , purchase influenced , buy online) Customer market( Same ) segmentation Is the identification of diff.
groups within a target market in order to develop diff. product offerings and comm. For the groups Stages in target marketing strategy: 1- segmentation(informed by market research and informs market segment definition) 2- target marketing (evaluates and select target segments it is informed by demand analysis and informs select online targeting and target segments) 3- positioning ( identify proposition for each segment ,informs core brand proposition,online value prop.
4- planning (deploy resources to achieve plan, informed by evaluation of resources and informs online marketing mix restructuring) Diff types of segmentation variables 1. behavior 2. attitude and preferences 3. lifestyle and psychographics 4. demographic profile data 5. unknown Questions To help develop a customer centric strategy for e-marketing -who are our customers -how are their need changing -which do we target -how can we add value -how do we become first choice(positioning ,differential advantage, online value proposition) 6 I’s The difference btwn new media and traditional media has been developed as the 6 I’s: -Interactivity: (enables companies to communicate with customers in a new way) pull marketing, the consumer is pro active with interacting with companies thru actively seeking info thru search engines.
Push marketing, comm. Are broadcasts from an advisor to consumer .
In interactivity we have dialogue not monologue(2 way feedback) -Intelligence: the int. can be used as a low cost method of collecting marketing research (everytime a user clicks on a link this is recorded and can be analyzed with the web analytics tool) – Individualization: It is as personalization and it is an important aspect of achieving customer relationship management online thru extranets , thru B2B , it is an example of mass customization where generic customer info is supplied for particular segments, this means in a traditional media u send same msg to all the customers but in new media u can send diff. sgs to each customer and have diff feedback from them. -Integration: how the int. can be used as an integrated comm. Tool : as an intermediary btwn company and customer we can have a web an email a phone a mail or a person , the int. can be used as a direct response tool , the website can have a direct response or a call back facility , the int. an be used to support the buying decision and to support customer service. -Industry restructuring: disintermediation, reintermediation and countermediation are key concepts of industry restructuring that should be considered by any company developing an e marketing strat. -Independence of location: to be globalized , the int. makes it possible to sell a country without a local sale or customer service force. P’s Used to provide new opportunities for the marketer 7 P’s(marketing mix) Product: quality and branding Promotion: sales promotion , direct marketing Price: list discounts , positioning Place: trade channels , segmented channels People: individuals on marketing activities, recruitment, training Process: customer focus , business led Physical evidence: sales and staff contact experience of brand , product packaging Different price points Subscription: sign Pay-per-view: a fee for a single download or viewing session Bundling: diff channels or content can be ffered as individual products or group at a reduced price compared to pay per view Implications of the internet 1. Increase price transparency and its implications on differential pricing. Supplier can use the tech. for differential pricing , they must use it with precaution to don’t let price discrimination. Pricing is only one variable. 2. downward pressure on price. Purchase of some products that have not traditionally been thought as commodities may become more price sensitive. 3. new pricing approaches. There is two approaches: dynamic pricing . prices can be updated in real time according to the customer.
Aggregated buying is a form of customer union where buyers purchase the same num. of items at the same price. 4. alternative pricing structures: basic price, discounts. Main elements of promotional mix Advertising(implemented by ads payperclick) Selling(virtual sales staff, chat) Sales promotion(rewards , coupons) Public relations(blogs , feeds, newsletter) Sponsorship Direct mail Exhibitions Merchandising Packaging (virtual tools , word of mouth) People process and physical evidence Some tactics by which people can be replaced or there work automated: 1. auto responders 2. mail notification 3. call back facility 4. frequently asked quests 5. on site search engines 6. virtual assistants Questions that need to be solved when specifying actions 1. what level of investment in the internet channel is sufficient to deliver these services 2. what training of staff is required. 3. what new responsibilities are required for effective internet marketing 4. are changes in org. structure required to deliver int. based services? 5. what activities are involved in creating and maintaining the website. Barriers and risks of e-proc -competition issues.
Eg: in exchanges using collaborative purchasing -possible negative perception from suppliers eg: their margins reduced further from eauctions -negotiated procurement benefits may be shared with other exchange users who may be competitors -creation of catalogues can be a long pricess and costly to suppliers -culture profile within orgs eg: resistance to change SCM Processes Processes thru which inputs are transferred to outputs. Upstream: Suppliers then supplier warehouse(can go directly to manufacturer the B2B company) then independent wholesaler then B2B retailer then distributor then manufacturer the B2B company.
Suppliers can go directly to manufacturer the B2B company or can pass also thru supplier agent. Downstream: Manufacturer The B2B company can go directly to customers or pass thru B2B agent. Or go thru the company warehouse(can go directly to customers) then independent wholesaler then B2B retailer then distributor then customers. Drivers of procurement Control: improving compliance , achieving centralization, raising standards and improved auditing of data. Cost: improved buying leverage thru increased supplier competition.
Process: rationalization and standardization of e-proc processes giving reduced cycle time Individual performance: knowledge sharing,value-added productivity and productivity improvements Supplier mgt: reduced supplier numbers , supplier mgt and selection integration. Benefits of e-supply chain 1. Increased efficiency of individual processes: if b2b co. Adopts e-procurement it will benefit from reduced cycle time and cost 2. Reduced complexity of the supply chain: B2B co. Will offer the facility to sell direct from its e-commerce site so it will reduce cost of channel dist. 3. Improved data integration: reduce cost of paper preocessing 4.
Reduce cost thru outsourcing: lower costs thru price competition and reduced spend on manu capacity and holding. 5. Innovation: more flexible in delivering a more diverse range of products and reduce time market to achieve better customer responsiveness Push and Pull Push: a supply chain that emphasizes distribution of a product to passive customers. (Supplier manu. Distributor retailer customer) Aim is to optimize the production process for cost and efficiency Pull: an emphasis on using the supply chain to deliver value to customers who are actively invovled in product and service specification.
Aim is to enhance product and service quality. Types of e-procurement E-sourcing: finding potential new suppliers using the int during the ingo gathering step of procurement process E-tendering: process of screenin suppliers and sending suppliers requests for info E-informing: qualification of suppliers for suitability E-reverse auctions: enable the purchasing company to buy goods and services that have lowest prices E-MRO and ERP: involve the purchase and supply of products which are the core of the mode e-proc apps.
Vertical integration Extent to which supply chain act. Are undertaken and controlled within the org. Characteristics: majority of manu in-house and distant relationships with suppliers Virtual integration: majority of supply chain activities are undertaken and controlled outside the org.
By third parties Charac: total reliance on third parties and close relationships with suppliers Vertical disintegration: move to outsourcing and network of suppliers, helps in cost reduction The value chain Model that considers how supply chain activities can add value to products and services delivered to the customer Virtual value chain involves electronic commerce used to mediate traditional value chain activities such as market research, procurement, logstics.. alternatives: traditional value chain model that distiguishes between primary actvts that contribute directly to getting goods and services to the customer and support activities to take place. And revised chain model Exp: if a retailer shares info electronically with a supplier about a product, this can enhance the value chain of both parties since the time for ordering can be reduced and lower costs.
Types of intermediaries for e-proc -traditional manufac which produce physical goods that are sold to other customers -direct sales manu: they bypass intermed and sell direct to end consumers via web -value-added proc partners: act as intermed to sell product and services to other businesses(travel agents) -online hubs: industry specific vertical portal that generate revenues via B2B exchange -knowledge experts who’s produce info goods -online info services provide unique info to end users -online retailers include startup e-businesses -portal communities seek to aggregate diff online info services into an integrated customer experience ex: online bill payment Systems Stock control system: relates mainly to production-related procurement CD or web-based catalogue: paper catalogues have been replaced by electronic forms that make it quicker to find suppliers E-mail or database-based workflow systems: integrate the entry of the order by the originator. Order-entry on website: the buyer often has the opportunity to order directly on the supplier’s website Accounting systems: networked accounting sustems enable staff in the buying department to enter an order which can then be used by accounting staff to make payment when the invoice arrives Integrated e-procurement or ERP: these aim to integrate all the facilities above and will aolso include integration with supploers’ systems What is logistics? Logistics is the time related positioning of resource, or the strategic management of the total supply chain.
It is used to refer not to all supply chain activities but specifically to the management of logistics or inbound(mgt of material resources entering an org from its suppliers) and outbound log. (Mgt of resources supplied from an org to its customers and intermediaries) Virtual organization Org which uses info and communications tech to allow it to operate withouy clearly defined physical boundaries btwn diff functions. CHARACTERISTICS: -lack of physical structure: virtual org have littlr or no physical existence. -reliance on knowledge: the lack of physical facilities and contacts means that knowledge is the key driving force. -Use of comm. Tech: they rely on IT -Mobile work: reliance on comm tech means that they do not rely only on plant or office to work. -Boundaryless and inclusive: they have fuzzy boundaries. Flexible: can be pulled together quickly Value network Or external value chain which is the links betwn an org and its strategic and non strategic partners that form its external value chain. Partners of a VN: supply-side partners: suppliers ,b2b exchanges, wholesalers Partners that fulfil primary or core value chain activites Sell-side partners: b2b exchanges,wholesalers,distributors,and customers Value chain partners who supply services that mediate the internal and external value chain Types of procurement Production related proc: relate to manufacturing of products. Operating procurement: that’s supports the operations of the whole business and includes office supplies ,furniture,info systems..
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