Ultraviolet lights are electromagnetic radiations with the wavelength from 10nm to 400nm, lesser than that of visible light but higher than that of X-ray. It occupies 10% of the light output from the sun. It is commonly used to sterilize surgical instruments, sterilized food products and proper dose of UV ray helps the body to produce vitamin D.
It is a device which convert electrical energy into mechanical energy and use that energy to transmit fluids from one place to another which is at a certain distance and height.
They are made out of Polycarbonate or High-Density Polyethylene. They used to store fruits, vegetable, spices and other food items. They are also used to carry tools, electrical items, ornaments, ice cubes and so on.
It is commonly known as Potash Alum. General chemical formula of Aluminium Potassium Sulphate is KAl(SO4)2. Its molar mass is 258.192g/mol and melting point is 92.5 degree Celsius. It is used in the coagulation process to combine all the lighter particles to form a denser particle.
The grey water is initially collected from kitchen and bathroom. From the kitchen the water from cleaning, washing dish plates and other chemicals are collected. From the bathroom the water from brushing, face washing and bathing are collected. The chemicals from soaps and detergent wastes are mixed with water. By the collection of these two sources of waste water in a Storage tank, we can estimate the quality of water and amount of contents present in it.
These includes the presence of chemical contents and some of the toxic substances and harmful bacteria. These water are collected in a storage tank. Before going to the storage tank the water is finely screened in order to remove larger particles. The purpose of screener is to filter the macro particles in the water and also prevents the blockage and dump deposits. Once the screening is done, it is feed into the storage tank. From the storage tank the water is passed to the coagulation tank where coagulation process takes place. It is a process in which the chemical particles are fused together to form large particles with help of a coagulant. The coagulant added here is Aluminium Potassium Sulphate commonly known as Potash Alum. In order to speed up the process of coagulation, a stirrer is placed on the top of the tank. Once the coagulation process is completed, the larger particles will settle at the bottom of tank. The estimated time for the coagulation process is about 1 hour. Then the water is fed to the sedimentation tank through the pipe. In the sedimentation tank, the sedimentation process takes place. The water with slight chemicals and impurities when passed through the sedimentation tank the impurities such as oil will float at the top layer due to its low density and high denser particles will settle at the bottom of tank. The middle layer acts as a layer of medium of transparent water with less impurities. The retention time on sedimentation tank is up to 2 hours. After that, the water is sucked from sedimentation tank to aeration tank with the help of suction pump. In the aeration tank the aeration process takes place by passing air through an artificial blower. The purpose of this blower is to help the bacteria growth and make the impurities to intimate the process of aerobic digestion. In the process of coagulation, sedimentation, aeration the sludge occurs and it is removed by external filter. Once aeration process is completed the water fed through the corresponding filters. Two types of filter used in this process namely bio filter and sand filter. The bio filter comprised of three layers namely coconut fiber, saw husk and banana peel. The coconut fiber removes the suspended particles and it has a filtration capacity of about 30-5000nm. In the layer of saw husk the oil clotted particles are trapped. The banana peel layer is a powdered form by which it mixes with the grey water to remove heavy metal impurities and toxic substance. In a bio filter layer up to 60 percent of water are filtered. The next layer is the sand filter which comprises of layers of sand, activated charcoal to make an ultrafine filtration. In a sand filter up to 90 percent of water is filtered. Then the remaining water is fed to the UV treatment for the killing of harmful bacteria. Hence the Grey water is filtered and used for domestic purpose.
Cutting is a shearing and compressive phenomenon and it occurs only when the stress generated by the cutting device is exceeds the ultimate strength of the material of the item boing cut. The simplest equation that can be applicable is stress = force / area.
Power hacksaw functions works as a cutting machine used to cut metals in a workshop. It consists of a blade containing number of teeth to cut the metal. The power hacksaw uses a reciprocating mechanism which helps it to move the blade back and forth. When the blade moves back and forth over a metal rod, it starts to cut the rod into two pieces.
Hand cutter is a portable device which uses a rotating blade to cut the material. Hand cutter consists of a rotating blade which will cut any substance with its rotating motion not like a power hacksaw which uses a reciprocating motion. Hand cutter can be used to cut many substances like metal, wood, wall, plastic and many other substances with suitable cutting wheel.
Welding is the processes of connecting two metal by melting it, allowing it to fill the gap and cooling. It is the strongest way to joint two metals.
Arc welding is process used to connect two metals with the help of electricity. It will produce enough heat to melt the metal. The molten metal will fill the gap between the two metal pieces and when cooled, it forms a strong join. Arc welding are commonly used to connect two similar metal. It uses both direct and alternate current depending on the metal to be joint.
Drilling is a cutting process in which a drill pit is used to cut a circular hole. The drill pit is a rotary cutting tool, often multi-point cutting tool. The bit is pressurized against the material to be drilled and rotated from hundred to thousand rotation per minute. At this speed the bit cuts out the hole in the material.
Bench drilling machine are heavy drilling machines which are attached to the floor. They are used to drill in heavy materials and to make big holes. They use lot of force to drill the material.
Hand drilling machine are portable drilling machines which can be easily carried. They are used to drill small materials and make small holes. The drilling force used is also very less. Since it is very easy to carry it is usually used for all the drilling purposes.
A grinding machine is a device used to remove the excess metal that are sticking to the side of the material. It has a grinding wheel which run at a higher rotation per minute. The grinding wheel is a thick disk with lot of grains in it.
A bench grinder is fixed to the top of a bench used to drive a huge abrasive wheels. A pedestal grinder is a larger version of a grinder that is mounted on a pedestal which may be sitting on a rubber feet or bolter to the floor. The hand cutter can also be used for grinding with a proper grinding wheels attached to it.
Materials required for pH test are pH meter, 100ml beaker and Buffer capsule.
Fill 100 ml of distilled water in the beaker. Make up a standard buffer solution of pH – 9.2 by mix the powder in the buffer capsule with the distilled water in the beaker. Clean the electrode with distilled water and wipe it with tissue paper. Insert the electrode into the standard buffer solution and set the meter to pH-9.2 by adjusting the knob. Then take the electrode out, clean it and wipe with tissue paper. Fill another 100ml beaker with the sample solution. Reinsert the electrode in to the beaker containing the sample and note the reading.
Materials required for suspended solid test are G3 crucible, Filtration assembly and Suction unit.
Clean the G3 crucible completely. Pre-weight the G3 crucible. Pipette out 25ml of the solution in to the G3 crucible. Fix it to the filtration assembly and use a suction pump to facilitate filtration. After filtration dry the residue at 103 degrees Celsius for 15 minutes. Then cool it for room temperature for 15 minutes and desiccating for 25 minutes. Now measure the weight of the G3 crucible again. The difference in weight gives the weight of the suspended solids.
Materials required for total dissolved solids are Silica crucible, G3 crucible, Filtration setup and Suction unit
Pre-weight the Silica crucible. Pipette out 25ml of the solution in to the G3 crucible. Fix it to the filtration assembly and use a suction pump to facilitate filtration. After filtering, pour the solution into a silica crucible and heat it until the water is vaporized. After vaporization dry the residue at 103 degrees Celsius for 15 minutes. Then cool it for room temperature for 15 minutes and desiccating for 25 minutes. Now measure the weight of the silica crucible again. The difference in weight gives the weight of the dissolved solids.
Materials required for biochemical oxygen demand test are BOD bottle, BOD incubator, Standard conical flask, Pipette and Burette.
Chemicals used for biochemical oxygen demand are Alkaline Iodide solution, Manganese Sulphate, Concentrated Sulphuric Acid, Sodium Thiosulphate and Starch Solution.