Types of bank accounts Essay
Types of bank accounts
A bank is a financial intermediary that accepts deposits and channels those deposits into lending activities, either directly by loaning or indirectly through capital markets. A bank links together customers that have capital deficits and customers with capital surpluses. Due to their importance in the financial system and influence on national economies, banks are highly regulated in most countries. Most nations have institutionalised a system known as fractional reserve banking, in which banks hold only a small reserve of the funds deposited and lend out the rest for profit. They are generally subject to minimum capital requirements based on an international set of capital standards, known as the Basel Accords. CURRENT DEPOSITS / ACCOUNTS
SAVING BANK / Saving Fund DEPOSITS / ACCOUNTS
RECURRING DEPOSITS / ACCOUNTS
FIXED DEPOSITS / ACCOUNTS OR TERM DEPOSITS
Current Accounts are basically meant for businessmen and are never used for the purpose of investment or savings. These deposits are the most liquid deposits and there are no limits for number of transactions or the amount of transactions in a day. Most of the current account are opened in the names of firm / company accounts. Cheque book facility is provided and the account holder can deposit all types of the cheques and drafts in their name or endorsed in their favour by third parties. No interest is paid by banks on these accounts. On the other hand, banks charges certain service charges, on such accounts.
Features of Current Accounts :
(a) The main objective of Current Account holders in opening these account is to enable them (mostly businessmen) to conduct their business transactions smoothly. (b) There are no restrictions on the number of times deposit in cash / cheque can be made or the amount of such deposits; (c) Usually banks do not have any interest on such current accounts. However, in recent times some banks have introduced special current accounts where interest (as per banks’ own guidelines) is paid (d) The current accounts do not have any fixed maturity as these are on continuous basis accounts
What is a Savings Bank Account ? Who uses Saving Bank Accounts ? Recurring Deposit Calculator – India
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These deposits accounts are one of the most popular deposits for individual accounts. These accounts not only provide cheque facility but also have lot of flexibility for deposits and withdrawal of funds from the account. Most of the banks have rules for the maximum number of withdrawals in a period and the maximum amount of withdrawal, but hardly any bank enforces these. However, banks have every right to enforce such restrictions if it is felt that the account is being misused as a current account. Till 24/10/2011, the interest on Saving Bank Accounts was regulared by RBI and it was fixed at 4.00% on daily balance basis. However, wef 25th October, 2011, RBI has deregulated Saving Fund account interest rates and now banks are free to decide the same within certain conditions imposed by RBI. Under directions of RBI, now banks are also required to open no frill accounts (this term is used for accounts which do not have any minimum balance requirements). Although Public Sector Banks still pay only 4% rate of interest, some private banks like Kotak Bank and Yes Bank pay between 6% and 7% on such deposits. From the FY 2012-13, interest earned upto Rs 10,000 in a financial year on Saving Bank accounts is exempted from tax.
Click Here to know Which Banks are Paying the Highest Saving Bank Interest Rates / Interest Rates on Savings Account
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What are Recurring Deposit Accounts ? Who use Recurring Deposit Accounts ?
or RD accounts
These are popularly known as RD accounts and are special kind of Term Deposits and are suitable for people who do not have lump sum amount of savings, but are ready to save a small amount every month. Normally, such deposits earn interest on the amount already deposited (through monthly installments) at the same rates as are applicable for Fixed Deposits / Term Deposits. These are best if you wish to create a fund for your child’s education or marriage of your daughter or buy a car without loans or save for the future.
Under these type of deposits, the person has to usually deposit a fixed amount of money every month (usually a minimum of Rs,100/- p.m.). Any default in payment within the month attracts a small penalty. However, some Banks besides offering a fixed installment RD, have also introduced a flexible / variable RD. Under these flexible RDs the person is allowed to deposit even higher amount of installments, with an upper limit fixed for the same e.g. 10 times of the minimum amount agreed upon.
These accounts can be funded by giving Standing Instructions by which bank withdraws a fixed amount on a fixed date of the month from the saving bank of the customer (as per his mandate), and the same is credited to RD account.
Recurring Deposit accounts are normally allowed for maturities ranging from 6 months to 120 months. A Pass book is usually issued wherein the person can get the entries for all the deposits made by him / her and the interest earned. Banks also indicate the maturity value of the RD assuming that the monthly instalents will be paid regularly on due dates. In case instalment is delayed, the interest payable in the account will be reduced and some nominal penalty charged for default in regular payments. Premature withdrawal of accumulated amount permitted is usually allowed (however, penalty may be imposed for early withdrawals). These accounts can be opened in single or joint names. Nomination facility is also available.
The RD interest rates paid by banks in India are usually the same as payable on Fixed Deposits, except when specific rates on FDs are paid for particular number of days e.g. 500 days, 555 days, 1111 days etc i.e. these are not ending in a quarter.
(A) Click Here to know the Highest FD / RD Rates of Banks in India
(B) Click Here for : Recurring Deposit Calculator
What are Fixed Deposit Accounts in India or Term Deposits
All Banks in India (including SBI, PNB, BoB, BoI, Canara Bank, ICICI Bank, Yes Bank etc.) offer fixed deposits schemes with a wide range of tenures for periods from 7 days to 10 years. These are also popularly known as FD accounts. However, in some other countries these are known as “Term Deposits” or even called “Bond”. The term “fixed” in Fixed Deposits (FD) denotes the period of maturity or tenor. Therefore, the depositors are supposed to continue such Fixed Deposits for the length of time for which the depositor decides to keep the money with the bank. However, in case of need, the depositor can ask for closing (or breaking) the fixed deposit prematurely by paying paying a penalty (usually of 1%, but some banks either charge less or no penalty). (Some banks introduced variable interest fixed deposits. The rate of interest on such deposits keeps on varying with the prevalent market rates i.e. it will go up if market interest rates goes and it will come down if the market rates fall. However, such type of fixed deposits have not been popular till date).
The rate of interest for Fixed Deposits differs from bank to bank (unlike earlier when the same were regulated by RBI and all banks used to have the same interest rate structure. The present trends indicate that private sector and foreign banks offer higher rate of interest.
The earlier trend that private sector and foreign banks offer higher rate of interest is no more valid these days. However, now a days small banks are forced to offer higher rate of interest to attract more deposits. Usually a bank FD is paid in lump sum on the date of maturity. However, most of the banks have also facility to pay/ credit interest in saving account at the end of every quarter. If one desires to get interest paid every month, then the interest paid will be at a marginal discounted rate. In the changed computerized environment, now the Interest payable on Fixed Deposit can also be easily transferred on due dates to Savings Bank or Current Account of the customer.
Recurring Deposit scheme is offered by almost all banks (RD schemes of SBI, PNB, ICICI Bank, HDFC Bank, IDBI Bank, Bank of India, Bank of Baroda, Corporation Bank ) in one form or the other. Recurring Deposit is very popular among the salaried class, specially who can afford to save only few hindered or say few thousand rupees per month. This scheme is a boon for people who do not have a large amount of savings and thus can not use the Fixed Deposit scheme of the banks. Under this scheme, the customer deposits a minimum amount (normally fixed) every month, and bank pays the interest at the pre-determined rates (which is usually the same as applicable to fixed deposits ). At the end of the period i.e. on maturity date, the customer is paid the maturity value i.e. principle deposited and the interest payable. How Recurring Deposit Interest is calculated ? / Formula for RD Interest calculations :
Formula used by Banks in India / Recurring Deposit Calculations / RD Calculations / Recurring Deposit Calculation Formula / RD Formula used by Indian Banks : The following formula is used by Banks in India for calculation of maturity value of the Recurring Deposit wherein the compounding is done on a quarterly basis:
Maturity Value of the Recurring Deposits – based on Quarterly Compounding)
M =R [ (1+i)n – 1]
1- (1+i) -1/3
M = Maturity value
R = Monthly installment
n = Number of quarters
i = Rate of interest/400
Recurring Deposit Calculator – RD Calculator
Monthly Instalment Amount Rs.
Annual Interest Rate %
Period in Month(s) – (Must be divisible by 3)
Maturity Amount (Approx) Rs.
Interest Amount (included in Maturity Value) Rs.