The survey of the postmodernists to the realistic, historical and proficient facet of modern epoch has been strongly deep rooted in being self-aware, ironical and experimental. Postmodernism focuses on subjects such as sarcasm, gaiety, black temper and so on. This paper focuses on the facets of Postmodernism in an Indian context, with a particular mention to NISSIM EZEKIEL. This presentation concentrates on the techniques such as sarcasm, lampoon and anti – thesis that has a free drama in the verse form of Nissim Ezekiel.
Modern English poesy in India is one of the many new literatures which began to emerge at the terminal of the Second World War. The outgrowth of modern English poesy was a portion of modernisation which included urbanisation, industrialisation, independency, societal alteration, etc. Gradually with ephemeral clip the English linguistic communication poesy became more indianized in nature. Such Indianisation had been continuing for several coevalss and is outstanding in the poesy ofA Kamala Das and it is more likely to be felt in the poetry ofA Nissim Ezekiel.
In 1960 ‘s it is the great three NISSIM EZEKIEL, KAMALA DAS and A.K. RAMANUJAM who wrote poesy. They all have greatly contributed to the creative activity of a new literature in English in our state. Indian English Literature in the station 1980 epoch can be marked as the postmodernist period. Most of import poets during this period include – Nissim Ezekiel, Jayantha Mahapatra, A.K. Ramanujam, Kamala Das, Dom Moraes and few others. But, Indian English Poetry got its name merely with the publication of Nissim Ezekiel ‘s “ A Time to Change ” in London 1952.
Nissim EzekielA ( 14 December 1924 – 9 January 2004 ) was anA Indian JewishA poet, A dramatist, A editorA andA art-critic. He was a foundational figure in postcolonial India ‘s literary history, specifically forA IndianA composing inA English.
He was awarded theA Sahitya Akademi AwardA in 1983 for his Poetry aggregation, “ Latter-day Psalms ” , by theA Sahitya Akademi, India ‘s National Academy of Letters. No treatment in Indian English Poetry in the post-colonial epoch can get down with any poet other than Ezekiel. To read his poesy is to watch an histrion executing a amusing drama in all its characteristics. He came as a emancipating force technically and encouraged poets to do more of interplay of past, present and future. He helped to popularize free poetry in Indian English poesy.
Postmodernist facets in Nissim Ezekiel ‘s verse forms trade with the subject of sarcasm, gaiety, sarcasm and so on. We come across such subjects in Ezekiel ‘s verse forms such as “ The Professor ” and “ The Patriot. ”
SatireA is chiefly aA literary genre or signifier. In sarcasm, follies, maltreatments, and defects are held up toA ridicule, sooner with the purpose of abashing persons, and society itself, into improvement.A Although sarcasm is normally meant to be amusing, its greater intent is frequently constructiveA societal unfavorable judgment, usingA witA as a arm. It is common for postmodernist to handle serious topics in a playful and humourous manner.
The verse form “ The Professor ” is basically a sarcasm on Indian English. This verse form is in the signifier of a duologue between a professor and his old pupil. But the hearer is soundless throughout the verse form and so it can be termed to be a soliloquy. The talker in this verse form is a professor and his basic profession is to educate others. But, he himself seems to miss the proper bid of the medium he utilizes. Thus it is ironical so.
From the conversation with his pupil we come to cognize that he merely showcases his household members. He showcases his boies as a societal collector’s item. He says,
“ Are good settled in life.
One is gross revenues director,
One is bank director.
Both have autos. ”
The poet makes merriment of the Indian tradition that makes usage of riming names for their childs. He says,
“ Sarala and Tarala are married ”
The talker in the verse form, puts Forth with an air of satisfaction that,
“ Sarala and Tarala are married
Their hubbies are really nice male childs ”
The poet portrays that in Indian society the terminal accomplishment for misss is to acquire married and to hold childs. And for male childs on the other manus is to be in a good place and to hold a high wage.
His linguistic communication is really amusive. It appears to be a direct interlingual rendition of the native linguistic communication with the same construction and tone. But, though the tone is serious, the topic is really fiddling in nature.
The talker asks the hearer a inquiry that is so apathetic. He says,
“ How many issues you have? Three?
That is good. These are yearss of household planning
I am non against. We have to alter with times.
Whole universe is altering. In India besides
We are maintaining up. Our advancement is come oning.
Old values are traveling, new values are coming.
Everything is go oning with springs and bounds. ”
This conversation does non verge on academic subjects. Though he seems to recommend household planning, he does n’t look to follow it.
The professor that is portrayed in this verse form proves to be a good one neither academically nor morally supportive 1. He seems to be hopelessly egoistic obsessed with his ain affairs.
Therefore this verse form in manner typically portrays the Indian outlook for his age and place in society. The poet in a elusive sarcastic manner ridicules the mentality of the old age people. The manner that the poet uses to depict this leaves a far greater impact on the readers mind than the content itself.
The verse form “ The Patriot ” is another illustration of postmodern verse form that basically deals with the subject of nationalism. Though nationalism is a serious topic to be discussed, the station character in this poem trades about this in a really light and playful manner.
In this verse form he chiefly deals about many serious constructs such as Unity in Diversity, Brotherly Love and Progress in Science and Technology.
He talks about the rule that is being followed in India.
“ In India besides
Gujaratis, Maharashtrians, Hindiwallahs
All brothers –
Though some are holding amusing wonts.
Still, you tolerate me
I tolerate you. ”
When he talks approximately brotherhood he says,
“ All work forces are brothers no? ”
Though he deals with a serious topic, its earnestness is non recognised by the reader because his ideas are straight translated into English from a common Indian address in this verse form.
This poem undertakings the Indian spirit by emphasizing on the assorted errors that the Indians commit while they use the English linguistic communication.
Therefore Ezekiel is a poet of many subjects and one who finds broad scope of topics and assortment in his poesy. His poesy is besides non born out of tenet and he does n’t restrict himself to a peculiar type, subject and technique. His new poesy demanded a new usage of linguistic communication and called for the usage of mundane address beat in his poesy. Thus Ezekiel has succeeded in making a new Indian English parlance to a great extant.